Exam #1 Review
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Pierson on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1711 at University of North Texas taught by Robert Benjamin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Honors Biology I in Science at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
CHAPTER 1-5 STUDY GUIDE MAKE SURE TO REVIEW ALL DIAGRAMS IN THE POWERPOINT SLIDES. I cannot place them in this review due to copy writing, but it is very important you review them. THE BOLDED ITEMS ARE FAIR GAME FOR TEST QUESTIONS. CHAPTER ONE: EVOLUTION, THE THEMES OF BIOLOGY, AND SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY Introduction to chapter one: Inquiring About Life Evolution is the processes of change that has transformed life on Earth Biology is the scientific study of life Properties of life: o Order o Energy Processing o Evolutionary Adaptation o Regulation o Growth and Development o Response to the Environment o Reproduction Concept 1.1: The study of life reveals common themes Unifying Themes of Life o Organization o Information o Energy and Matter o Interactions o Evolution Biological Organization o Biosphere o Ecosystems o Communities o Populations o Organisms o Organs and Organ Systems o Tissues o Cells o Organelles o Molecules o Emergent Properties- arrangement and interaction of parts in a system o Reductionism o Systems Biology o Important correlation between structure and function o Cell membranes regulate the passage of materials between cell & environment o Eukaryotic- membrane enclosed organelles; largest=nucleus o Prokaryotic- simpler/smaller; no nucleus or membrane-enclosed organelles Transmission & Expression of Information o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) controls development and maintenance; double helix; Made of nucleotides: A, C, G, T; transcribed into RNA o Genes encode info for building molecules; units of inheritance; indirectly controls protein production o Gene expression- convert gene info to cellular product o Genome- the genetic blueprint Genomics- study of a set of genes High-throughput technology Bioinformatics Research teams from many backgrounds Proteomics- study of whole sets of proteins Transfer and Transformation of Energy and Matter o Energy comes from the sun and is transferred between organisms (enters an ecosystem through light and exits as heat) o Consumers eat producers Interactions ensure the parts work together o Ecosystems- interactions are vital and can be good or bad for one or both organisms; they also interact with the environment o There are internal interactions in organisms between organstissuescellsmolecules o Feedback regulation- product of a process (negative feedback, response reduces initial stimulus, is most common) Evolution o Explains the unity and diversity of the world o Many kinds of evidence support evolution Concept 1.2: The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life Classifying the Diversity of Life o 1.8 million species o There are possibly 10-100 million species out there, though Grouping Species o Taxonomy classifies species o Domains are the largest classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species 3 Domains o Prokaryotes Bacteria Archaea o Eukaryotes Eukarya Plantae Fungi 2 Animalia Prostist Kingdom- used to contain all the other eukaryotic organisms but in recent trends, is split into several kingdoms Unity in Diversity o DNA is common to all organisms o Many cell structures are similar Charles Darwin & Natural Selection o Fossils document evolution o Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection “descent with modification” “Natural Selection” Duality of unity and diversity Individuals vary in traits which are heritable (over timemore advantageous traits) More offspring are produced than survive (always competition) Species suit their environment (more suited=more likely to surive/reproduce) Evolution happens when there is unequal reproductive success of individuals (aka natural selection) Occurs from adaptation (ex: different colored moths in industrial revolution) The Tree of Life o “Descent with modification””Unity in Diversity” o Ancestral species (w/ natural selection) could descend two or more different species (ex: Galápagos finches) Concept 1.3: In studying nature, scientists make observations and form and test hypotheses Science means to know Inquiry- search for information & explanations Scientific Process= make observations, form hypotheses, & test them Making Observations o Biologists describe natural structures/processes (based on analysis of data) o Data- recorded observations Qualitative Quantitative o Inductive reasoning draws conclusions through induction- repeating observationsgeneralizations o Deductive reasoning