Intro Comd Final Exam Study Guide
Intro Comd Final Exam Study Guide 1333
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by elizabeth_tejada on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1333 at University of Houston taught by Janet Eckert in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication Disorders in COMD -Communication Disorders at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Intro (ComD 1333) Final Exam Study Guide 2014 Chapter 1 Be able to define, and identify examples of the 4 processes of communication, as well as describe some common communication problems that are associated with each: a. Formulation Puts thoughts and ideas into words to share with others (involves language) b. Transmission Fluently expresses thoughts and ideas to others (involves speech) c. Reception Receive the communication sent by another person (involves hearing) d. Comprehension Interpret the communication sent by another person (Involves language) Be able to list and define the components of the Five Domain Model. o Syntax (form) word order “the baby happy was smiling” o Morphology (form) internal organization of words “the flopsy will wimble the snobbit” o Phonology (form) speech sounds “CAT made of 3 separate phones o Semantics (content)word meaning o Pragmatics (use) using language appropriately Be able to distinguish between linguistic and nonlinguistic feedback and provide examples. o Linguistic feedbackSpeaking “Example: I totally agree, I hear what you are saying, Wait I don’t get it” o NonLinguistic feedbackthe use of eye contact, facial expression, posture, and proximity Be able to distinguish between speech, language, and communication o Speech Neuromuscular process by which we turn language into sound signal that is transmitted through air to a receiver. o Language doesn’t need speech in order to be meaningful. Language is cognitive process by which we formulate ideas and thoughts. o Comunication Be able to differentiate sensorineural hearing losses from conductive hearing losses o Sensorineural hearing loss Hearing loss that results from damage to the inner ear (hair cells) or the auditory nerve o Conductive hearing loss Hearing loss that results from problems with the middle ear The Communication Disorders Umbrella: Be able to list the subcategories that fall under each of the major categories of communication disorder listed below AND discuss common communication/difficulties associated with each: Language childhood language disorders problems occur due to issues with form, content, and use. Acquired VS. Developmental disorders. Adult language disorders language difficulties resulting from damage to language. Reading disabilities reading skills are significantly inpaired. Speech Articulation/phonological disorders distortions, substitutions and omissions of speech sounds/ sound classes. Not age appropriate. Results from structural problems or misplacement of articulators/ failure to learn “rules” of phonology Fluency disorders High rate of breaks in the community of spoken. Voice disorders Difficulty communication due to the voice problems, no voice, raspy, hoarse quality. Motor speech disorders omissions, distortians, substitution of speech sounds due to neurogical problems. Hearing Sensori neural hearing disorders hearing loss that results from damage to the inner ear (hair cells) or the auditory nerve. Conductive hearing disorders (ear infections) problems processing speech sounds by the brain. Feeding/Swallowing Can occur over the entire lifespan. Pediatric problems with feeding and swallowing often associated with being premature, cleft problem. Neurological problems caused by stroke, TBI, ALS. (Dysphagiaswallowing disorder, can result in choking or aspiration, pneumonia, brain damage) Chapter 2 Understand the role cultural differences play in defining a communication disorder and the two types of bilingual acquisition (In chapter 2 notes. Text chapter 5) Be prepared to list and explain at least 3 elements of caregiver responsiveness Be able to calculate mean length of utterance (MLU) if given the appropriate information. o Me do it= 3 o What that?= 2 o A baby is eating= 5 o The big tree= 3 o Daddy’s car=3 o Happiest= 2 Chapter 3 Know what our 2 major nervous systems are, what they consist of and what they do o Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Carries sensory information from the body to the brain. Carries motor information from the brain to body o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) 12 pairs or cranial nerves and 31 pairs of optical nerves Spinal nerves31 pairs running from the spinal cord to periphery of the body Cranial nerves carries information concerning 4 of the 5 senses to the brain: important to speech, language, hearing, swallowing. 