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COMM200- Exam 1 Study Guide

by: zaria brooks

COMM200- Exam 1 Study Guide 200S

Marketplace > Old Dominion University > Arts and Humanities > 200S > COMM200 Exam 1 Study Guide
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Chapters 1-6
Introduction to Human Communication
Carla Harrell
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by zaria brooks on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 200S at Old Dominion University taught by Carla Harrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Communication in Arts and Humanities at Old Dominion University.

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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 1 and Week 1 What are the benefits of studying communication?  Personal life - Promotes personal health - Develop personal identities by interacting with others  Personal relationships - Communication--- verbal & nonverbal face to face or mediated--- is the primary way that we connect w/ others - Effective communication: building communication w/ others by revealing private identities, asking ?’s, working out problems, listening, remembering shared history, and making plans for the future - Ex: couples listen mindfully, adapt to each other, & manage conflict constructively in order to maintain in a healthy relationship  Professional life - Talking & listening are central to effectiveness - Specialists need to be able to listen carefully to their clients and customers in order to understand their needs and goals.  Civic life - Communication skills are vital to the health of our society - We need to listen critically to proposals about goals for our communities, where we work, & organizations which we depend for services - Working w/ others--- formally & informally, in small & large groups--- to identify needs of communities & society, then to find ways of meeting those needs - Important for effective interaction in an era of globalization, where we have encounters w/ people of different races, genders, sexual orientation, & traditions What role do skills, choices, goals, ethics play in communicating? Know Devito's postulates of Communication Transaction- involves multiple people (from receiver to source) Inevitable (you communicate whether you know it or not) Irreversible- once you send msg out, you can’t take it back it’s out there forever Package of signals- everything packaged into one Involves content (words) & relationship dimension (who are we sending msg to) depending on Process of adjustments- change the way you talk to someone (i.e talk to an employer differently than you would you’re friend bc you’re trying to get a job) What is the difference between content vs. relationship dimension of communication? - Content: contains the literal message - Relationship dimension of communication: expresses the relationship between communicators What are the components of the communication process (source, channel, receiver, encoding, decoding, noise, feedback, etc.) and how do these components work within the communication process? 1. The first step the sender is faced with involves the encoding process. In order to convey meaning, the sender must begin encoding (information into a message in the form of symbols that represent ideas or concepts.) Symbols (languages, words, or gestures) are used to encode ideas into messages that others can understand. 2. To begin transmitting the message, the sender uses some kind of channel (also called a medium). Common channels include the telephone and a variety of written forms such as memos, letters, and reports. The effectiveness of the various channels fluctuates depending on the characteristics of the communication. 3. After the appropriate channel or channels are selected, the message enters the decoding stage of the communication process. Decoding is conducted by the receiver. Once the message is received and examined, the stimulus is sent to the brain for interpreting, in order to assign some type of meaning to it. The receiver begins to interpret the symbols sent by the sender, translating the message to their own set of experiences in order to make the symbols meaningful. 4. Feedback is the final link in the chain of the communication process. After receiving a message, the receiver responds in some way and signals that response to the sender. Without feedback, the sender cannot confirm that the receiver has interpreted the message correctly. - What is the difference between linear and transactional model of communication? linear: one-way process in which one person acts on another person - transactional: exchange of messages between sender and receiver where each take turns to send or receive messages Chapter 2 What are research methodologies? - Quantitative: statistics, surveys, & experiments used to gather quantifiable data - Qualitative: textual analysis & ethnography, used to understand the character of experience, particularly how people perceive and make sense of communication Be able to recognize differences among quantitative, qualitative, and critical approaches. What is triangulation? - Studying phenomena in multiple ways Chapter 3 What is the Expectancy Violation Theory? - What happens when our expectations are violated? What factors affect differences in perception? - Depends on which aspects of it we attend to and how we organize & interpret what we notice - 3 interrelated processes: selection, organization, & interpretation Know the process of perception - selecting, organizing and interpreting Know the 4 schemata: prototype, personal construct, stereotype, script - What are inferences, fact, judgment? How do they affect communication? inferences: deduction that goes beyond what you know/ assume to be a fact - Judgement: belief/ opinion based on observations, feelings, assumptions/ other phenomena that are not facts - Fact: based on observation/ proof Chapter 6 What is the difference between listening vs. hearing? - Listening: more complex than hearing - Hearing: physiological activity that occurs when sound waves hit functioning eardrums  Know effective listening practices  Be mindful  Control obstacles  Ask ?’s  Use aids to recall  Organize info Know faulty listening practices  Pseudolistening  monopolizing What are gender tendencies when it comes to listening? - Masculine- “report talk”, direct w/ requests, indirect when going against masculine code - Feminine- rapport (building a relationship) talk, indirect w/ requests Chapter 4 What are the features of language? - Verbal communication - Arbitrary - Ambiguous - Abstract What are the symbolic abilities of language? (pg. 70)  Express yourself w/o words What is a speech community?  a group of people sharing a common language or dialect. What is the Sapir Whorf Hypothesis? - that the structure of a language determines a native speaker's perception and categorization of experience. What does Burke assert about language? - Burke's concept of identification needs to be seen within the context of his understanding of language as symbolic action. What is semantic ambiguity and causes of miscommunication (equivocal words, euphemism, relative, abstract)? - semantic ambiguity: contain a word (or words) with multiple meanings. Know the linguistic theories - What are gender differences and tendencies with regard to language? Masculine- “report talk”, direct w/ requests, indirect when going against masculine code - Feminine- rapport (building a relationship) talk, indirect w/ requests What constitutes responsible and ethical use of language? - Ethical code Chapter 5 What is the difference between Emotional Leakage and Self-Monitoring? Emotional leakage: emotional information that we pass on to others through our body language Self- monitoring: personality trait that refers to an ability to regulate behavior to accommodate  social situations What are the 5 Functions of nonverbal communication? - reinforcement, contradiction, substitution, accentuation, and regulation. What is the Expectancy Violation Theory? - theory of communication that analyzes how individuals respond to unanticipated  violations of social norms and expectation Know the types of nonverbal communication: kinesics, haptics, appearance, artifacts, vocalist/paralanguage, chronemics, proxemics, etc. What does Mehrabian's Immediacy Principle assert? - Immediacy relates to approach and avoidance behaviors and can be thought of as the perceived distance between people


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