uses general ideas to make specific prediction Forming and Testing Hypotheses o Hypothesis- tentative answer to a thoughtful scientific question (comes from observations) predictions Must be testable Supernatural and religious explanations are not scientific Flexibility of the scientific process o There are steps but they can really go in any order o Rethinking and backtracking is necessary Investigating Coat Coloration in Mouse Populations o Two different colored mice in two different environments o Natural predators of both are visual hunters 3 o Hypothesis: color patterns had evolved as an adaptation to protect from predation o Prediction: mice who did not match their habitat would be preyed more heavily o Execution: painted model mice with equal # in each habitat recorded signs of predation Experimental Variable and Controls o Controlled experiment- an experimental group is compared to a control group Non-camouflaged mice v. camouflaged mice o Vary in only ONE variable o Without controls, you cannot rule out other factors Theories in Science o A theory is Broad/General Can lead to new testable hypotheses Supported by a large body of evidence Concept 1.4: Science benefits from a cooperative approach and diverse viewpoints Building on the work of others o Check claims by doing similar experiments o Experiments must be able to be replicated or they must be revised o Scientists share data about model organisms Science, technology, and society o Goal: understand natural phenomena o Technology- applied scientific knowledge o Science and technology are interdependent Watson and Crick discovering DNAadvances in DNA technology o Biology=discoveries; technology=inventions o Ethical issues arise with advances in technology and science The Value of diverse viewpoints in Science o Different cultures and ideasnew, important inventions o Science benefits from diversity in its researchers 4 CHAPTER TWO: THE CHEMICAL CONTEXT OF LIFE Introduction to chapter two: A Chemical Connection to Biology Living organisms are subject to basic physics and chemistry laws o Ex: ants use formic acid as a means of protection against predators Concept 2.1: Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds Elements and Compounds o Matter- anything that takes up space (it’s made of elements) o Element- a substance that cannot be broken down any further o Compound- substance of two or more elements (characteristics differ from individual elements involved) Ex: Sodium (extremely explosive) + Chlorine (poisonous) = table salt The Elements of Life o Essential elements- (20-25% of the 92 elements) Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96% of living matter Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chlorine, & Magnesium o Trace elements- are required by an organism but in small quantities Some species adapt to toxic elements Concept 2.2: An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms Subatomic particles o An atom (the smallest unit of matter that retains elemental properties) is composed of subatomic particles Neutrons 0 Protons + Electrons – o Atomic nucleus- made of protons and neutrons o Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus o Measured in daltons Atomic number and atomic mass o Atomic number- # of protons in nucleus o Atomic mass (approx. mass number)- sum of protons + neutrons Isotopes- two atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons o All atoms have the same # of protons o Radioactive isotopes- decay spontaneouslyparticles & energy Radioactive tracers can be used in medicine through imaging tools Radiometric Dating- scientists measure the ratio of different isotopes to calculate how many half-lives have passed o Half-life- parent isotope decays into its daughter isotope at a fixed rate (varies from seconds/days to billions of years) The Energy Levels of Electrons o Energy- capacity to cause change 5 o Potential energy- the energy that matter has because of its location or structure o Electron shell/energy level- an electron’s state of potential energy Electron Distribution and Chemical Properties o Chemical behavior=distribution of electrons in outer shell o Valence electrons- are in the outermost shell, or valence shell o Electrons with a full valence shell are chemically inert Electron Orbitals o Orbital- 3D space where an electron is found 90% of the time o Each electron shell has specific # of orbitals Concept 2.3: The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms Incomplete valence shellshare or transfer valence electrons o The interactions are held together be chemical bonds Covalent bonds- sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms o Molecule- 2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds o Single bond- sharing one pair of valence