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by: Brittany Sholl


Marketplace > Iowa State University > Psych 360 > PSYCH 360 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
Brittany Sholl
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

A study guide covering topics on the first midterm exam in Personality Psychology. GOOD LUCK MY FELLOW STUDENTS :)
Personality Psychology
Study Guide
personality, Psychology, Midterm 1, study, Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Sholl on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 360 at Iowa State University taught by Nesbit in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Psych 360 {Prof. Nesbit} Midterm Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term What Is Personality?  Personality: Consistent behavior, patterns, and interpersonal processes, originating from the individual.  Consists of how we relate to others  We learn our personality through our relationships with other people  Thought & behavior that are consistent  Categorization info, organization, and structure of thought and behavior  Theory & Hypothesis Hypothesis: relationship between two things  Testable and can be falsified  Cause & effect  Prediction about two measured variables Theory: broader understanding of how 2 things connect together  Not tested  Can be correct or incorrect  An idea based on principles to express an idea Statistics Info  Correlation Coefficient  Denoted by r  Describes relationship among two variables  Ranges from +1 to -1  Want to be as close as 1 as possible  Statistical Significance  Denoted by p  Shows whether a test is significant or not  The lower the better (closer to.00)  P<.05 {Not finding the truth; using measures and behaviors that represent something, and putting it together in a study to see if it supports hypothesis; what is the probability in the confidence in what we're seeing? How many times would we not find this?} Think of statistics as tools. Any question in psych can be answered with stats. Reliability: Consistency  Answers the question: “How good is our measurement?”  No consistency: probably something wrong  Quality control  Validity: Measuring the right thing.  Different types  Answers the question: “Are we measuring the right thing?”  Personality Research Methods  Experimental Method  Cause & effect relationships  Random assignment  Manipulated one variable to study the outcome of the other variable  Well controlled  Increases VALIDITY  Same research over & over again  Case Study Method  Focuses on ONE person with a lot depth  Strengths:  Sometimes can examine a small group of people  Can be used as a starting point  Tells a story/analysis  Cons:  Can’t Generalize  Correlational Method  Relationship between 2 variables  NO MANIPULATION  NO cause & effect (can create challanges)  naturally occurring variables  not artificially created (can be a strength)  Has a 3rd variable problem **WE CAN NEVER HAVE VALIDITY WITHOUT RELIABILITY!! Psychoanalytic Approach! Freud’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Stage 1: Oral  Birth to 18 months  Conflict: o process of weaning o How well can children transition away from nursing and feed themselves?  Achieve psychosexual pleasure through the use of their mouth  Obtain necessary survival, through sucking (for food)  People who get fixated here, get an oral personality: nail biting, smoke, food, verbally aggressive  Oral passive personality: become extremely dependent  Orally Sadistic (later stage) **{Each stage there is a conflict, and people who get fixated in that stage} Stage 2: Anal  18 months to 3 years  Pleasure from being in the mouth to the anus  Conflict: o Toilet training  Develop anal retentive personality: really uptight, mean, stingy, withholding (during process was too biologically withholding)  Develop expulsive personality: doesn't focus on details, all over the place, personality everywhere and disorganized Stage 3: Phallic  3 to 7 years  Phallic: male genitalia  Energy being discharged to caregiver of the opposite sex (very focused)  Children recognize it is more than just being a boy and a girl {Girls: Also see phallic as power; when they see fathers they are attracted in same with boys and mom; they noticed that father has a power that they do not have. Also notice father’s power and feel as though this power was taken from them; fear of mothers; jealous and angry at their fathers as well; double irritated at mothers because the mothers got the power taken away from them}  Electra conflict: when unable to resolve {Boys: Oedipus conflict: unconsciously attracted to their mothers; push all feelings down to unconscious, learn that he can develop into the power that his father has to find a mate later in life that is similar to their mother; unconsciously noticing the father has a bigger phallic and can overpower him**}  Unable to resolve turns into Oedipus complex  Differs depending on gender  Age when stimulation of the genitals feels good  By far the most difficult stage of all the stages of development  Conflict: unconscious feelings of attract to caregiver of opposite sex combined with fear envy of the caregiver of the same sex o One parent situation or same-sex parents: stuck in stage because unable to resolve conflict o Women are more likely to be set up for psychological disturbances o Develop ego here: helps resolve phallic stage when developing ego Stage 4: Latency  Age 6 to 7 to early teens (puberty)  Things just kind of hangout and unconscious mind settles Stage 5: Genital  Puberty to Adulthood  Find a partner that will please us in the genital area  Don't get fixated but only way to resolve stage is by finding a partner who is able to full resolution from the phallic stage Strengths:  1st comprehensive psychological theory o Put psychology on the map, was a stepping stone  1st system of psychotherapy ("Talk Therapy") o Although do not exactly use same process as Freud  Importance of the unconscious  Clarified defense mechanisms o Ways with dealing with stress..  