Bio Study Guide Test 2
Bio Study Guide Test 2 1005
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Wiggs on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1005 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by MV lipscomb in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Biology Study Guide T est 2 Energy and Metabolism: All energy comes from the sun(heat) in living systems Potential Energy: Stored energy, chemical energy in food, energy stored in molecular bonds (C-C bonds) Ex: A soccer ball sitting at the top of a hill Kinetic Energy: motion, conversion of potential energy into work Ex: A person walking 1 Law of Thermodynamics: law of conservation of energy - Energy is not lost, but converted into another form - Ex: Plants convert energy from the sunlight into energy stored in glucose molecules 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: the amount of useful energy decreases with every conversion entropy: measure of disorder Chemical Reactions: - A process that forms and breaks chemical bonds that hold atoms together - Electrons interact in chemical bonds - Reactants Products - All chemical reactions= METABOLISM Metabolic Pathways: - Enzymes are usually involved high salt concentration, acidic environment, and high temperatures can cause an enzyme to denature - A series of chemical reactions that yields a final product - Occurs in MANY steps o Two types of reactions Anabolic: synthesis pathways, monomers ploymers, Require energy to combine monomers into polymers Usually endergonic + delta G value Catabolic: releases energy, breakdown pathways Usually exergonic - delta G Value o ANABOLISM + CATABOLISM = METABOLSIM o Gibbs Free Energy: G=H-TS Energy: the ability to do work G: energy available to do work H: Enthalpy(energy in a molecule’s chemical bonds) T: Absolute Temperature (degrees C +273) S: Entropy(unavailable energy) Delta G= change in free energy Reactions: - Exergonic: energy out o Spontaneous- rust o Require activation energy to get going/proceed - Endergonic: energy in o Delta G is positive o Need a continuous input of energy throughout entire reaction, even after activation energy is achieved/ much more energy Energy from Organic Molecules part 1 ATP: small, relatively simple molecule, bonds contain the potential for a quick burst of energy that can be harnessed to perform cellular work - Used to power the majority of energy-requiring cellular reactions - Broken down: removal of its terminal phosphate group - @ heart of ATP is AMP o 2 phosphate groups=ADP 3 phosphate groups= ATP Release of a phosphate group from ATP is called, hydrolysis - energy currency of the cell = ATP - phosphate bonds are unstable - SHORT TERM energy storage Glycolysis: 1 step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for the cell sugar splitting - Takes place in the cytoplasm - Long term storage: glucose - Net Products: 2 ATP 2 NADH - 2 Pyruvate is end product, which is used in next step - during glycolysis high energy electrons and a proton (H+) are attached to NAD+ and it becomes NADH Aerobic Respiration: - If oxygen is present Anaerobic Respiration - If oxygen is absent purpose: regenerate NAD+ - Inorganic molecule is final electron acceptor Lactic Acid Fermentation: - Used by animals and some bacteria - Occurs routinely in mammalian red blood cells and in skeletal muscles that have insufficient oxygen supply Chemical reaction of lactic acid fermentation: Pyruvic acid + NADH > lactic acid + NAD+ The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction is lactate dehydrogenase Alcohol fermentation is another familiar fermentation process which produces ethanol - Pyruvic acid broken down into carbon dioxide and acetaldehyde, which is then converted to ethanol Pyruvate Oxidation Connects Glycolysis to the CAC Pyrivate Photosynthesis Hypothesis for metabolism: 1. ABILITY TO STORE ENERGY IN ATP 2. EVOLUTION OF GLYCOLYSIS 3. ANAEROBIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS (USING H2S) 4. USE OF H20 IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS 5. EVOLUTION OF NITROGEN FIXATION 6. EVOLUTION OF AEROBIB RESPIRATION ENERGY YIELDS OF AEROBIC RESPIRATION Net Glycolysis Pyruvate Citric Acid Oxidative Products Oxidation Cycle Phosphorylat ion #ATP 2 0 2 28 #NADH 2 2 6 0 #FADH2 0 0 2 0 #CO2 0 2 4 0 PRODUCT 2 2 Acetyl- 6 NADH & 10 NAD+ USED IN PYRUVATE CoA 2 FADH2 AND 2 FAD NECT STEP VERSATILITY OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION Carbohydrates, some amino acids, Glycerol Glycolysis Fatty acids, some amino acids Pyruvate Oxidation Some amino acids Citric Acid Cycle Nothing Oxidative Phosphorylation Light Dependent Reactions - Occurs in the thylakoid membranes - Start with a beam of light hitting the photosynthetic pigments and exciting electrons - Produces ATP and NADPH1 which are used in the light independent reactions Light Independent reactions (the Calvin Cycle) - Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast - Uses the ATP and NADPH from the light reactions to create sugars, like glucose - G3P molecules are what glucose is made from Pigments of photosynthesis - The primary role of pigments is to capture/absorb energy from light waves to drive the production of ATP in the light dependent reactions Chlorophyll a - MIAN pigment in plants and absorbs violet-blue and red light - Reflects GREEN and yellow (why plant leaves appear green) Chlorophyll b - Absorbs the same colors as chlorophyll a (violet-blue and red light), but not as efficiently - Energy is transferred to chlorophyll a - Accessory pigment, not directly involved in photosynthesis Photosystem 2 occurs first, followed by photosystem 1 Photosystem 2: - Splits water into protons and oxygen - The protons are used for the proton gradient that drive ATP production Photosystem 1: st - Discovered 1 - Accepts electrons from photosystem 2 - Passes electrons to convert NADP+ to NADPH
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