electrons o Double bond- sharing two pairs of valence electrons o Structural formula- notation used to represent atoms and bonding (H H) o Molecular formula- further abbreviation w/ subscripts (2 ) o Compound- bonding of two or more different elements o Electronegativity- an atom’s attraction for the electrons in a covalent bond More electronegative=stronger pull o Nonpolar covalent bond- atoms share electron equally o Polar covalent bond- one atom is more electronegative, so atoms are NOT share equally Unequal sharingpositive/negative charge of atoms Ionic Bonds o Atoms sometimes steal electrons from their bonding pair o After the transfer of an electron, both atoms have charges o Ion- charged atom or molecule o Cation: + charged ion o Anion: - charged ion o Ionic bond- attraction between cation and anion o Ionic compounds (salts)- compounds formed by ionic bonds (often found in nature as crystals) Weak Chemical Bonds o The reversibility of weak bonds is advantageous o Weak bonds are indispensable o Strongest bonds are covalent bonds o Biological molecules held in functional form by weak bonds o Hydrogen bonding is weak but forms from hydrogen atoms covalently bonded by electronegativity Usually oxygen or nitrogen Van der Waals Interactions are close together because electrons may be distributed asymmetrically and may accumulate by chance in one part of a molecule o These interactions can be very strong Ex: gecko’s toe hairs on a wall’s surface Molecular shape and function o Shape is important to function o Shape is determined by the position of the orbitals 6 o In a covalent bond, s&p orbitals may hybridizecreates specific molecular shapes Shape is very important to determine how molecules specifically recognize/respond to each other (Ex: Opiates and natural endorphins have similar effects because they have similar shapes and receptors) Concept 2.4: Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds Chemical reactions the making and breaking of bonds o Reactants- starting molecules in a reaction o Products- final molecules in a reaction o Photosynthesis is an important reaction Sunlight powers the conversion of CO2and water to create glucose (C6H12 6 and oxygen o All chemical reactions are reversible o Chemical equilibrium- forward and reverse reaction occur at the same rate (concentrations of reactants and products do not change) 7 CHAPTER THREE: WATER AND LIFE Introduction to chapter three: The Molecule That Supports All of Life Water is Earth’s biological medium It is the only common substance to naturally exist in all 3 states of matter Water has unique emergent properties Concept 3.1: Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding Polar covalent bonds- electrons spend more time near oxygen than hydrogen o Polar molecule- because the charge is unevenly distributed o Polarity allows water to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules Concept 3.2: Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s suitability for life Water’s emergent properties o Cohesive o Temperature moderation o Expands when frozen o Versatile solvent Cohesion of water molecules o Cohesion- Hydrogen bonds hold water together Helps transport water up plants (against gravity) o Adhesion- attraction between different substances Ex: water and plant cell walls o Surface tension- measure of how difficult the surface of a liquid is to break Water has an unusually HIGH surface tension from hydrogen bonding to the air and hydrogen bonding to the water below. Moderation of temperature by water o Water absorbs heat from warm air and releases the heat into cooler air o Water can take in a lot of heat without a large change in its own temp. Temperature and heat o Kinetic energy- the energy of motion o Thermal energy- kinetic energy associated with random motion of atoms/molecules o Temperature- a measure of energy that represents the average kinetic energy o Heat- Thermal energy in transfer from one body of matter to another o Calorie (cal)- the amount of heat required to raise temp. of 1g of water by 1 degree C o Kilocalories (kcal)- FOOD CALORIES 1kcal=1,000cal o Joule (J)- unit of energy J=.239cal, or cal=4.184J Water’s high specific heat o Specific heat- the amount of heat that has to be absorbed/lost for 1g of the substance to change its temp. by 1 degree C Water specific heat= 1cal/g/degree C Water’s high specific heat allows it to resist temperature change (comes from hydrogen bonding) 8 Heat is absorbed when hydrogen bonds break Heat is released when hydrogen bonds form Evaporative Cooling o Evaporation- liquidgas o Heat of vaporization- the heat that a liquid has to absorb to turn 1g to gas o Evaporative cooling- as liquid evaporates, the remaining liquid cools Stabilizes temperatures in organisms & bodies of water Floating of Ice on liquid water o Ice floats b/c hydrogen bonds in water are more crystalline (ordered) which makes it less dense o Water’s greatest density @ 4 degrees C o Global warming (caused by CO 2other greenhouse gases) effects icy environments This really effects the animals that live there Water: the solvent of life o Solution- homogenous mixture of liquid substances o Solvent- dissolving agent When water is the solvent, it is an aqueous solution o Solute- substance that is dissolved o Water is versatile b/c it’s polar o Hydration shell- the sphere of water that surrounds each ion when an ionic compound is dissolved in water o Water can also dissolve nonionic polar compounds o Large polar molecules, like proteins, can also dissolve in water if they have polar and ionic regions Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances o Hydrophilic- substance that is “water-loving” o Hydrophobic- “water-hating” Oil is very hydrophobic b/c it has nonpolar bonds Hydrophobic molecules are major ingredients in cell membranes Solute Concentration in Aqueous Solution o Chemical reactions in organisms typically involve solutes dissolved in water o Molecular mass- the sum of all masses of all atoms in a molecule o Mole (mol)= 6.02x10 23molecules (Avogadro’s #) o Molarity- # of moles of solute/liter of solution Planets with water could be a sign of life on other planets (Mars have water) Concept 3.3: Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms A hydrogen atom can shift between two water molecules bonded together o Hydrogen ion- a proton that is transferred from a hydrogen atom while the electron stays behind o Hydroxide ion- molecule that lost its proton o Hydronium ion- molecule with an extra proton Water is in a state of dynamic equilibrium- molecules dissociate at the same rate they are reformed o [H ] and [OH ] equal in pure water o Acids and bases modify these when added pH scale measures acidity Acids and Bases o Acid- increases H in solution (less than 7 on pH scale) + o Base- reduces H in solution (greater than 7 on pH scale) 9 o STRONG acids and bases dissociate completely in water o WEAK acids and bases release and accept hydrogen ions reversibly (can still shift balance) The pH Scale o Aqueous solution @ 25 degrees C= product of H and OH is constant= [H ] + - -14 [OH ]=10 + + o pH- negative logarithm of [H ]= -log[H ] o neutral: pH=-(-7) =7 (most neutral biological fluids range from 6-8) + - Buffers- substances that minimize changes in [H ] and [OH ] o Most buffer solutions contain a weak acid and its corresponding base, which + combine reversibly with H ions Acidification: A threat to water quality o Burning fossil fuels threatens water quality (CO 2utput) 25% of that is absorbed by oceans CO 2issolved in sea water=carbonic acid=(whole process) ocean acidification Sea water acidifiesH ions + carbonate ions = bicarbonate Carbonate calcification (for coral reefs) 10 CHAPTER FOUR: CARBON AND THE MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF LIFE Introduction to chapter four: Carbon- The Backbone of Life Living organisms are primarily carbon-based Carbon can form large, complex, and diversified molecules Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, & other molecules Concept 4.1: Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Organic chemistry- study of compounds that contain carbon o Organic compounds can be simple or very large molecules Most contain hydrogen as well o Vitalism- organic compounds could only be produced by living organisms Disproved when organic compounds could be synthesized Organic molecules and the origin of life on Earth o Stanley Miller’s experiment demonstrated abiotic synthesis of organic compounds This synthetization could have been a stage in the origin of life o Biological thought has shifted from vitalism to mechanism (the view that physical and chemical views govern all natural phenomena) 4.2: Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms Electron configuration is key in an atom’s characteristics (covalent compatibility) o Determines kinds & # of bonds Formation of bonds with carbon o 4 valence electrons= possibility of 4 covalent bonds Large, complex molecules Tetrahedral shape- each carbon bonded to four other atoms Planar shape- two carbons are double-bonded Frequent bonding partners- hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen Molecular diversity arising from variations in carbon skeletons o Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules Vary in length and shape Length Branching Double-bond position Presence of rings Hydrocarbons- organic molecules consisting of only carbon & hydrogen o Common in fats o They undergo reactions that release large amounts of energy