ANTH 3000 Midterm 1 Study Guide
ANTH 3000 Midterm 1 Study Guide ANTH 3000
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison McBride on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 3000 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Michelle Sauther in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see Primate Behavior in Anthropology at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Primate Behavior Study Guide Strepsirrhini Traits that define strepsirrhines Primitive: Rhinarium and reflective tapetum Derived: Tooth comb (except ayeaye), post orbital bar, and grooming claw Family: Lorisidae Nocturnal adaptations Greater emphasis on hearing Tendency toward foraging alone 2 main groups: African Potto and Asian Loris African Potto Lives in forested areas of Africa Eats fruit and insects Vestigial index finger Neck spines (elongated spinus processes) Noxious saliva. Lick babies to make them less appetizing Asian Loris 2 types: Slow Loris and Slender Loris African Galagos (bush babies) Specialized locomotion: vertical clinging and leaping Socially maintained through calls and olfaction Urine washing to leave scent trail Family: Lepilemuridae Nocturnal Vertical clinging and leaping Folivorous (the only nocturnal, folivorous primate) Genus: Lepilemur Family: Daubentoniidae (Ayeaye) Genus: Daubenton One living species, since people keep killing them for being “evil” Bald white spots give the appearance of 6 eyes Live in woodpecker niche Elongated finger with ballandsocket joint Family: Cheirogaleidae (pygmy mouse lemurs) Convergence with galagos due to similar niche occupation Social sleeping Some hibernate, using fat stores in their tails Family: Lemuridae Genera: Hapalemur (example: bamboo lemurs) Found only in bamboo forests of Madagascar Smallest dinural lemurs Vertical clinging and leaping Multimale multifemale social organization Able to eat poisonous bamboo Upper limbs smaller than hind limbs Genera: Varecia (Rough lemurs) Found only in tops of rainforest Large size (+ 9lbs) Multiple births: twins and triplets Male infant care Frugivorous, plant pollinators Suspensory behavior Multimale multifemale social groups Genus: Lemur (ring tailed lemurs) Large multimale multifemale groups Semiterrestrial Female dominance Estrus one day a year Family: Indriidae Large (716lbs) Arboreal Vertical clinging and leaping Folivorous Very short tails Monogamous Very territorial Found in dry forests and rain forests Haplorhini Defining traits Larger brain, complete stereoscopic vision, no rhinarium, reduced olfaction, trend toward larger body size, complete (trichromatic) color vision Tarsiers Primitive traits: Urine marking, emphasis on olfaction, grooming claw, nocturnal Derived traits: no tapetum, no rhinarium, no toothcomb Ancestor was probably dinural, since the reflective tapetum was lost. In order to reoccupy the nocturnal niche, eyes had to be larger 6 month gestation 3 months is expected for their size Elongated tarsal Sticky toe pads Vertical clinging and leaping Eyes larger than brain, but no tapetum Faunivorous Beaklike incisors Almost 360 head turn like owls Platyrrhini (New world monkeys) Family: Cebidae (Squirrel monkey) 25100 individuals per group (multimale multifemale) Large brain weight to body weight, making birth difficult Omnivorous Male hormonal fattening Family: Atelidae Large body (1233lbs) Arboreal Prehensile tail Eat unripe fruit Suspensory locomotion Multimale multifemale groups, or one male many female Family: Calitrichidae (marmosets and tamarins) Eat insects and gum Clawlike nails Marmosets have precumbant incisors Twinning Scent marking Tamarins do food sharing and communal care Family: Aotidae (night monkey) No tapetum Big, flat incisors for fruit Monogamous Male infant care Family groups where children leave at maturity Singletons or twins Family: Pithiciidae (Saki and Uakari) Extreme variation in appearance Extensive seed and nut feeding Unripe fruit Multimale multifemale groups Nutcracker jaws Catarhini (Old world monkeys) Family: Cercopithecinae Cheek pouch for food storage. Higher ranking individuals steal food out of lesser’s cheek pouches Break down food in mouth Extreme sexual dimorphism Sexual swelling Family: Colobinae Folivorous (leaves) Sacculated stomachs Alkaline stomachs Bacterial helpers Primarily arboreal Apes Apes+Human anatomy reflects climbing and suspensory adaptations Complete brachiation Broad pelvis allows strong muscle attachments and leg movement for climbing Wide, flat scapula on back to give wider motion range for arms Shorter spinal column allows more stability Family: Hominidae (African apes) Genus: Gorilla 2 Species: western and eastern Males have sagittal crest Extreme sexual dimorphism Males have silver back coloration Locomotion: knuckle walking, climbing, arboreal and semiterrestrial Females choose which male to live and mate with Females produce surviving offspring every 8 years 8 ½ month gestation period Genus: Pan (Chimpanzees and Bonobos) Chimpanzees Omnivorous, emphasis on fruit Show age in their faces Males are dominant in multimale multifemale structure Sexual swelling, offspring every 56 years. Infants dependent for up to 8 years 8 ½ month gestation Knuckle walking and climbing. Arboreal but mostly terrestrial Bonobos Locomotion, diet, and reproduction same as chimpanzees Females dominant in group Use hetero and homo sexual behavior to diffuse aggression Longer arms and legs than chimpanzees Similar proportions to Lucy More often bipedal than other primates Asian Apes Family: Hylobatidae (gibbons and siamangs) Diet: ripe fruit and protein from leaves No sexual dimorphism in size, but some are dichromatic Locomotion: Exclusively arboreal, brachiation, suspensory movement Highly territorial, sing duets to claim property Monogamous family groups with dependent young Females have infants every 45 years Family: Hominidae Genus: Pongo Orangutan Diet: frugavorous Flat cusps on dentition for fruit eating Sometimes drink standing water from trees Individual facial variation Sexual dimorphism: Planges on male face Locomotion: quadromanous. Bridging: hold with hand and foot, grab other branch, move over Social organization: mix of types, but often solidarity Females prefer to mate with fully adult males but forced mating from younger males can occur
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