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Midterm 1 study guide

by: Carly Carlson

Midterm 1 study guide Soc 3561

Marketplace > University of Utah > Sociology > Soc 3561 > Midterm 1 study guide
Carly Carlson
The U

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About this Document

Overview of chapters 1-5
Larry Bench
Study Guide
introduction to criminology
50 ?




Popular in Criminology

Popular in Sociology

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carly Carlson on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 3561 at University of Utah taught by Larry Bench in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University of Utah.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Criminology Study Guide Chapter One: Introduction to Criminology Definitions/key concepts: • Criminology: the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior • Crime: violations of criminal law o To be considered crime: § The act is prohibited by law and includes legally prescribed punishment prior to the violation § A criminal act must take place § Social harm of a conscious, voluntary nature is required § The act is performed intentionally § The voluntary misconduct must have directly or indirectly caused the harm. • Progression of knowledge: Comtes theory, knowledge has historically progressed from theological to metaphysical to scientific • Deviance: behavior outside social norms or expectations • Norms: rules of conduct o Folkways: customs, traditions, less serious norms o Mores: more serious informal social controls • Laws: codified rules, more serious than norms o Characteristics of law: § It is assumed by political authority (state). § It must be specific, defining both the offense and punishment. § The law is uniformly applied. § The law contains penal sanctions (punishment) enforced by the state • Mala prohibita: acts that’s are bad because they are prohibited • Mala in se: acts that are bad • Under criminalization: the underuse of criminal law to control deviant activity • Over criminalization: the overuse “ “ • Gemeinschaft: a communal or folk society • Gesellschaft: heterogeneous society • Manifest functions: intended consequences of social arrangements • Latent functions: unanticipated consequences of social activity • Consensus model: Views the law as agreement among members of a society as to what constitutes wrong doing • Conflict model: Views the law as originating in the conflict of interests of different groups. • Interactionist model: Views humans as responding to abstract meanings and symbols as well as to concrete meanings • Functional necessity of crime: Durkheims theory, society defines itself by reacting to crime • Criminal law: enforced by state to protect victims • Felonies: more serious crimes • Misdemeanors: less serious crime • Cost of crime: financial, psychological and health cost Chapter Two: Research Methods in Criminology Definitions/key concepts: • Theory: plausible explanation of reality… addresses the “why?” and “how?” • Methodology: attempt to gather data that are accurate o How much crime is there? Who commits crime? • Important considerations in criminological research: Objectivity, Ethical conduct, Researchers Code of Ethics, Informed consent of participants o Famous cases of unethical research: Tuskegee Syphilis Study, Stanley Milgrams Obedience to Authority, Zimbardos Prison Study • Reciprocity: mutual obligation between researcher and participant • Defining who we consider “criminal” for research purposes o Variable: A concept that has been operationalized or measured in a specific manner and that can take on different values o Operationalization: The process of defining concepts by describing how they are measured • Uniform Crime Report: official police report on crime maintained by FBI o Sources of crime stats: surveys, case studies, participant observations o Unfounded crimes: police decided these crimes never occurred • Index Crimes: Major felonies that are serious, occur frequently, and have a greater likelihood of being reported to the police o Part I Crimes: Violent Crime Index o Part I Crimes: Property Crime Index • Part II Crimes: Non-index offenses that are not used in the calculation of the crime rate o For example: simple assault, embezzlement, vandalism, sex offenses • Crime rate: # of index crimes/population x 100,000 • National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS): more detailed recording of crime than the UCR • Quantitative Methods: Incorporates use of statistics to identify crime trends, objective • Qualitative Methods: Descriptive/measures attitudes or behavior to understand crime trends, subjective • Evidence based research: research based on replicated, experimental research • Surveys o Interviews, questionnaires, telephone surveys o Victim surveys uncover “dark figure of crime” o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS): Weaknesses- large sample, false/mistaken reports, can’t count victimless crimes, murders o Self-Report Surveys: school or delinquent populations, measure of “victimless” crimes, and crimes not reported to police, weaknesses: What about adult population?, mistaken/dishonest reports • Participant Observation: Researcher studies a group through direct observation and various levels of involvement, strengths- great for studying groups otherwise difficult to access, good source of qualitative data, observe subjects in their natural environment, weaknesses- hard to get access, ethical and legal dilemmas, time consuming • Ethnography: Similar to participant observation but more of a time commitment and immersion into a culture, some risks include participation in illegal activities and accuracy of data is questionable • Life history and case studies: Provides in-depth information on small number of subjects o Possible Sources: Diaries, letters, biographies, autobiographies • Unobtrusive