7 pairs involved directly with communication. Know the 4 systems involved in speech production and the elements/actions of each o Respiration: upper respiratory system Trachea Larynx Oral and nasal cavities Lower respiratory system Lungs Bronchi Avaleoli Housed in thorax (chest cavity) Controlled in the brainstem (typically involuntary but can be made voluntary) o Phonation Takes air from respiration and turns it into sound Vocal folds two thin sheets of tissue o Articulation Takes the air from the phonation system and turns into speech o Resonation Velum raises and lowers Velopharyngeal insufficiency/ incompetency Know the 3 phases of swallowing and what happens during each stage o Oral Phase Chewing, some foods require more chewing than others, gathering food into a bolus (ready to swallow) Oral Prep Stage Preparing the bolus Placing the bolus (on blade for transport) Oral Transport Stage Soft palate elevates to close off nasal cavity Tongue blade drops, moving bolus back on oral cavity o Pharyngeal Phase “gateway to gut” Propulsion of food Epiglottis closes over trachea o Esophageal Phase Esophageal muscles move in peristalsis Wavelike muscles movements propel food into stomach, then intestines for digestion. Be familiar with the 3 parts of the brain and the functions of each. o Brainstem Located directly atop the spinal cord, relay station between body and brain Manages: cardio(heart), respiratory (breathing), Vasomotor functions(blood vessels) o CerebellumLittle brain “oval” Coordination of motor and muscle movements Maintaining muscle tone Monitoring movement range and strength Maintain posture and equilibrium (balance) Maintenance of body’s position in space Limited cognitive role o Cerebrum Largest of the 3 (cerebral cortex) Cognitive function Thinking and planning Rationalizing and creating Problem solving 2 mirror image hemispheresleft and right Separated by the longitudinal fissure Connected by corpus collosum Communication between the two hemispheres takes place through corpus collosum Be familiar with all lobes of the brain, the functions of each , the specific areas contained in each and where the they are located. (Broca’s area, Heschl’s gyrus, Wenicke’s area) o Frontal lobe: largest of the 4 lobes Personality Executive functions Brocas area responsible for speech production(left hemisphere) o Parietal lobe: Comprehending oral and written language Precieving and integrating sensory perceptual information Math calculating o Cerebral lobe: Temporal lobes: Herchl’s gyrus: interprets auditory input Wernicke’s area language comprehension Occipital lobe: Visual information Damage can cause cortical blindness Be able to list at least the 7 pairs of cranial nerves (and the corresponding numbers…Roman and Nominal) that are directly related to communication. o Trigeminal (V) #5 Facial sensation, jaw movements, chewing o Facial (VII) #7 Taste sensation, facial movements o Acoustic (VIII) #8 Hearing, balance o Glossopharyngeal (IX) #9 tongue sensation, palatal movement, pharyngeal movement o Vagus (X) #10 taste sensation, palatal movement, pharyngeal movement, laryngeal movement o Accessory (XI) #11 Head and shoulder movements, palatal movements, pharyngeal movements o Hypoglossal (XII) #12 tongue movements Know the structures of the upper and lower respiratory systems. o Upper respiratory system Trachea, Larynx, Oral and Nasal Cavities o Lower respiratory system Lungs, Bronchi and avaleoli, Housed in thorax (chest cavity) List and define the 3 parts of the hearing mechanism, as well as the structures and functions associated with each part. o Outer Ear Outermost part of ear Pinna (auricle) external auditory canal, outer boundary of the tympanic membrane(ear drum) Sounds funnel in through EAC o Middle Ear Bony, air filled cavity Eusta chain tube runs from middle ear to pharynx and serves a sa pressure equalizing tube. Inner boundary of the tympanic membrane o Sounds from the EAC hit tympanic membrane and causes it to vibrate 3 ossicles (ossicular chain) o Malleus (hammer) incus, stapes o Attached to TM and start to vibrate turning sound waves into mechanical energy. o Inner Ear Be able to label parts of the upper and lower respiratory system, hearing mechanism, larynx/voice, swallowing mechanism, all areas of the brain covered in this class. Be able to locate/label any anatomy discussed this semester. Chapter 4 List purposes of communication o Expressing wants and needs o Information transfer o Social Closeness o Communicating with oneself Be familiar with the 4 components of AAC device o Symbols something visual, auditory, and or tactile that represents something else. o Aids a physical object or device used to transmit or receive messages o Techniques method of transmitting a message o Strategies How symbols are efficiently and effectively used Understand what is meant by complex communication needs a. Be able to name the disorders/impairments that can cause a person to have complex communication needs i. Intellectual Disability ii. Cerebral Palsy iii. Apraxia/ Dysarthria (motor speech) iv. TBI v. Stroke vi. Degenerative diseases vii. Aphasia b. Know characteristics of the disorders/impairments c. Know the purposes of communication Chapter 5 Understand Cultural Competence the ability of service providers to recognize, honor, ad respect the beliefs, interaction styles, and behaviors of the individuals and families they serve. Understand the role cultural differences play in defining a communication disorder and the two types of bilingual acquisition What is a dialect? regional dialect Understand difference vs. disorder Chapter 6 Understand the 5 stages of the assessment process o Screening and referral o Determine assessment protocol and administer o Interpret findings o Develop intervention plan o Monitor process What is: Normreferenced testing, Criterion –referenced testing, dynamic assessment o Normreferenced testing: 1) Standardization: Uniform administration procedures, must be given the same way too each person. 