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Almost Finished Bio SG

by: Allison Reckelhoff

Almost Finished Bio SG Bio 112-001

Marketplace > Indiana State University > Bio 112-001 > Almost Finished Bio SG
Allison Reckelhoff

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Human Aspects of Biology
Karla Hansen-Speer
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Reckelhoff on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 112-001 at Indiana State University taught by Karla Hansen-Speer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
BIO 112 Study guide for Exam 1 The exam is multiple choice and will cover all the material from August 23 to September 22. Questions will be based on readings, and class lecture/activities, including Mastering assignments and quizzes. Key terms Hypothesis- a tentative, Producers- organism that testable explanation of an makes its own food observed phenomenon Consumers- organism that Theory- a general set of preys or eat something already principles, supported by produced or another organism evidence, that explains some aspect of nature Trophic cascade- Only 10% of the energy gets transferred up Scientific Method- principles the chain and procedures for the Keystone species- a species systematic pursuit of whose absences from a knowledge involving the community would bring about recognition and formulation of a significant change in that problem, the collection of data community through observation and experiment, and the Biological classification- formulation and testing of Species, Genus, Family, Order, hypotheses. Class, Phylum, Kingdom, Domain Trophic levels- position in ecosystem’s food chain or web; Carl Linnaeus- Binomial each level is defined by the Nomenclatures transfer of energy from one type of organism to another Michael Pollan- Omnivore’s Detrivores- Decomposers Dilemma First Level: Primary Industrial (Conventional) Producers Agriculture Second Level: Herbivores Industrial Organic (Primary Consumers) Agriculture Third Level: Predators Local (Organic) Agriculture (Secondary Consumers; Hunting/Gathering Carnivores) Fourth Level: Tertiary Scientific binomial (genus Consumers (Eat other species) Carnivores) 1 Omnivore- Organism that eats Biogeochemical cycling- In both, other organisms and Earth science, a biogeochemical plants cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a Carnivore- organism that eats pathway by which a chemical other organisms substance moves through both biotic (biosphere) and abiotic Herbivore- organism that eats (lithosphere, atmosphere, and plants hydrosphere) compartments of Earth. A cycle is a series of Food chain/food web- a change which comes back to the hierarchical series of organisms starting point and which can be each dependent on the next as repeated. a source of food Carbon cycle- The carbon cycle Ecosystems- a system is the biogeochemical cycle by involving the interactions which carbon is exchanged between a community of living among the biosphere, organisms in a particular area pedosphere, geosphere, and its nonliving environment hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. Agroecology- study of Nitrogen cycle- The nitrogen ecological processes that cycle is the process by which operate in agricultural nitrogen is converted between production systems its various chemical forms. This transformation can be carried Domestication- to convert an out through both biological and organism to use for domestic physical processes. Important uses processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, ammonification, Organic agriculture- relies on nitrification, and denitrification. sustainable techniques to Ecology- scientific analysis and enhance the natural fertility of a study of interactions among farm organisms and their Demographic transition- the environment. It is an transition from high birth and interdisciplinary field that death rates to low birth and includes biology, geography and death rates as a country Earth science. Ecology includes develops from a pre-industrial to the study of interactions an industrialized economic organisms have with each other, system. This is typically other organisms, and with demonstrated through a abiotic components of their demographic transition model environment. (DTM). Biotic and abiotic- living/nonliving 2 Population- summation of all Therefore, since food is an the organisms of the same essential component to human group or species life, population growth in any Exponential growth – When area or on the planet, if population increase drastically unchecked, would lead to Arithmetic growth starvation. Logistic growth- S shape IPAT equation- describes the Carrying capacity (K)- the multiplicative contribution of maximum population size of the population species that the environment Nikolai Vavilov- identified the can sustain indefinitely, given centres of origin of cultivated the food, habitat, water, and plants other necessities available in the environment. In population C3 and C4 plants- oxygenase biology, carrying capacity is activity of Rubisco, C4 plants are defined as the environment's commonly seen in dry and high maximal load, which is different temperature areas from the concept of population equilibrium. Photosynthesis- process by Intrinsic rate of increase (r)- which certain groups of The rate at which a population organisms capture energy from increases in size if there are no sunlight and convert this solar density-dependent forces energy into chemical energy regulating the population is that is initially stored in a known as the intrinsic rate of carbohydrate increase. Where is the rate of increase of the population, N is Light reactions- light- the population size, and r is the dependent reactions take place intrinsic rate of increase in the thylakoid membranes, the light-independent reactions take Environmental resistance- place in the stroma The resistance presented by the environmental conditions to Calvin