New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Medical Law and Bioethics Unit 1

by: Keira Blackburn

Medical Law and Bioethics Unit 1 SC101

Marketplace > Kaplan University > Nursing and Health Sciences > SC101 > Medical Law and Bioethics Unit 1
Keira Blackburn
Kaplan University

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide is to help with Unit 1 and the upcoming midterm final
Anatomy and Physiology 1
Jena inbarasu
Study Guide
Nursing, medical, Law, and, bioethics
50 ?




Popular in Anatomy and Physiology 1

Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences

This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Keira Blackburn on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SC101 at Kaplan University taught by Jena inbarasu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Nursing and Health Sciences at Kaplan University.

Similar to SC101 at Kaplan University

Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences


Reviews for Medical Law and Bioethics Unit 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/26/16
Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key Chapter 1 Answers to Chapter Checkup Matching Identify each statement with one of the following major areas of ethics study: 1. Is guided by society. B (Normative ethics) 2. Involves highly controversial issues. C (Applied ethics) 3. The ethics of ethics. A (Meta­ethics) 4. Involves deep reflection. A (Meta­ethics) 5. Three subsets under this area are duty­based, virtue­based, and consequential. B (Normative ethics) 6. Asks, “What is the source?” A (Meta­ethics) 7. Utilitarianism is the most widely known approach to this area. B (Normative ethics) 8. The Golden Rule is an example of this. B (Normative ethics) Identify each statement with one of the following people: 1 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 1. Isolated himself to fully focus on his studies B (Confucius) 2. Was highly regarded for his wisdom only after his death B (Confucius) 3. Was sentenced to death by drinking hemlock (poison) A (Socrates) 4. Taught in the court square A (Socrates) 5. Lived in Athens, Greece  A (Socrates) 6. Lived in Lu, China B (Confucius) 7. Died penniless  B (Confucius) 8. Father of Democracy A (Socrates) Fill­in­the­Blank 1. Ethics is a branch of philosophy concerning moral considerations.  3. An example of a virtue is honesty. 2 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 4. Utilitarian maintains that what is best for all is the best solution. Chapter 2 Answers to Chapter Checkup Fill­in­the­Blank 1. An agreement that creates a relationship where the healthcare provider is to  provide care to the patient is a contract for care. 2. When a patient grants an expression of agreement to treatment, it is called  consent. 3. Another word for informed consent is express consent. 4. No patient, no health care. In Your Own Words 1. Discuss the similarities and differences between respect, empathy, and dignity. Remembering how you would want to be treated as a patient and understanding  patient needs will enhance how you serve patients. This trait is known as empathy  and is the mark of a top­notch healthcare professional. Respect is another attribute  necessary in quality health care. To respect someone is to show that person attention and regard the person’s feelings.  Dignity is a bit different from empathy and respect in that it is a result of one or both of the two. In other words, you can show empathy and respect, but not  3 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key dignity. Dignity is a result of another person showing you regard. Specifically, if you show a patient respect, you can empower that person to feel dignity. Dignity varies  depending on the receiver, but it certainly is an issue in certain populations, such as  with vulnerable populations like the elderly. 2. How should you treat a patient who is being rude and/or impatient? Patients are usually ill when seeking health care, so it is easy to understand that they can sometimes be cranky or impatient. The healthcare professional should take care in these situations to be even more patient and show the highest levels of  professionalism. Reassuring a patient and showing extra kindness will help that  patient develop a professional bond of trust that can often lead to better  cooperation, and hopefully more positive response to treatment. Multiple Choice 1. The Patient’s Bill of Rights was developed by U.S. government officials in 2010  as part of the: a. American Medical Association. b. Patient’s Rights Constitution. c. Affordable Care Act. 4 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 2. The phenomenon in which a patient retains feelings or attitudes associated with  childhood that may surface during treatment and may be transferred to the healthcare  provider is:  a. transference. b. transmitted emotion. c. transmission. Chapter 3 Answers to Chapter Checkup  Fill­in­the­Blank 1. Autonomy is a person’s ability to make decisions concerning his or her own well­ being, including health care. 2. In some states, the mature minor doctrine provides greater autonomy to minors  older than 16 years of age who understand and consent to relatively simple  medical procedures. 