Isomer- compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties o Structural- different covalent arrangements o Cis-trans- different special arrangements o Enantiomers- mirror images of each other 11 Important in the pharmaceutical industry Concept 4.3: A few chemical groups are key to molecular functions The chemical groups most important in the process of life o Estradiol & testosterone = steroids w/ common carbon skeleton (in the form of 4 fused rings) Differ only in the chemical groups attached to the rings o Functional groups- components of organic molecules most commonly involved in chemical reactions # and arrangement= unique properties The seven functional groups are: Hydroxyl Carbonyl Carboxyl Amino Sulfhydryl Phosphate Methyl Know each shape in figure 4.9 in text book ATP: an important source of energy for cellular processes o ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- adenosine attached to a string of 3 phosphates Potential to react with water to release energy 12 CHAPTER FIVE: THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LARGE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES Introduction to chapter five: The Molecules of life 4 classes of large molecules o carbohydrates o lipids o proteins o nucleic acids Macromolecules- large, complex molecules o Unique properties from their orderly atom arrangement Concept 5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers Polymer- long molecule w/ many similar building blocks o The repeating subunits are called monomers o ¾ classes are polymers carbohydrates proteins nucleic acids The synthesis and breakdown of polymers o Enzymes- (specialized macromolecules) speed up chemical reactions o Dehydration reaction- 2 monomers bond together by losing a water molecule o Hydrolysis- polymer monomer by adding a water molecule The diversity of polymers o Polymers vary between cells/species o Huge variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers Concept 5.2: Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material Carbohydrates- sugars & polymers of sugars o Simplest carb. = monosaccharide (simple sugar) o Carbohydrate macromolecules= Polysaccharides (many sugar building blocks) Sugars o Monosaccharides- usually multiples of CH O 2 Glucose= most common Classified by: Location of carbonyl group # of carbons in carbon skeleton fuel for cells & raw material for building blocks o In water, many sugars form rings o Disaccharide- dehydration reaction joins 2 monosaccharides This covalent bond= glyosidic linkage Polysaccharides- polymers of sugar (storage and structure) o Shape and function determined by its sugar monomers & position of glyosidic linkages o Storage of Polysaccharides- 13 Starch- glucose monomers (storage of polysaccharides in plants) Plants store starch as granules within chloroplasts Simplest form is amylose Glycogen- storage of polysaccharides in animals Stored in liver & muscle cells Hydrolysisrelease sugar when demand goes up Structural Polysaccharides o Cellulose- tough wall of plant cells Polymer of glucose w/ different glyosidic linkages Differences based on 2 ring forms for glucose: alpha & beta Cellulose (beta)- straight & unbranched o Starch (alpha)- largely helical o Some hydroxyl groups on the monomers of cellulose can bond with hydroxyls of parallel cellulose molecules o Chitin, (structural polysaccharide) found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and in crustaceans Structural support for the cell walls of many fungi Also used in surgical thread Concept 5.3: Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules Lipids- the one class of large biological molecules that does not include true polymers o Mix poorly with water o Hydrophobic b/c they are made of hydrocarbons (nonpolar covalent bonds) Fats= glycerol + fatty acids o Glycerol- 3 carbon alcohol w/ hydroxyl group attached to each carbon o Fatty acid- carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton Saturated fatty acids- max # of hydrogen bonds w/ no double bonds (most animal fats) Unsaturated fatty acids- one or more double bonds (plants and fish) o Fats separate from each other b/c water is hydrogen bonded o Triacylglycerol (triglyceride)- the ester linkage that joins glycerol with the 3 fatty acids in a fat o Trans fat- created by hydrogenation, converting unsaturated fats to saturated by adding hydrogen, in vegetable oils with trans double bonds (contributes to cardiovascular disease) o Major function of fats=energy storage (also cushions vital organs) Phospholipids- two fatty acids & a phosphate attached to glycerol o The 2 fatty acids tails are hydrophobic o Phosphate group + attachments= hydrophilic head o In cells, membranes are phospholipid bilayers Steroids- lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton w/ 4 