LIfe Span Development: Development to Infancy
LIfe Span Development: Development to Infancy Lifespan Development
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This 61 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aashika Kushwaha on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Lifespan Development at University of Texas at Dallas taught by John Santrock in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Life Span ch. 1 09/06/2016 ▯ Life Span Development ▯ ▯ EXAM: SEPT 22 (Ch. 1-6) ▯ ▯ What makes some children grow up to be thieves, while others grow up to be good? ▯ ▯ We all have our own unique personalities that are mixed with how we are (biologically) and how we were raised by the environment. (Nature vs. Nurture) ▯ ▯ Lifespan perspective views development as lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, multidisciplinary, and contextual. ▯ Involves growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss ▯ Growth ▯ Maintenance ▯ Regulation of loss ▯ ▯ Growth- growing and maturing (birth to 30’s) ▯ ▯ Maintenance- caring for yourself without taking too many risks that could harm your body ▯ ▯ Regulation of loss- living until death (50-death) ▯ ▯ Development- the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span ▯ Involves growth and decline (death) ▯ ▯ Effected by 3 factors: ▯ Biological ▯ Sociocultural ▯ Individual factors ▯ ▯ Development is multidimensional and multidirectional ▯ ▯ Biological ▯ Cognitive ▯ Socio-emotional ▯ -Attention, memory abstract thinking, speed of processing information, and social intelligence are components of cognitive dimension. ▯ ▯ Multidimensional (multidirectional): Some dimensions expand and some shrink as we grow. ▯ Ex. We can acquire a language at a young age during our critical period, but as we grow, we become better at decision- making and problem solving, but have a difficult time learning new things. ▯ ▯ ▯ Development is Plastic ▯ ▯ Plasticity : capacity to change. ▯ Researchers have found that it is difficult to grow and change as we become old. There is only so long that you can continue to improve (until about 70’s). ▯ Researchers are working on creating more and more strategies to increase the capacity to change in older ages. ▯ Plasticity and its constraints is a key element in developmental research. ▯ ▯ Development is Co-construction of Biology, Culture, and the Individual ▯ -Our brain shapes to culture, although as we grow and experience new things, our brains change beyond biological capacities. ▯ ▯ Development is Contextual ▯ Development changes as the environment (context changes) ▯ ▯ Non-normative life events ▯ -Unusual occurrences that make a major impact on lives ▯ -These events do not happen to everyone. ▯ Ex. ▯ Death of a parent when child is young ▯ Pregnancy during adolescence ▯ Fire destroying ▯ Major natural disasters (Ex. Hurricane Katrina) ▯ Winning the lottery ▯ ▯ Normative age-graded influences ▯ Similar for a particular age group ▯ Ex. Puberty, menopause, beginning of formal education ▯ ▯ Normative history-graded influences ▯ Generation that experiences major historical events together. ▯ Ex. Youth during Cuban Missile Crisis, Great Depression, beginning of technology. ▯ Long-term changes in genetic and cultural makeup of a population. ▯ Also called Cohort Effects ▯ ▯ Development involves growth, maintenance, and Regulation of Loss ▯ Ex. 75 year old man might aim not to improve his memory of his golf swing but to maintain his independence and his ability to play golf. ▯ ▯ ▯ Physiological View of Childhood ▯ ▯ Original Sin- babies are born evil and are taught to be good ▯ -Id ▯ -Psychodynamics (Sigmund Freud) ▯ ▯ Tabula Rasa- experiences make babies good or bad ▯ ▯ Innate Goodness- Babies are born good but experiences/environment make them bad (Jean Piaget) ▯ ▯ Adolescence ▯ Storm and Stress Theory- change due to internal stress as you experience life. ▯ Strong biological View- genes ▯ Strong Stage Theory ▯ ▯ Stage- Unique ascendance of one or more characteristics at a particular point in development ▯ ▯ Inventionist View ▯ Adolescence is a socio-historical invention ▯ Ex. ▯ 19 th century stressed dependency of teens on adults ▯ -Made adult world manageable ▯ -Stopped increased amount of teen marriage ▯ ▯ ▯ -Between 1890-1920: 600% increase in high school graduation ▯ ▯ Lifespan- Max. number of years a species has been documented to live ▯ Jean Louis Calment (p. 514) ▯ ▯ Life Expectancy- average number of years a person is expected to live usually calculated at birth. ▯ Changed across the centuries ▯ ▯ K. Warner Schaie ▯ As you get