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BIOM 360 Study Guide for Exam 1

by: Bronwyn

BIOM 360 Study Guide for Exam 1 BIOM 360-001

Marketplace > Montana State University > Microbiology > BIOM 360-001 > BIOM 360 Study Guide for Exam 1

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About this Document

Study guide of definitions and characteristics from unit 1 with Dr. Boyd.
General Microbiology
Seth Walk
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bronwyn on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOM 360-001 at Montana State University taught by Seth Walk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Montana State University.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Define the following ● Assimilatory ● Dissimilatory ● Oxidant ● Reductant ● Life ● Macroelements ● Micronutrients ● Facilitated diffusion ● Active transport ● Symport ● ABC type translocation ● Acidophile ● Neutrophile ● Alkaliphile ● Psychrophile ● Mesophile ● Thermophile ● Hyperthermophile ● Aerobe ● Anaerobe ● Microaerophile ● Aerotolerant ● Barophilic ● Biofilms ● Defined media ● Complex media ● Selective media ● Differential media ● Doubling time ● Catabolic ● Anabolic ● Glycolysis (glycolytic pathways) ● TCA cycle ● Calvin cycle ● Biogeochemical cycling ● Carbon cycle ● Nitrogen cycle ● Phosphorus cycle ● Sulfur cycle List the characteristics of the following ● Bacteria Cell ● Gram Positive Cell ● Gram Negative Cell ● Archaea Cell ● Eukaryotic Cell ● Virus Define the following ● Assimilatory: ​-- ● Dissimilatory: ​-- ● Oxidant: ​is the one reduced; the most oxidized molecule is the one with the most oxygen bonds ● Reductant: ​is the one oxidized; the most reduced molecule is the one with the most hydrogen bonds ● Life: ​characteristics of objects that have signaling and self-sustaining processes ● Macroelements: ​needed in large amounts; S, C, H, N, O, P, Ca, K, Fe, Mg ● Micronutrients: ​needed in trace amounts for enzyme activation; Mn, Zn, Co, Mo, Ni, Cu ● Facilitated diffusio​ -- ● Active transport: ​-- ● Symport: ​ - ● ABC type translocation: ​ - ● Acidophile: ​survives in low pH; pH 0 - pH 5.5 ● Neutrophile: ​survives in a pH around neutral; pH 5.5 - pH 8 ● Alkaliphile: ​survives in high pH; pH 8 - pH 11.5 o​ o​ ● Psychrophile: ​survives in low temperatures; 0​ C - 20​ C ● Mesophile: ​survives in moderate temperatures; 20​ C - 45​ C o​ o​ ● Thermophile: ​survives in high temperatures; 55​ C - 85​ C ● Hyperthermophile: ​survive in extreme high temperatures; 85​ C - 113​ C ● Aerobe: ​needs oxygen ● Anaerobe: ​doesn’t want oxygen ● Microaerophile: ​lives in very low levels of oxygen ● Aerotolerant: ​can live with or without oxygen ● Barophilic: ​needs high pressure ● Biofilms: ​mostly sessile mature organisms that attaches to any surface and often forms a cell to cell communication system ● Defined media: ​growth media where everything included is known as well as the concentration ● Complex media: g ​ rowth media where concentrations aren’t known ● Selective media: ​favors growth of some organisms and inhibits growth of others ● Differential media: ​distinguishes between types of cells by morphology ● Doubling time: ​time it takes for population to double in size; can only be calculated in exponential phase; generation time = time / generation #; g=t/n ● Catabolic: b​ reaking down molecules to generate energy; exergonic ● Anabolic: ​using energy to build complex molecules; endergonic ● Glycolysis (glycolytic pathways): b ​ reaking down glucose to pyruvate; EM pathway - 1 glucose to 2 pyruvate; ED - 1 glucose to 2 pyruvate, balances cofactor pools; pentose-phosphate pathway - occurs with EM or ED pathways ● TCA cycle: ​citric acid cycle; produces carbon skeletons for biosynthesis; 1 acetyl-CoA gives 1 CO​ 2 ● Calvin cycle: ​dark reaction of photosynthesis; 3 ATP and 1 NADPH to fix 1 CO​ 2 ● Biogeochemical cycling: m ​ icrobes on earth have changed and linked the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere through nutrient cycling ● Carbon cycle: ​organic C is oxidized to CO​ ; in2​ganic C is reduced to CH​ ; turni4​ organic C to inorganic = mineralization; turning inorganic to organic = assimilation; C sources exceed sinks +​ +​ -​ -​ -​ +​ ● Nitrogen cycle: ​N​ 2​NH​ → o4​anic N; NH​ → NO​ , 4​​ → NO​2​ NH​ 2​N​ 3​ 4​ 2 ● Phosphorus cycle: ​P is growth limiting factor ● Sulfur cycle: ​SO​ 4​-either used for biosynthesis (assimilatory) or as terminal e​ acceptor (dissimilatory) List characteristics of the following ● Bacteria Cell: ​cell envelope with plasma membrane and cell wall; gram + or gram - cells; outside the cell wall glycocalyx capsules, slime layer, and s layers; cytoplasm holds the cytoskeleton, ribosomes, and plasmids; bilayer lipid membrane ● Gram Positive Cell: ​thick peptidoglycan; small periplasmic space; few proteins; excretes exoenzymes ● Gram Negative Cell: ​little peptidoglycan; has another membrane; large periplasmic space; many proteins; has liptopolysaccharide in outer membrane ● Archaea Cell: ​similar mechanisms to eukaryotes, common genes with bacteria; unique rRNA, lipids, and metabolisms; may or may not have S layer, cell wall, or external protein sheath; has no peptidoglycan; either monolayer or bilayer lipid membrane; has a nucleoid region and ribosomes ● Eukaryotic Cell: ​has membrane bound nuclei and organelles; lipid bilayers with ester linkages; ER; golgi apparatus; lysosomes; ribosomes; mitochondria - the powerhouse of the cell; chloroplasts ● Virus: ​at least one RNA/DNA molecule in a protein coat; cannot replicate independently; can exist extracellularly; infects all cells; cause of disease; has to cultivate in living host to replicate


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