2) Normative sample: the population group in which the standards are based upon. 3) Standard scores: Most schools, insurances require standard score to qualify patients, based on normal curve, mean average score, standard deviation. o Criterionreferenced testing: performance compared to a specific standard, useful for probing specific aspect intensively, clear interpretation guidelines, used to document treatment progress. o Dynamic Assessment: Determines what type and how much support individual needs to show improvement. Know the 3 purposes of intervention o Preventative o Remediation o Compensation What does it mean for an assessment to be sensitive, comprehensive and unbiased? o Sensitive: identifies whether or not there is a problem/severity o Comprehensive: all aspects of the problem; assess stuttering during reading, spontaneous speech, etc. o Unbiased: accurate regardless of race, gender, culture, etc. Chapter 7 ASD: The new classification system of the DSM5 eliminates the previously separated subcategories of ASD, how is ASD now categorized? Understand Social Communication Disorder (SCD) and how it can be differentiated from ASD o Social Communication Disorder: deficits in social use of language but not resisted interests/ repetive behavior. Understand Language delay vs. disorder o Language Delay the child will catch up (late talkers delays in the earliest stages of language ½ of kids catch up by 34 years) o Language disorder significant and persistent in one or all 3 language areas: form, content, use What 3 considerations must be taken into account when determining if a childhood language disorder exists? Cognitive Impairments/Intellectually Disabled: Know the two considerations for determining this diagnosis Limitations in intelligence Limitations on adaptive behavior (activities of daily living) Know etiologies: 3040% unknown cause 6570% ingestion of toxins by mother during pregnancy Chromosomal abnormalities Prematurity Anoxia (oxygen cut off at birth) Viral infection Fetal malnutrition Sensory deprivation (neglect, abuse) Heredity Children with brain injuries: Know etiologies When/how can a brain injury occur? car wrecks, falls, infections(meningitis), disease(tumors), physical abuse Chapter 8 Communication areas affected by aphasia o Fluency o Motor Output o Language comprehension o Repetition o Naming o Reading and writing Types of aphasia (7 syndromes) o Broca’s Frontal lobe o Transcortical motor frontal lobe(prefrontal lobe) o Gobal multiple lobes/ largest area of brain o Weakness Temporal lobe o Conduction temporal/ parietal o Anomic Not ID with specific site/ multiple Causes of aphasia Difference of Ischemic vs. Hemorrhagic stroke and the difference in a thrombosis and embolism How to assess aphasia o Glascow coma scale and rancho level of cognitive functions What is dementia and what are the causes Traumatic Brain Injury(TBI) – define and know about the types Right Hemisphere Dysfunction (RHD) what is affected and what are behavioral symptoms Know differentiating factors in aphasia vs. RHD Know elements of Working with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Clients & impacts on aphasia(pgs.255) Chapter 9 Know the difference in articulation disorders vs. phonological disorders o Articulation (phonetic) disorders Speech sound disorders rather than sound pattern problems Consonants characterized by Place where the sound is produced o Labial, Dental, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal Manner how the airflow is manipulated stop (plosive), fricative, nasal, affricate, glide, liquid Voicing voiced or unvoiced General Phonemic Development: Age of acquisition 23 years old (p,b,m,h,w,d, vowels) 34 years of age (y,n,k,g,t,f) 45 years of age (I, th(voiced) 56 years of age (v,sh,ch) 67 years of age (ng, s,z,r) o Phonological (phonemic) Disorders Knowledge gained from Phonological Pattern Test No known origin, but seems to run in families Significant problems in the development of the phonological system (sound patterns) which affects the sound production of speech. At significant risks from problems with language development and reading. Characteristics: Small phonetic inventory maybe only 3 within repertoire Phoneme collapse uses 1 sound to represent 5 different sounds Targetsubstitute Relationship patterns of substitutions/ phoneme collapse…./Y/ for /K, G, NG/ Reduced Intelligibility Examples of common phonological processes: Assimilation – one sound replaced by another already used in the word…”lellow” for “yellow”, “papato” for “zapato”, “tat” for “cat” Substitution o Stopping fricatives / afficates (airy sounds) are stopped (air is stopped) “yet” for “yes”, debra” for “zebra” Chapter10 What is fluency? What is disfluency vs. dysfluency? o Fluency flow of speech o Disfluency we all have them o Dysfluency disruptions in flow of speech that compromise effortless and automatic speech production that are not appropriate for speakers age, culture, linguistic background and impacts educational or occupational performance Know Core vs. Secondary features of fluency disorders o CORE features Core = primary feature Repetition repeating a sound, syllable, or word Prolongation sound held too long…airflow maintained but articulators shut down Block airflow and articulators both stop When persistent over time, likely to develop secondary features o SECONDARY features Results from excessive mental and physical efforts. Response to core behaviors o Escape/ avoidance behaviors: Eye blinks, lip tremors, head/arm