old you don’t like change ▯ Lack of plasticity ▯ Built environment that was not made for old people ▯ ▯ Paul Baltes ▯ Multidimensional-many sub-dimensions (cognition) ▯ Multidirectional- old-more wisdom ▯ Slower processing speed ▯ Lifelong ▯ Plasticity ▯ Mulitdisciplinary ▯ ▯ Generations ▯ Silent Generation 1928-45 ▯ Baby Boomers 1946-1964 (Birth control pills created) ▯ Generation X 1965-1980 ▯ Millennials individuals in 80-later ▯ -technology ▯ entering adulthood ▯ more diversity ▯ ▯ Growth: (infant-30’s) ▯ Maintenance- maintain skills rather then getting new ones ▯ Decline: (Late 50’s) ▯ ▯ Biological Co-Construction ▯ -Genes, Biology, environment define identity ▯ -involves individual capacity of decision-making ▯ -mind can change ▯ -experiences can change expression of genes ▯ ▯ Cognitive Process-changes in individual’s thought, intelligence, and language ▯ ▯ Socio-emotional processes- changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality. ▯ ▯ Ex. An infant’s smile in response to mother’s touch ▯ Adolescent’s joy at senior prom ▯ ▯ Periods of Development (p. 12) ▯ ▯ Prenatal Period ▯ Time from conception to birth ▯ Cell grows brain and behavioral capabilities ▯ ▯ Infancy ▯ Birth to about 18 to 24 months ▯ Extremely dependent on adults ▯ Speak, sensations, actions, think, learn ▯ ▯ Early Childhood ▯ Infancy to 5-6 years ▯ Called “preschool years” ▯ Become self-sufficient, care for themselves, school readiness skills ▯ First grade marks the end of this period ▯ ▯ Middle and Late Childhood ▯ 6-11 years ▯ Elementary school ▯ Reading, writing, arithmetic ▯ Self control increases ▯ ▯ Adolescence ▯ 10-12 years ▯ ending at 18-22 years ▯ -Rapid physical changes ▯ height ▯ weight ▯ body contour pubic/facial hair ▯ ▯ Cohort-group born in a similar period/point in history ▯ ▯ Ex. Living through Holocaust ▯ These events affected attitudes, experiences, and how children were raised. ▯ Due to a person’s time of birth (era), not age ▯ ▯ Millennials- born after 1980 ▯ Entering adulthood ▯ Ethnic diversity ▯ Connection to technology ▯ More tolerant and open-minded ▯ ▯ Nature-Nurture Issue ▯ -debate about whether development is influenced by nature (genes, etc.) or nurture (society and environment) ▯ ▯ ▯ Continuity-Discontinuity Issue ▯ -extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative changes (continuous) or distinct stages (discontinuity) ▯ Continuous- growing of child ▯ Distinct- caterpillar to a butterfly or puberty ▯ ▯ Early-later experience issue- degree to which early experiences (infancy) or later experiences are key determinants of a child’s development ▯ Are traumatic experiences at a young age more affective at development? ▯ ▯ Ex. Some developmentalists argue that infants that experiences warm, nurturing care during their first year or so for life, their development will n be optima ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Developmental Social Neuroscience ▯ Examines socio-emotional processes, development, and the brain. ▯ How we act and change in social settings ▯ ▯ Developmental Biological Cognitive Neuroscience ▯ Explores links between Processes development, cognitive processes, development, and the brain ▯ Some contemporary Concerns ▯ Health, well being, parenting, education, and sociocultural contexts play roles in development. ▯ Prefronta Prefrontal cortex/limbic ▯ Health l cortex and well-being system ▯ Issues of health and well-being -Middle play a role in Decision making to late Not repeating clinical childhoo psychology past mistakes ▯ d Cognitive Processes Socio- emotional Processes ▯ Parenting and Education ▯ -Can gay men raise a healthy family? ▯ -Are schools failing to teach adequately? ▯ -Effects of divorce ▯ -… and other issues related to parenting and education ▯ ▯ Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity ▯ Culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender shape, health, parenting, and education ▯ ▯ Culture- encompasses behavior patterns, beliefs, and other products of a particular group of people that are passed down by generations ▯ ▯ Cross-cultural Studies- compares aspects of two or more cultures and how development is affected ▯ ▯ Ethnicity- cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language ▯ Ex. African American, Latino, etc. ▯ ▯ Socioeconomic Status (SES)- person’s position within society based on occupational, educational, and economic characteristics ▯ -Controls availability of you resources and participation in the society ▯ ▯ Gender- male or female affects identity, social relationships, diversity, educational opportunities, and challenges ▯ ▯ Social Policy- government course of action to promote welfare of its citizens ▯ Educational/Health reforms ▯ Children growing up in poverty create a special concern ▯ Health care ▯ ▯ Biological Processes ▯ -hormonal/genes produce changes in the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language ▯ Two word sentences- memorizing a poem-> completing a crossword puzzle ▯ Cognitive processes ▯ ▯ Cognitive Processes- changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language ▯ ▯ Socio-emotional Processes- changes in relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and personality ▯ ▯ Connecting Biological, Cognitive, and Socio-emotional Processes ▯ Response to tough, like a baby smiling to mother’s touch ▯ Biological- responding when someone touches you ▯ Socio-emotional- smiling if someone gives you a compliment ▯ ▯ Scientific studies such as child development follow the scientific method. ▯ Conceptualizing the problem ▯ Collect data ▯ Use statistical procedures to understand data ▯ ▯ Hypothesis- specific testable assumption or prediction ▯ ▯ Theory- set of ideas that can explain and make predictions ▯ ▯ Psychoanalytic theories describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored with emotion ▯ Behavior is merely a surface with true understanding or development and meaning of behaviors below ▯ ▯ Piaget Cognitive Developmental Theory ▯ ▯ Sensorimotor- (birth-2 yr) seeing and hearing ▯ ▯ Preoperational- applying words to physical objects ▯ ▯ Concrete Operational- operations and reasoning, abstract thinking ▯ ▯ Formal- beyond concrete experiences logic ▯ ▯ Freud’s Theory (p.18) ▯ Id, Ego, Super Ego ▯ Id- totally unconscious, child-like ▯ Ego- reality “executive branch” ▯ Super Ego- considers whether something is right or wrong ▯ ▯ Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Vygotsky’ s Theory – sociocultural cognitive theory ▯ - Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development ▯ ▯ Info- Processing Theory- An individual manipulates, monitors and strategizes information ▯ ▯ Behaviorism holds that we can study only what can be scientifically observed or measured ▯ ▯ Skinner’s Operant Conditioning ▯ Behavior as a result of punish/reward ▯ ▯ Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory ▯ -behavior, environment, and cognition are key to development ▯ Ex. Bobo dolls ▯ Observational learning ▯ ▯ Ethology- behavior is strongly influenced by Biology and is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical periods ▯ ▯ Bronfenbrenner’s ecological Theory ▯ -Development reflects the influence of several environmental systems ▯ Microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem ▯ ▯ Microsystem- individual lives and interactions with others ▯ ▯ Mesosystem- relations with family, religious, and social experiences ▯ ▯ Exosystem- relationship with environment where individual doesn’t have an active role in immediate context ▯ Ex. Life at home my influences behavior in school ▯ ▯ Macrosystem- involves culture in which individuals live ▯ Passed down by generations ▯ ▯ Chronosystem- patterning of environmental events and transitions over life ▯ Ex. Transition to normal life after a divorce ▯ ▯ Erickson’s Theory best describes the changes that occur during development ▯ Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s and the information processing view of cognitive development ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Eclective Theoretical Orientation ▯ -Development is a combination of approaches made up of assumptions by many theorists ▯ ▯ Laboratory- a controlled setting where many of the real world complex factors are absent ▯ Participants need to know they are being studied ▯ ▯ Survey- questionnaire ▯ ▯ Standardized Test- uniform procedure for administration and scoring ▯ ▯ Case Study- in depth look at a single individual ▯ Mostly performed by mental health professionals ▯ Cautious when generalizing information ▯ Physiological Measures ▯ Study development at different points ▯ Ex. Level of cortisol ▯ -homone created by the adrenal gland which is linked to body stress ▯ -analyze blood samples ▯ ▯ ▯ fMRI: (functional magnetic resonance imaging) ▯ Electromagnetic waves that construct a person’s brain tissue and biochemical activity ▯ ▯ EEG: (electroencephaly) ▯ A physiological measure has been used to monitor electrical activity in the brain ▯ Research includes brain studies of infant’s attention and memory ▯ Brain changes during infancy, development, childhood, adolescence, and aging, and development of autism ▯ ▯ Descriptive Research-aims to observe and record