EXAM 1 Study Guide
EXAM 1 Study Guide CL 222
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Kubisztal on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CL 222 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kirk Summers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
STUDY GUIDE TEST 1 Some important points: 1. Pay close attention to what the question is asking. Sometimes answers contain correct information, but for another question. 2. Some questions ask for you to eliminate one answer that is not true. Watch for those. 3. Bring a pencil, because you will be taking these tests on Scantrons. 4. You cannot have your notes open during the test, nor can you use your phone or other electronic device. 5. This study guide only touches on highlights and is not a comprehensive guide to the test. You are responsible for anything that was said in class, anything in the relevant chapters you are supposed to read, and all the material in Blackboard Learn. 6. We don’t want you to write to us to answer all these questions for you; you have the answers from all the resources just mentioned, so dig for them if you don’t know. 7. You should know the attributes of all the gods covered so far. Here are some guidelines to help you: Introduction to Myth a. Know the Timetable of Myth as it appears in your book. I like to give you a list and ask you which of these events/people came first or last. 1500 BC: Greeks begin to dominate Aegean. 753 BC: Founding of Rome. 44 BC: Julius Caesar is assassinated. 4 BC: Birth of Jesus. b. Know Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes and Joseph Campbell’s idea of the hero as ego confronting the psyche. Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes the existence of patterns of thoughts in humans that can be detected through dreams. c. What are epithets? Could you identify one? An adjective describing a particular function of a deity (God). EX: Artermis – “Huntress” d. I usually ask several questions about the significance of anthropomorphism in Greek myth. Recall the Hebrew story of the golden calf. Anthropomorphism: the attribution of human characteristics or behavior to a god, animal, or objects. e. What is the difference between traditional and artificial myth? Traditional: Orally shared myths. Artificial: Myths written on some form of print. f. Know the various skeptical objections raised in antiquity about GrecoRoman myths. Lucretius complaints that the myths were born out of human ignorance. g. Review the story of Paul and Barnabas at Lystra. The people of Lystra showed their faith in the ancient myths by trying to carry out a sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas, calling Barnabas Zeus and Paul the speaker. Creation a. Read the Ovid creation story in Blackboard Learn. Pay attention to the various contributions made to human nature (that is, human ancestry was a mixed bag of good and bad, evil and idyllic behavior). What were the Four Ages? Please note the importance of violating boundaries for the decline of human nature. Does Ovid prefer philosophy or mythology as a means to explain human nature? Roman account of creation Ovid wanted to expose philosophy and reason as inferior to the mythic imagination. MYTH >PHILOSOPHY Metamorphosis: the only thing you can count on happening is change. His story parallels the Book of Genesis/Bible Prometheus created mankind 4 Ages of Mankind: i Golden Age = Garden of Eden ii Silver Age = Humans began to work iii Bronze Age = Humans became more aggressive in their actions. iv Iron Age = Time of complete madness and sin b. Remember the four principles of the Greek worldview that I drew out of Hesiod’s creation story. For example, what is the significance of Aphrodite and the Furies both being born from the severed genitalia of Ouranos? The creation of the Gods leads to Paradoxes. Aphrodite represents beauty and the furies represent ugliness. There are connections and gray areas in the world. c. What is Pandora’s box? Why is she called a magical woman? Zeus creates Pandora as a punishment to Prometheus from the Vulcan and stealing fire. Hephaestus creates Pandora. Pandora is a woman of “all gifts”, her charms are distracting and destructive to anyone who crosses her path. Pandora’s box: When Zeus creates her, he gives her a box and tells Pandora not to open it. Of course she opens it and sprites are released (evil characteristics that Pandora does not have). Considered to be a woman’s womb. d. We emphasized the importance of metis for gaining power and maintaining. How does the David and Goliath story fit into that? Metis = intelligence David & Goliath i Goliath is a giant who would protest that someone from David’s village should fight him. Eventually David volunteers to fight the giant and he wins by using metis (intelligence). e. How does knowledge alienate human beings from the gods? What is the significance of fire in this regard? Intelligence keeps humans from threatening the Gods’ power. The Gods remain in power through the intelligence. Fire i Fire is viewed as a gateway to intelligence. When Prometheus stole the fire, Zeus was threatened so he took the fire back and forever punished Prometheus. f. Who was Mnemosyne? Mnemosyne is memory. She and Zeus have sex and create Muses. i 9 total muses ii each of nine goddesses, the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, who preside over the arts and sciences. g. Know the meaning of the roots –machy and –gony. Machy: Battle Gony: Production, creation, orgin h. What did Prometheus advise Kronos and Zeus before the Titanomachy? Prometheus told Zeus that he could defeat the titans if he uses intelligence. i. Who was Epimetheus? Brother of Prometheus i Titan Epimetheus = afterthought Prometheus = forethought j. Who is Eros? the Greek god of love, son of Aphrodite and either Ares or Hermes. Zeus and Hera a. How was Zeus worshiped in Arcadia (Mt. Lycaeus), Crete, and Olympia? Arcadia/Lycean i “wolf” ii Revengeful Crete i “Birthplace” of Zeus Olympia i Worshiped via the Olympic games ii Key place of worship b. Know how Zeus oversees the rules of hospitality, supplication, and the making of oaths. Xenios – protects the relationship between host and guest. Guarantor of Oaths – People take oaths in the presence of Zeus and he makes sure