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Unit 5 Study Guide

by: -Mathew Notetaker

Unit 5 Study Guide PSB3002

-Mathew Notetaker

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About this Document

This Unit focuses on Psychopharmacology and how artificial drugs influence the functioning of the body.
Physiological Psychology
David Smith
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by -Mathew Notetaker on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSB3002 at University of Florida taught by David Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychology Main at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Unit 5 PsychoPharmacology: Chapter 4 Pssychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and on behavior. Drug Effects: Changes we can observe in an animal’s physiology or behavior Sites of Action: Points at which molecules of drugs interact with molecules of the body. Principles of Psychopharmacology ● Pharmacokinetics: The process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized and excreted. Routes of Administration ● Intravenous (IV) Injection: Injection directly into a vein. This is the fastest route. Blood reaches brain within seconds ○ However this form of administration requires more skill and care ● Intraperitoneal Injection (IP): Fast, but slower than IV. Injected via abdominal wall into peritoneal cavity, the space that surrounds the stomach, intestines, liver, and other abdominal organs ● Intramuscular Injection(IM): Injection made directly into a large muscle, such as upper thigh, arm, or buttocks. ● Subcutaneous Injection (SC): Inject right below the skin surface. Useful for only a small amount of a drug, large amounts painful. ○ If very slow/prolonged absorption desired, drug can be placed into pellet form, or a sealed silicone rubber capsule and implanted beneath the skin. ● Oral Administration: Most common for humans, very difficult for animals. Some can’t be administered orally, will be destroyed by stomach acid, or digestive enzymes, or not absorbed from digestive system into bloodstream. Ex. Insulin a Peptide hormone, must be injected ● Sublingual Administration: Can be accomplished by placing drugs beneath the tongue. Absorbed into bloodstream by capillaries that supply mucuous membrane that lines the mouth. ● Intrarectal Administration: Medication admitted through bottom, not used often in lab animals. Used in humans when medication may upset a persons stomach ● Inhalation: Route from Lungs to Brain Very Fast ● Topical Administration: Drugs absorbed directly through the skin. ● Intracerebral Administration: Drug injected directly into the brain ● Intracereboventricular administration: injection into ventricles to achieve widespread distribution through the brain. Not used often, used to administer different kinds of antibiotics Entry of Drugs Into the Brain ● Most important factor deterimining rate at which a drug in the bloodstream reaches sites in the brain is lipid solubility. ● Blood Brain Barrier, is a barrier only for water soluble molecules. Molecules that are soluble pass through cells that line the capillaries in the CNS, rapidly spread through the brain. ○ Ex. Diacetylmorphine (heroin) is more lipid soluble than morphine. Faster acting than morphine. Drug effects are the same but rapid arrival of heroin in the brain produces a rush that people become addicted to. ● Inactivation and Excretion: Many are deactivated by enzymes, all are eventually excreted, by the kidneys. ● Liver helps in deactivation, as does brain. Blood has some deactivating enzymes too ● What also helps is having brain enzymes change drugs into a form that is still usable. Makes drug effects last longer Drug Effectiveness:\ ● Dose response curve: The Best way to measure the effectiveness of a drug. ○ Subjects usually given are given various doses of a drug, usually defined as milligrams of drug per kilogram of a subjects body weight, effects are plotted. ○ Increase in effects occur until Point of Maximum Effect is reached. ● Many Drugs Have More than One Effect ○ Opiates like morphine and codeine cause reduced sensitivity to pain (analgesia), but they also depress activity in medulla, controls heart rate ○ Physicians wan to prescribe doses enough to produce analgesia and but not large enough to effect heart rate and respiration ● Therapeutic Index: The ratio between the dose that produces the desired effect in a drug and the dose that produces toxic affects. Barbiturates have low TIs (2 or 3), Valium a tranquilizer has one of 100. ● Effects of Repeated Administration Placebo Effects ● Drugs​: Exogenous chemicals that are not necessary for normal cellular function that significantly alter the function of cells when taken in relatively low doses. ● Principles of Psychopharmacology: ○ The Fate of a drug as it is absorbed into the body, circulates in the body, and reaches site of action


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