3. Competence generally refers to an individual’s ability to make decisions  necessary to live independently. 4. HIV is an abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus. 5. The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program is a federal program administered by the  Health Resources and Services Administration. It focuses on providing funding  for health care and support services to patients with HIV/AIDS.  5 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 6. The laws requiring healthcare professionals to report suspected cases of abuse are  known as mandatory reporting laws. True/False 1. Historically, the age of autonomy has been 21 years. False (18 years of age) 2. A guardian ad litem is appointed by the courts. True 3. Medicare is a federally sponsored program providing healthcare coverage for  adults 60 years of age and older. False (65 years of age) 4. Medicaid provides assistance to low­income individuals and families to pay the  cost of health care. True 5. Elder abuse includes intentional harm, neglect, exploitation, and abandonment of  persons 60 years of age and older. True Discussion 1. What are four ways in which HIV is generally transmitted? Any four of the following:  Sexual contact  Pregnancy  Childbirth  Breastfeeding 6 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key  Injected drug use  Occupational exposure   Blood transfusion  Organ transplant 2. When a patient is diagnosed with HIV, whom is he or she required to inform?  Spouse; any past, present, or future sexual and needle­sharing partners; and  medical professionals 3. What vulnerable populations do you think you will interact with as a healthcare  professional?  Answers will vary, but should include minors, elderly, HIV/AIDS patients,  and culturally diverse populations 4. What is the HELP model? Hear what the patient perceives to be the problem. Encourage the patient and healthcare professional to discuss the similarities  and differences. List treatment options and make recommendations. Provide a chance to negotiate treatment. 7 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 5. What types of suspected abuse are mandatory reporters required to report? Child, elder, and domestic abuse Chapter 4 Answers to Chapter Checkup  Crossword Puzzle Across 2. To violate. (breach) 6. No lapse of healthcare coverage. (portability) 8. PHI can come in three forms: oral, electronic, and written. 9. Specific medical information of the patient. (3 words) (protected health information) 10. Keeping information private. (confidentiality) 11. You may get information on medical information, safety records, and/or family leave  records from the Department of Labor. 12. Name of the president who signed into law the Privacy Act of 1974. (Ford) Down 8 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 1. HIPAA does not cover financial documents. 3. One exception to confidentiality of medical information. (2 words) (child abuse) 4. Important legislation that gives the patient more control over personal medical  information and how it is used or released. (HIPAA) 5. The number of states that have a law that any person who suspects abuse is required to  report it. (eighteen) 7. A document that allows the healthcare provider to share certain information. (3 words)  (release of information) Chapter 5 Answers to Chapter Checkup Fill­in­the­blank 1. The Fair Labor Standards Act sets minimum wage limits, regulates overtime pay  standards, and establishes guidelines for youth employment.  2. The  Age Discrimination in Employment Act  prohibits employment discrimination  against individuals 40 years of age or older.  3. OSHA is responsible for regulating the safety and health conditions of most private  and public work environments. 4. All healthcare professionals must follow the code of ethics related to their  profession.  9 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 5. Medical practice acts vary from state to state and serve to govern the practice of  medicine. True/False 1. The Family and Medical Leave Act applies to all employees. False (It only  applies to those who have worked for at least 12 months and at least 1, 250  hours.) 2. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act prohibits employment discrimination against individuals 50 years of age and older. False (It is for individuals 40  years of age and older.) 3. A prospective employer is restricted in the type of questions that can and cannot  be asked during an interview. True (See Table 5­1.) 4. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act only applies to race or color. False (It also  applies to religion, sex, and national origin.) 5. The Equal Pay Act guarantees that all employees will receive equal  compensation. False (It guarantees that employees cannot be paid differently  based on race or sex. Other factors can determine different pay scales.)  Discussion Questions 1.  Explain the progressive discipline model and when it might be used.  10 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key Answers will vary, but should include the following:  Provide counseling or a verbal warning.  