behavior ▯ Ex. A researcher might observe the extent to which people are altruistic or aggressive toward each other ▯ ▯ Correlational Research: the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics. ▯ The more strongly the two events are correlated (associated) the more accurately we can predict one even from the other ▯ Correlatin coefficient ranges from +1 to -1. A negative number means an inverse relation. ▯ Higher the correlation coefficient (+/-), the stronger the association between the two variables ▯ CORRELATION DOES NOT INDICATE CAUSATION ▯ ▯ Experiments- carefully reguallation procedure in which one or more factors believed to influence the behavior being studied are maniupated while all ofther factors are held constant. ▯ Determining causation ▯ ▯ Independent Variable- a manipulated, influential, experimental factor (one, or many) ▯ A potential cause ▯ ▯ Dependent Variable- a factor that can change in an experiment, in response to changes in the independent variable. As researches manipulate the independent variable, they measure the dependent variable for any resulting effect. ▯ ▯ Control Group- a comparison group that is a comparison group that is as similar to the experimental group as possible and that is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor (independent variable). ▯ Serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared ▯ ▯ RANDOMIZATION IS IMPORTANT!!! ▯ ▯ Cross-sectional approach- a research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages ▯ Ex. studying the groups of 5-year olds, 16 year olds, and studying 20 year olds together ▯ ▯ Longitudinal Approach- a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time., usually several years or more ▯ ▯ Cohort- a group of people who are born at a similar point in history ▯ Share experiences may produce a range of differences among cohorts ▯ ▯ Cohort Effects- due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation, but not actual age ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Millenials ▯ Individuals born ▯ First generation in 1980 to come to age and enter adulthood in the ▯ and later st 21 century. ▯ Ethnic diversity ▯ Technology ▯ Generation X ▯ Individuals born ▯ Described as between 1965 and lacking an identity 1980 and savvy loners ▯ Baby Boomers ▯ Individuals born ▯ Label used between 1946 and because this 1964 generation represents the spike in the number of babies born after WWII ▯ Largest generation ever to enter late adulthood in the US ▯ Silent ▯ Individuals born ▯ Children of the Generation between 1928 and Great Depression and 1945 WWII; described as conformists and civic minded ▯ ▯ ▯ Conducting Ethical Research ▯ -Without proper permissions, the most well-meaning, kind, and considerate studies still violate the rights of the participants ▯ ▯ Informed consent: participants must know what their research participation will involve and what risks might develop. They can withdraw when ever they would like to ▯ ▯ Confidentiality: Researches are responsible for keeping all datat collected on the individuals confidential, or keep the individual’s name as anonymous ▯ ▯ Debriefing: After the study has been completed, participants should be informed of its purpose and the methods that were used, or participants can be told the purpose of the research only if it it wont cause the participant to act in a different way ▯ ▯ Deception: telling the participants before hand about the research study can alter the participants’ behavior and invalidates the research’s data. Deception can be used to that the participants are not harmed, and the participants will be debriefed as soon as possible after the study is completed. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Gender Bias ▯ Preconceived notion about the abilities of women and men from pursuing personal inters and achieving their potential. ▯ Less obvious effect within the field of life-span development ▯ Researchers will try to magnify gender differences ▯ ▯ Cultural and Ethnic Bias ▯ Ethnic minorities such as African Americans, Latino, Asians, and Latin Americans were exfluded from most research in the US ▯ Including ethnic minorities caused research data to deviate from the norm ▯ ▯ Ethnic Gloss- using an ethnic label such as “African American” or “Latino” in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is. (Ex. The participants were 50 Latinos: group of 50 Latinos from a low-income homes in southern Los Angeles) ▯ Ethnic minorities not given adequate attention in light of their significant rates of growth ▯ ▯ Sub-periods in Late Adulthood ▯ ▯ Processes and Periods