Brought psychology to popular culture Challenges:  Not popular or testable  Not scientifically validated  Ideas are not falsified  Based on limited case studies  Lengthy, expensive  Personality fixed at early age  Negative view of human nature **WILL BE ON MIDTERM {These stages can come out when going to therapy} The Freudian Theory of Personality The Topographic Model  The Freudian Approach is divided into 3 parts of the human personality  Conscious  Preconscious  Unconscious  Conscious: contains the thoughts you are currently aware of  Changes constantly as new thoughts enter your mind and leave  Can only deal with a tiny bit of information at a time   Preconscious: large body of retrievable information  the preconscious helps you remember who your 3rd grade teacher was  Unconscious: thoughts that you have no immediate access to  Most important aspect of Freud's psychoanalytic theory  Responsible for everyday behavior The Structural Model  Divides the personality into Id, Ego, Superego  ID  Pleasure principle  Only concerned with what brings immediate satisfaction  Regardless of physical or social limitations  Happens with babies, but doesn’t disappear when we come to be adults  Ego  Reality principle  Goal is to satisfy ID impulses but takes considerations of the reality of the world  Ego moves freely in the unconscious and keeps ID in unconscious  Superego  Places more restrictions of what we can and cannot do  Represents your parents values and standards  Superego brings you the feeling of guilt Dream Analysis  Biology of sleeping  Humans sleep during REM Sleep  4-5 dreams per night  It happens less times as we age  Problems of not getting REM sleep  Short term sleep deprivation isn’t bad on health but long term can be  Can affect memory processes  Can create serious psychological issues  Emotional disorders  Recurrent Dreams  Freud believes these dreams represent remaining conflict and wishes unfulfilled  Experience more anxiety and less adapted adjustment in day to day lives; can’t cope Defense Mechanisms  We aren’t of aware of these defense mechanisms when they are occurring  Repression: cornerstone of psychoanalysis  The ego uses tools to fend off anxiety and guilt  We have many defense mechanisms but we aren’t aware of them Assessing Personality 1. Dream Analysis  "Royal Road to unconscious"  Mind has to be asleep to be able to go into unconscious mind  Freud believed dreaming is the easiest way to learn about unconscious Manifest Content: storyline of a dream; start to finish Latent Content: Meaning of your dream; what storyline represents; hidden meaning 2. Hypnosis  Allowed insight into unconscious ideas  Awake but outside of your control  If you talk to someone while under influence of hypnosis; your unconscious is free to come out 3. Free Association  Therapist is out of view of client and the client just sits and talks  The client fills the space or "awkward silence"  No more conscious censoring 4. Freudian Slip  accidently say one thing and say another  Unconscious slips out 5. Accidents  Something a person didn’t mean to do 6. Symbolic Behavior 7. Projective Tests  Interpret ambiguous items  Answers are meaningful 4 Common Tests  Rorschach Test:  10 cards with blots of ink, sometimes in more than one color  Describe what they see in the inkblot  Thematic Apperception Test:  Tells stories about pictures  Analyze manifest and latent content of stories  Human Figure Drawing Test:  Draw yourself, your family etc  look for subtle symbols Research on Psychoanalytic  Tenants of Contemporary Psychodynamic Theory  Most mental processes are unconscious  Motivations can conflict with one another resulting in (problematic) behavior  Personality develops during the childhood years  Mental Representations of the self-influence behavior & interactions with others  Personality development involves learning to regulate motivations  First theory to identify personality development & motivations Neo-Freudian Approach ** An expansion on Freud’s theory  Eventually most of them would expand on his theory and build on it, but then Freud would cut ties with said person.  Freud’s Followers  Would teach other psychologists his theories and mentor them  He has a strong influence on a number of people  Most started to disagree with him  “Freudian” theorists, “Neo-Freudian”  Alfred Adler  One of Freud’s first Students  First hope for a legacy  Separated from Freud in 1911 because he wanted to expand upon Freud's theories  Took Freud's students with him when he left  They no longer spoke after Individual Psychology: focused more on the individual  He believed Freud focused only in the ID (internal drives) and not the other aspects of the person  Main disagreement: Adler felt humans get along (innate drive to cooperate), and Freud thought humans only out for personal benefit (thanatos)  Eventually immigrated to US 1. Inferiority Complex  Believed we were born with this complex  Because we were once the smallest of the small  Life struggle is to overcome this feeling of inferiority  This motivation influences every experience that we have  How we overcome these feelings; personality based on this  All-encompassing drive  Best Adjustment: social interest  By cooperating and working with other people and matching skills with other people  There are other ways, but can lead to personality disfunction. 2. Parental Influence  Personality development and problems can occur as a result of how we relate to caregivers A) Our parents pampering us at a young age--> never learn to figure out on our own or have internal independence B) When parents are neglecting--> overpowering feelings of inferiority; don't know how to connect intimately with other people C) Birth order between siblings--> can have an impact on your personality whether you have siblings or no siblings; believed there are "order effects"; - First Born/Only Child: Excessive attention; when younger sibling comes along they experience dethrownment and internally do not deal with it well; problem children, criminals, neoriotic, and perverts. Only children also experience dethrownment at a later time in life.  Middle Child: Always making the extra-effort to prove themselves and the highest achievers and basically born "second".  Youngest Child: Less strict rules, allows freedom; believed they are spoiled, and are pampered. Carl Jung (1875-1961)  Born in Switzerland  Preoccupied and timid--> hooked on imaginary friends  Professional relationship with Freud: Ended 1914  Best friends; Freud felt as though he was a legacy Main disagreement:  Jung had more positive drives: (self-actualization, need to create) May be negative drives but we also have positive drives  Healthy personality comes from a balance of our desires; opposing complimentary experiences we have; have to have both; balance good with negative  First person to believe in self-actualization Collective Unconscious: something we’re born with; hard to access but we don't suppress it Archetypes: characters or images that we inherent from our ancestors, they way they are expressed are reflected by the stories we tell, language we use, and images.  Feminine and masculine characteristics:  Anima: feminine aspect of being male  Animus: masculine aspect of being female  Influences definition of self, influences the choice of the romantic partner  Influences choice of romantic partner  Shadow: our negative unconscious; the unknown dark side of our personality Mother: caregiver/fertility: the desire to care for and protect other people, concern: selfishness and gratitude


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