jerks, speaking behaviors, avoidance, escape behaviors Result in fear/negative feelings towards speaking Be familiar with the Risk Factors that are considered when determining when to initiate intervention o Causes and risk factors Unknown….thought to be due to variety of predisposing and precipitating factors: Predisposing factors makes one more susceptible Family history of not recovery, gender, coexisting Speechlanguage disorders Precipitating factors causes factors Developmental stressors, selfawareness Know general differences of developmental and acquired fluency disorders – when, why might each occur o Developmental Fluency Disorders Emerges in early childhood ages 25 Cause unknown Exhibit stutteringlike disfluency hallmarks (normal nonfluency): Part word repetition Single syllable word repetition 5% experience , 1% continue o Acquired Fluency Disorders Emerge at any times as result of trauma (physical or psychological), accident, illness Neurogenic stuttering due to brain/neurological injury Psychological stuttering due to psychological trauma Chapter 11 Differentiate a laryngectomy vs. tracheostomy. Know the four categories/types of voice disorders o Laryngectomy removal of larnxy due to car accident or trauma. o Tracheostomy tube inserted below vocal folds to direct air into lungs. o Voice disorders Vocal Abuse, Neurogenic, Psychogenic(nonorganic disorders), Alaryngeal Communication Know the 3 elements of voice o Pitch, Loudness, Phonatory Quality How does the velopharyngeal port affect voice quality with regard to resonance? o Vibration of air in phyngeal column, VP port Chapter 12 Know what it means to have a motor speech disorder o Impairment of speech due to defects in neuromuscular system and muscle control system. Also impairment in planning, programming and execution of speech. What 4 systems coordinate for speech production …know what they are and what they do o Respiratory o Phonatory o Resonatory o Articulatory Differentiate apraxia vs. dysarthria o Apraxia impairment of motor programming and planning voluntary movements of speech vant executive movements o Dysarthria Disturbances of neuromuscular system disruption in range, speed, direction, timing, strength of movements in the one or all four systems of speech production. movement problem Difference in a motor speech disorder and aphasia Regarding the 4 systems discussed in #35, which do you treat for apraxia vs. dysarthria? o Apraxia treatment is articulation only o Dysarthia treatment is Phonation, articulation, respiration. Chapter 15 Know the characteristics of pediatric feeding and swallowing Disorders, including causes and risk Factors Pediatrics Feeding and Swallowing Disorders Problems negotiating the suckswallowbreath pattern Persistent failure to eat adequately Causes and rick factors o Low birth rate o Prematurity < = 37 weeks § Neurologically immature system, smaller brain and increased learning/behavioral difficulties (Marquet, et al, 2003). Swallowing begins at 11 weeks in uterobirth o Prenatal drug exposure § Linked to prematurely and low birth weight, growth failure, depressed neurological functioning. Alcohol (FAS, ARND), tobacco, cocaine, heroin, or any toxic substance Be able to define: Longitudinal fissure separates the left and right hemispheres of brain corpus collosum combines the motor, sensory, and cognitive performances between the cerebral cortex from one side of the brain to the other. Trachea transports air between the environment and lungs Anatomy structures Physiology functions of the structures Organ or Corti a complex epithelial structure in the cochlea that rests on the internal surface of the basilar membrane and in mammals is the chief part of the ear by which sound is directly perceived ValidityThe quality of being logically or factually sound; soundness or cogency Aspiration The action oor process of drawing breath Reliability Thorax Evidence Based Practice using research evidence along with clinical expertise and patient preferences Etiology The cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition Echolalia Meaningless repetition of another person’s spoken words as a symptom of psychiatric disorder Anoxia cut off of oxygen at birth. Anomia A form of aphasia in which the patient is unable to recall the names of everyday objects Receptive Language Dysphonia difficulty in speaking due to a physical disorder of the mouth, tongue, throat, or vocal Aphonia Loss of ability to speak through disease of or damage to the larynx or mouth Least Restrictive Environment students with disabilities should be educated to the maximum extent appropriate with peers without disabilities Primary Disorder Secondary Disorder Circumlocition the use of many words where fewer would do, especially in a deliberate attempt to be vague or evasive Neologism the coining or use of new words Prosopagnsia inability to recognize the faces of familiar people, typically as a result of damage to the brain Dysprosody a disorder in which one or more of the prosodic functions are either compromised or eliminated completely Paraphasia speech disturbance resulting from brain damage in which words are jumbled and sentences meaningless Phoneme any of the perceptual distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another Know what each acronym stands for: TBI ASD RHD AAC ID LRE CSF CNS DSM IEP PPCD ASHA TSHA ADL SLI CVA
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