fused rings o Cholesterol- type of steroid; component in animal cell membranes and precursor for other steroids to be synthesized Concept 5.4: Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions Protein functions: o Enzymatic- speed up, or catalyze, chemical reactions 14 Ex- Digestive enzymes catalyze hydrolysis o Defensive- protect against disease Ex- Antibodies destroy viruses/bacteria o Storage- storage of amino acids Ex- Casein (amino acid for babies in milk) o Transport- transport substances Ex- Hemoglobin transfers oxygen to blood o Hormonal- Coordination of an organisms’ activities Ex- Insulin= glucose uptake o Receptor- response of cell to chemical stimuli Ex- Receptors in never cells receive signals of other nerve cells o Contractile/Motor- movement Ex- actin and myosin= muscle contractions o Structural- support Ex- Keratin in hair; collagen/elastin= connective tissue Polypeptide- unbranched polymers built from the 20 amino acids Protein- functional molecule w/ one or more polypeptides Amino acid monomer o Amino acids- organic molecules w/ amino & carboxyl groups Differ in properties b/c R group Peptide bonds- covalent bonds that link amino acids 4 Levels of protein structure- o Primary- unique sequence of amino acids o Secondary- coils and folds in polypeptide chain Hydrogen bonds between polypeptide backbone Alpha helix or beta pleated sheet o Tertiary- interactions among R groups Hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, & van der Waals interactions Disulfide bridges- reinforce protein’s structure as a strong covalent bond o Quaternary- multiple polypeptide chains Collagen & hemoglobin Sickle-cell Disease- single amino acid substitution in hemoglobin (inherited blood disorder) Denatured- a protein that loses its structure (through pH, concentration, temp, etc.) Chaperonins- protein molecules assisting with proper folding of other proteins Alzheimer’s and mad cow disease= misfolded proteins X-ray crystallography- used to determine a protein’s structure Concept 5.5: Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express heredity information Gene- amino acid sequence programmed by unit of inheritance Nucleic acid- made of polymers called polynucleotides- (made of monomers called nucleotides) Nucleotide= nitrogenous base + pentose sugar + one or more phosphate groups Phosphodiester linkages- join adjacent nucleotides Nitrogenous bases: Pyrimidines- single ring (C, T, U) Purines- double ring (A, G) 15 o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)- provides directions for its own replication; directs synthesis of messenger RNA controls protein synthesis (whole process= gene expression) Double helix in shape Antiparallel- runs in a 5’ to 3’ direction Deoxyribose- sugar in DNA o Ribonucleic acid (RNA)- aids in protein synthesis Single stranded Base pairs joined by hydrogen bonds Ribose- sugar in RNA o Transcription (DNA copied in mRNA by polymerase)= synthesis of mRNA mRNA moves into cytoplasm Translation [decoded by ribosome= specific amino acid chain (polypeptide)]= Synthesis of protein ^Summary: DNARNAprotein o Adenine pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA; cytosine pairs with guanine Concept 5.6: Genomics and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and applications First DNA sequencing techniques developed in the 1970’s The Human Genome Project- sequencing the entire human genome o Bioinformatics o Genomics- analyzing large sets of genes o Proteomics- analyzing large sets of proteins Linear sequences of DNA are passed from parent to offspring Memorize slides 94-97 of the power point for chapter 5 16 CHAPTER SIX: A TOUR OF THE CELL- ONLY 6.1 WILL BE ON EXAM Introduction to chapter six: The Fundamental Units of Life All organisms are made of cells (simplest collection of live matter) All cells descend from previous cells Concept 6.1: Biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry to study cells Microscopy o Light microscope (LM)- visible light passes through specimen then through glass lense Lenses bend light which magnifies the image o Parameters of microscopy: Magnification- real size v. image size Resolution- clarity Contrast- difference in brightness Review figure 6.2 Organelles- membrane-enclosed structures in eukaryotic cells Know figure 6.3! o Brightfield o Phase-contrast o Differential-interference-contrast o Fluorescence o Confocal o Deconvolution o Super-resolution o Scanning electron microscopy Focuses a beam of electrons onto specimen’s surface (3D image) o Transmission electron microscopy Focus beam of electrons through a specimen to study internal structures of cells Cell Fractionation- takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another Centrifuge 17
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