Cycle- the set of steps in limit a species from growing out photosynthesis in which of control or to stop them from reproducing at maximum rate. Green Revolution- refers to a Thomas Malthus- Thomas set of research, development, Malthus argued that because of and technology transfer the natural human urge to initiatives occurring between the reproduce human population 1930s and the late 1960s (with increases geometrically (1, 2, 4, prequels in the work of the 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, etc.). agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and However, food supply, at most, 1930s), that increased can only increase arithmetically agricultural production (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, etc.). worldwide, particularly in the 3 developing world, beginning nucleotide base change, most markedly in the late insertion, or deletion of the 1960s. genetic material, DNA or RNA Stroma- in plants and algae, Mutagens- smoke, uv radiation, the liquid material of etc chloroplasts that is the site of the Calvin cycle mRNA- convey genetic Chloroplasts- organelle within information from DNA to the plant and algae cells that is the ribosome, where they specify site of photosynthesis the amino acid sequence of the Thylakoids- a flattened protein membrane-bound sac in the interior of a chloroplast that Ribosomes- The ribosome is a serves as the site for the light complex molecular machine reactions in photosynthesis found within all living cells, that Rubisco- enzyme that allows serves as the site of biological plants to incorporate protein synthesis (translation). atmospheric carbon dioxide into Ribosomes link amino acids their own sugars during the together in the order specified process of photosynthesis by messenger RNA (mRNA) Photorespiration- a process in molecules. which the enzyme rubisco undercuts carbon dioxide in Restriction enzymes- DNA- photosynthesis by binding with cutting enzymes found in oxygen instead of with carbon bacteria (and harvested from dioxide. The wasteful reaction them for use). Because they cut takes place most frequently in within the molecule, they are C3 plants. The warm-weather often called restriction C4 plants have evolved a means endonucleases. of reducing photorespiration GMO- genetically modified Plasmid- A plasmid is a small organism DNA molecule within a cell that DNA- code is physically separated from a Watson and Crick- studied chromosomal DNA and can DNA, credit was given to them replicate independently. They Rosalind Franklin- Use x-ray are most commonly found in diffraction to see double helix in bacteria as small, circular, DNA double-stranded DNA molecules; Four bases: A, T, G, C- however, plasmids are Adenosine, Thymine, Guanine, sometimes present in archaea Cytosine; A-T & C-G and eukaryotic organisms. Point mutation- single base Transgenic- of, relating to, or modification, is a type of denoting an organism that mutation that causes a single contains genetic material into 4 which DNA from an unrelated amplify a single copy or a few organism has been artificially copies of a piece of DNA across introduced. several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions PCR- The polymerase chain of copies of a particular DNA reaction (PCR) is a technology in sequence. molecular biology used to 5 Questions  What are the characteristics of living things? made of cells, obtain and use energy, grow and develop, reproduce, respond to their environment, adapt to their environment  What does “Life is hierarchical” mean? Hierarchical chain in food chain and how food is produced  Where does the energy for all the food we eat ultimately come from? Plants-the sun  Given a field of grain that you can feed to either people (primary consumers) or cows who are then eaten by people (secondary consumers), how come you can feed more vegetarians (primary consumers) than meat eaters (secondary consumers) from the same plot of land? Because less energy will be lost due to the trophic cascade  What are the main steps in the carbon cycle? Steps in the carbon cycle. Carbon enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide from respiration and combustion. Carbon dioxide is absorbed by producers to make carbohydrates in photosynthesis. Animals feed on the plant passing the carbon compounds along the food chain…??????  How are humans part of the carbon cycle and the nitrogen cycle? We grow plants and we also breathe…???  What effect on an aquatic ecosystem can nitrogen runoff have? In other words, what happens to rivers and oceans when too much nitrogen fertilizer gets into the water?  How many people live on Earth today? 7.4 billion?  How might an ecologist count a population of alligators? Of butterflies? Count a few and multiply. Guess..???  Describe the growth of the population of starlings introduced to New York City in the 1890s. – exponential  When looking at a graph of human population from 10,000 years ago to present, what shape (what type of growth) does it exhibit? S shape?  What sort of things might an ecologist study?  Based on what you know of the nitrogen cycle, why would a farmer rotate crops between corn and soybeans?  What are the selective pressures used in agriculture that have changed the morphology of domesticated plants and animals?  When did agriculture first begin? 10,000 B.C  What did Nikolai Vavilov discover about the origins of agriculture?  What part of photosynthesis fixes carbon dioxide, and thus starts the carbon cycle?  What are the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis?  What are the key actions in the Light Reaction?  What makes up the handrails of DNA?  How is DNA replicated?  How does DNA mutate? What effect might a mutation have on an organism?  What kind of mutations are passed on to offspring?  Describe how DNA from one organism can be inserted into another organism.  Give an example of a GMO (transgenic) food crop. Papaya


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