Give a written warning with specific guidelines for improved  performance.  Suspend or demote the employee.  Terminate the employee. 2. What are examples of standards of professionalism in health care? Which do you  think are the most important?  Answers will vary, but should include the following:  Keeping up to date with training and education in your field  Addressing the health needs of society  Complying with laws and regulations governing your field  Acting in a trustworthy manner toward patients, employers, and  fellow employees  Completing job tasks in a prompt and dependable manner 3. If your personal values vary from those of a fellow employee, what problems  might arise?  Answers will vary. Examples include, but are not limited to: a difficult work  environment, poor communication between staff members, and patients  11 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key affected by staff conflicts. If you allow these differences to affect your work,  it can affect your job performance, including patient care. 4. In your future healthcare career, with which type of professionals do you think  you will have the most interaction?  Answers will vary.  Examples include, but are not limited to: doctors, nurses, dieticians, therapists, and social workers. 5. Look up your professional code of ethics and list at least 5 standards that are  specific to your profession. Answers will vary, but should be based on student’s professional code of  ethics from professional organization’s website. Examples include, but are  not limited to: protecting confidentiality, treating patients with dignity, and  maintaining education in your field. Chapter 6 Answers to Chapter Checkup  Fill­in­the­Blanks 1. Fidelity, put simply, means loyalty. 2. A hopper is a person who switches from doctor to doctor. 3. TJC stands for The Joint Commission.  12 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 4. The medical record is considered a legal document. Listing 1. There are seven advantages offered through the medical record. List them: a. Assess family medical history b. Compare progress or lost ground in treatment c. Prescribe appropriate treatment plans d. Offer appropriate advice e. Refer to specialists f. Manage hospitalization, if necessary g. Manage information that could be used in the legal system 2. The SOAP method of medical charting is commonly used. What does SOAP  stand for? Describe each component. S—Subjective (The patient’s chief complaints) O—Objective (The healthcare professional’s observations and findings through  examination and conversation) A—Assessment (Conclusions based on the subjective and objective information) P—Plan of action (The treatment advised based on the conclusions) 3. List four ethical issues concerning the electronic medical record (EMR): 13 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key a.  Fidelity b. Autonomy c. Justice d. Trust Chapter 7 Answers to Chapter Checkup Chapter Checkup Listing  1. List the four sources of law in the U.S. justice system: a. Constitutional b. Common c. Administrative d. Statutory 2. Breaches fall under three general categories. List the three and define them.  a. Malfeasance  b. Nonfeasance  c. Misfeasance  14 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key Fill­in­the­Blanks 1. Criminal actions are crimes against society, while civil actions are crimes against one  or more individuals. 2. Assault and battery, false imprisonment, and embezzlement are examples of  intentional torts. 3. Damage that is caused to a person’s reputation through spoken or written word by  spreading untrue information is called defamation of character.  4. Respondeat Superior means let the master answer. Discussion 1.  Discuss the differences between unintentional and intentional torts. Intentional torts that are most common in health care include assault and  battery, false imprisonment, defamation of character, invasion of privacy,  fraud, and embezzlement. Intentional tort charges must be proven to be  deliberate, while unintentional torts, also known as negligence, are not  deliberate. In health care, intentional torts are often also known as  malpractice. 2.  Explain the borrowed servant rule. 15 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key The borrowed servant rule is generally used by employers that have  temporary workers or medical professionals that fill in for other medical  professionals on leave. If a plaintiff sues a healthcare facility regarding the  actions of an employee on temporary employment, the facility might utilize  the borrowed servant rule and escape liability for injury caused by the  temporary employee. 3. Explain what the PYTHON principle is and what it means to healthcare  professionals. The wise healthcare professional knows that preventing a lawsuit is a  constant effort. Every time you come into contact with a patient, there is a  chance of oversight that could trigger legal action. Commencement of legal  action does not always end in liability or a guilty verdict, but it is better to  avoid the chance. The PYTHON principle is an easy way to posture yourself  for prevention. It stands for Protect Yourself; Think Honestly; Observe  Naturally. Protecting yourself means you are aware of the various ways you could be held liable as a legal professional. For example, if you send a fax  containing confidential information to anyone, you put yourself at risk of  breaching confidentiality. To prevent this, be sure a consent form has been  signed and dated by the patient.  