of Development ▯ Periods of development describe how people are at the age, biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional processes ▯ ▯ Young Old (65-84) ▯ Substantial potential for better physical and cognitive fitness ▯ Successive cohorts show gains in physical and cognitive fitness ▯ Effective strategies for managing gains and losses ▯ ▯ Oldest Old (85-Over) ▯ Sizeable losses in cognitive potential and ability to learn ▯ Increase in chronic stress (stress hormones stay in blood longer as you get older) ▯ Increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease ▯ High levels of frailties and problems in body functioning (falls, difficulty in movement) ▯ Problems in dying with dignity (difficulty in managing their bodily functions) ▯ ▯ Is there a best age to be? ▯ Life-Satisfaction Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larson, and Griffin, 1985) ▯ What does research suggest? ▯ Bernice Neugarten: ▯ -Biological Age ▯ -Cognitive Age ▯ -Socio-emotional Age ▯ What does research say? ▯ Older you get, happier your going to be, closer you get to people that you have relationships with, because they shorten their effort of meeting new people, but rather just try to do their best with people that they already know ▯ Study by Yang: found that the older you get, the more satisfied you get, studied people up to 88 years old (38% were happy) ▯ Cohort effects, baby boomers when they reached middle aged were less satisfied than previous cohorts, because they became overconfident about their future life ▯ ▯ Bernice Neugarten ▯ Argues that age (chronological age) is becoming a less effective predictor of how life is going to be like. The world has become much more complex ▯ ▯ Biological Age: how biologically fit, free from disease you are. Some really old people are weak and get sick, while some keep up their stamina and can run (pg 17) ▯ ▯ Psychological age: how good your coping skills are and how you can adapt to life ▯ ▯ Social Age: how good your social relationships are. How good you are at interacting with others (p. 18) ▯ 25 is the new 15 ▯ ▯ K Warner Schaie ▯ pioneer of adult development and aging ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Normal Aging: ▯ Most common pattern, characterizes most individuals ▯ Psychological funtining peaks in early midlife, followed by plateaus in late 50s and early 60s ▯ Modest declines occur thorugh early 80s, often followed by a marked decline prior to death (turmoil decline) ▯ ▯ ▯ Pathological Aging: ▯ -Greater than average declines in late adulthood ▯ -May have mild cognitive impairment in early old age, develop Alzheimer disease later, or have a chronic disease that impaires functioning ▯ ▯ ▯ Successful Aging: ▯ Physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional functioning ▯ Is maintaining for longer than most people ▯ Declines later than for most people ▯ ▯ Developmental Issues ▯ Nature vs. Nurture ▯ ▯ Continuity vs. Discontinuity (Non-stage vs. Stage): ▯ Stage: consistence between one or more periods of development ▯ ▯ Stability vs. Change ▯ -characteristics/traits: personality (introverted or extroverted) ▯ ▯ -Early vs. later experience (how are they like)- if you don’t have a secure attachment to your care giver, then that is going to set a cascade of experiences that are going to prevent you from developing optimally ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Theories of Life-Span Development ▯ Psychoanalytic ▯ -Freud ▯ Cognitive ▯ Behavioral/Social Cognitive ▯ Ethological ▯ Ecological ▯ ▯ Erikson’s 8 stages of development ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Albert Bandura- responsible for Observational Learning ▯ -we learn by watching and listening to other people ▯ Bobo Dolls ▯ ▯ Social Cognitive Theory: Reciprocal Determinism ▯ -Not Stage theorists (Skinner is also not a stage theorist) ▯ ▯ Self-Efficacy: expectation that you can control your behavior and environment, if you believe that you cant do something, then you wont have the confidence to get anything done ▯ ▯ Skinner: believes cognitive doesn’t have much to do with a person’s development ▯ -behavior is determined by external consequences ▯ -like Bandura’s Reciprocal of Determinism but only with Environment and Behavior. Enviroment influences behavior ▯ ▯ Essay questions on comparing theories/people ▯ Ethological Theory ▯ Conrad Lorenz (zoologist):studied geese ▯ ▯ Imprinting: gosling spent time with him and grew attached to him rather than their own mother ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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