Measures: Secretive or non-reactive methods of gathering data o Physical trace analysis, content analysis, secondary analysis, observation, simulation • Validity: the accuracy of measurement • Reliability: consistency/stability of measurement • Triangulation: use of multiple research methods • Journalists and criminologists often cover the same material with different methods Chapter Three: General Characteristics of Crime and Criminals Definitions/key concepts: • Age-crime debate: disagreement among criminologists as to whether or not all ”mature out of crime” or whether some remain criminals • Gender: majority of crime committed by males historically and internationally with the exception of prostitution • Androcentric Bias- the charge that criminology has reflected a male centered bias • Social class- measured using income, education and occupation • Urban V. Rural crime: crime is high in urban areas and low in rural areas • Institutions: organizations that serve a broad range of interests in society, such as the family • Fallacy of autonomy: the erroneous belief that failing of the family are separate and independent of inequality, racism and discrimination • Feminization of poverty: poverty is taking place increasingly in female headed homes • Catharsis hypothesis: belief that observing violent media serves as an emotional release and reduces violence • Precipitation hypothesis: the belief that observing violent media increases the propensity to violence and aggression • Copycat crimes: criminals imitate previously publicized crimes Chapter Four: What is victimology? Definitions/key concepts: • Economic costs: financial costs associated with victimization o Direct property losses o Medical care o Mental health care costs o Losses in productivity o Pain, suffering, lost quality of life o System costs o Mental health consequences and costs § Characterological self blame- person ascribes blame to a nonmodifiable source, such as his/her character § Behavioral self blame- person believes they did something to cause own victimization § Learned helplessness: idea that victims believe they are unable to change their situation and stop trying to resist § Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)- anxiety disorder cause by traumatic events o Fear of crime § Avoidance behaviors: restrictions placed on own behavior to protect themselves from harm § Defensive/protective behaviors: behaviors trying to guard against victimization • Theories of Victimization: o Role of the victim in crime § Victim precipitation: the extent to which a victim is responsible for their own victimization § Victim facilitation: when a victim makes it, unintentionally, easier for an offender to commit crime § Victim provocation: when a person actually does something that incites another person to commit a crime o Routine activities and lifestyles theory § Victimization theory: generally a set of testable propositions designed to explain why a person is victimized § Motivated offenders: people who will commit a crime if given opportunity § Suitable targets: idea that victims are chosen by offenders based on their attractiveness in the crime situation § Capable guardianship: means by which a person/target can be effectively guarded so a victimization is prevented § Principle of homogamy: the idea the people who have similar characteristics of an offender are more at risk for victimization, more likely to come into contact with offenders o Structural causes of victimization § Hot spots: crime prone areas § Family structure: household style § Structural density: the percentage of units in structures of five or more units § Residential mobility: the % of persons 5 and older living in a house different from 5 years before • Victims Rights: o Victim compensation: the right of victims to have monies that they lost due to victimization, repaid by the state o Victim of Crime Act of 1984: created Office for Victims of Crimes and provided funds for victim compensation o Victim impact statement (VIS): statement made to the court by the victim or the family about the harm caused and the desired sentence for the offender o Family justice center: provide a range of services to crime victims and their families o Victim-offender mediation program- sessions led by a third party in which the victim and offender meet face to face to come to an agreement on what should happen to offender o Diversion: offender not formally charged if they complete required programs o Restorative justice: a movement recognizing that crime is a harm not just to the state but the victim and the community as well. Seeks to use all entities in response to crime and allows for input of the victim, the offender, community members harmed in making a determination of how to repair the harm caused by the offender Chapter Five: Early and Classical Criminological Theories Definitions/ key concepts: • Demonological theory: assumes that supernatural forces cause and control crime commission • Classical theory: contained in the writings of Beccaria and Bentham, these theories assume that criminals are rational actors who weigh the pleasure and pain of an activity • Hedonism: a pleasure seeking philosophy • Neoclassical theory: new classical theories that view crime as influenced by criminal opportunities to commit crime • Ecological school: school thought that posits that crime is caused by environmental or geographic forces • Thermic law of crime: Quetelet’s theory that violent crime increases toward the equator • Economic theory: influenced by the writings of Karl Marx and views inequality and capitalism as the causes of crime • Proletariat: refers to the working class • Bourgeoisie: Marxs term for the capitalists or owners of industry • Rational choice theory: proposes that offenders weight the opportunities, benefits and costs of particular crimes


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