16 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key Honesty is a building block in the foundation of ethics. Honest  dealings with patients, coworkers, employers, and even the legal system will  help prevent future complications. Honesty is always the best ethical and  legal choice. The healthcare professional should never promise results. In  caring for human beings, many factors come into play, making any outcome  unpredictable. Observations are critical for all healthcare professionals. Keeping  track of observations and taking them all into consideration can help prevent legal action. Being proactive can prevent legal action against the healthcare  facility. It is always better to make an effort to prevent any wrongdoing than  to try to defend it in the court of law. Chapter 8 Answers to Chapter Checkup Chapter Checkup  Matching 1. Aimed at reducing pain and suffering as a person nears the end of his or her life F (Palliative care) 2. Legally binding statement created by a patient 17 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key D (Advance directive) 3. Promoting the well­being of a patient B (Beneficence) 4. Terminates a pregnancy G (Abortion)  5. A law that allows people to donate organs  C (Uniform Anatomical Gift Act) 6. Another term for healthcare proxy E (Medical power of attorney) 7. A type of assisted reproduction A (In vitro fertilization)  Discussion 1. In at least one paragraph, discuss one ethical issue about a person receiving an organ  for a transplant.  1.  The ability of the patient to pay for treatment and care. 2.  How much the patient's insurance does or does not pay (or if they even have  insurance). 3.  Should a person be moved to the top of the organ waiting list if that person's need is  the greatest? 4.  Should age be considered in whether or not a person receives an organ? 18 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 5.  Should other medical conditions (besides the reason for transplant) be considered in  whether or not a person receives an organ? Answers will vary, but examples include: fair allocation of organs and promoting organ  donation. 2. Review the case of Angela Carder in this chapter. Using the three­step model from the  An Overview Of Ethics chapter, come to a conclusion about this case. Answers will vary,  but should include answers to all three questions from the three­step model: is it legal, is  it balanced, and how does it make you feel? Chapter 9 Answers to Chapter Checkup Fill­in­the­Blanks 1. Three common sources of stem cells are bone marrow, umbilical cord blood,  and embryos created by in­vitro fertilization. 2. Scientists involved in stem cell research hope to find cures for diseases and other  therapeutic treatments to improve the lives of patients with debilitating injuries  and birth defects.  3. In 2003, the Human Genome Project succeeded in mapping out the human DNA sequence. 4. The United Network for Organ Sharing maintains waiting lists and matches  donated organs to potential transplant recipients. 19 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key 5. According to the Patient Care Partnership, patients have the right to decide  whether or not to participate in research studies. True/False 1. All religions disagree with embryonic stem cell research. False; Not all religions  disagree with embryonic stem cell research. 2. All funding for stem cell research comes from federal sources. False; Some  funding for stem cell research comes from federal sources.  Other sources  include private donars. 3. Nazi Germany used the philosophy of eugenics to justify medical experiments  and extermination of citizens. True 4. Organs are given out on a first­come, first­served basis. False; UNOS allocates  organs based on location, need, and other factors. 5. The conscience clause can be used at any time in a healthcare professional’s  career. False; Employees must notify employers about the use of the  conscience clause at the time of hire. Discussion 1. Which sources of stem cells are considered less controversial? 20 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Ethics for Health Professionals – Answer Key Bone marrow and umbilical cord blood 2. What do you think is the most fair and equitable method for allocating organs? There is no right or wrong answer; focus on different ethical principles  involved. 3. Would you consider genetic testing for yourself or your family? Personal responses are accepted. 4. If a patient is considering participating in a research study, what advice can you  give him or her? It is important to always stay within your scope of practice. Specific  questions should be referred to the patient’s primary physician. 21 ©2012 Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.