those oaths are kept true. Protector of Suppliants c. What is the relationship between Zeus and the Fates? What does the name Moirai mean? Who were the three Fates and what did they do? Moirai (Greek) = allotment The fates determined your life allotment/lifespan 3 Fates (women) i Clotho: spinner of thread of life ii Lachesis: measures thread of life iii Atropos: cuts thread of life When a person is born, they are given a thread to represent their allotment of life. d. Know the story of Zeus and the two jars as told by Achilles to Priam. Why did Priam go to Achilles’ tent in the first place? Why did Achilles tell Priam that story? Story: i Achilles defeats the Trojan, Hector. After the fight, Achilles drags Hector’s body through the city. Priam, Hector’s father, is very upset and wants to give Hector a proper burial. ii Priam sneaks into Achilles’ camp and Achilles tells Priam the story of the two jars. 1 Zeus reaches into two jars and places the contents in a human. Jar A has sorrows and Jar B has blessings. Zeus gives everyone sorrows, sometimes they may get sorrows and blessings, but they never get just blessings. “Everyone needs sorrows” Achilles e. Know Cleanthes’ view of Zeus as a god who directs creation by permeating it like a soul. Hymn in textbook on pages 2829. f. Remember that Zeus introduces order into the world, especially by producing children who oversee certain orderly processes and patterns. But also note that with Hera he produced three children who were disorderly. Who were they? Hebe i Goddess of youth ii Marries Hercules iii Cup bearer of the Gods Ares i God of war (Destruction/Chaos/Bad) Eileithyia i Goddess of childbirth – Partnered with Hera ii “When Alkmene (Alcmena) was in labour with Herakles (Heracles), Hera sent Eileithyia to stay the birth and so kill mother and child. However, Alkmene's handmaiden Galinthias spied the goddess seated before the door with her arms and legs crossed, and cried "a son is born." The goddess leapt up in surprise, releasing her magical grip on the womb, allowing the child to be born. Eileithyia was furious at being tricked by the woman and transformed Galinthias into a polecat.” – http://www.theoi.com/Ouranios/Eileithyia.html g. Pay attention to some of the affairs that Zeus had: Io and Europa were two important ones. Story of Io i Zeus would sneak down to earth to have an affair with Io. Every day he would sneak down at the same time and he placed clouds to hide himself and Io. Eventually Hera noticed and decided to investigate. When Zeus knew Hera was coming, he turned Io into a cow and pretended the Io was a gift for Hera. Hera took the cow back to Mt. Olympus and kept a guard on her (this guard had 100 eyes and 50 were open at all times). Zeus calls upon Hermes to put the guard to sleep then kill him to recuse Io. Hermes is successful. ii While wandering around, Io meets Prometheus (chained) who tells Io that her offspring will save him from the horrible punishment he is in. 11 generations later, Hercules, descendant of Io, frees Prometheus. iii LINK TO FULL STORY: http://www.greekmythology.com/Myths/The_Myths/Zeus's_Lovers/Io/io.html Europa i Europa and her friends were playing by the sea and Zeus saw her and immediately fell in love. He turned himself into a handsome bull and when Europa went to pet him, he pulled her out to sea. Zeus reveals himself and he and Europe have three children Minos, Rhadamanthys, and Sarpedon. Zeus loved Europa so much that he gave her three gifts: 1 Talos, a magical man made of bronze, who served as a guard on Crete. 2 Laelaps, a dog that excelled at the hunt. 3 A javelin that always hit its target. h. Since Zeus and Hera are king and queen of the gods, rulers saw them as patrons. Also, remember that Hera watches over wives. Hermes, Hephaestus, Ares, Poseidon a. Why is Poseidon connected to horses? They are his favorite animal. Also they represent his wild and unpredictable nature. b. Who was Amphitrite? Daughter of Nereus and wife of Poseidon Poseidon tries to rape Amphitrite because he likes her and she runs away. Poseidon finds her to apologize. He allows her to be queen of the sea for her hand in marriage. c. Remember the contest for patronage of Athens. Athens needs a patron to build a temple for. i Athena and Poseidon respond to Athens’ plea for a patron. The rule of the contest it that each Divinity must bring a gift to the city. ii Poseidon brings water from the ground but it is salt water. iii Athena brings an olive tree and plants it in the town. Athena wins the contest. i However, Poseidon is upset and floods the base of the Acropolis. The Athenians make a deal with Poseidon that if he removes the flooding, they will build a small temple for him. e. Pay attention to the LaomedonHesione story and how it illustrates the character of Poseidon. Walls of Troy i King Laomedon begins to build a wall around the city of Troy. Apollo and Poseidon offer to build the wall for the king. 1 Apollo moves rocks with music & Poseidon moves rocks with his trident. ii Laomedon refuses to pay the divinities for the work they did. 1 Apollo sends a plague & Poseidon releases a sea monster. iii To stop the madness, Laomedon sacrifices his daughter, Hesione. But Hercules saves her. Illustrates Poseidon’s violent nature. f. Why was Hephaestus kicked out of heaven twice? First: Hera had Hephaestus as a virgin and when she saw his deformities, she threw him off Mt. Olympus. Second: Hephaestus builds a magical chair for Hera. When she sits in it she is trapped forever. She must give Aphrodite to Hephaestus for marriage in exchange for her freedom. ????? g. What is the job or power of Hephaestus? Why does that seem to contradict his appearance? Hephaestus is a blacksmith for the Gods. He can create anything and he makes beautiful objects. It contradicts his appearance because he is thought of as ugly but his work is striking. h. Why is Hephaestus sometimes depicted riding a donkey? Donkeys, like Hephaestus, was a worker rather than a warrior. OR Dionysus was the one who helped Hephaestus return to Olympia after his fall, and the donkey is associated with Dionysus i. Remember the necklace of Harmonia. Who is Eris? Eris is the Greek Goddess of strife and discord. Ares and Aphrodite have an affair and she gets pregnant. Aphrodite pretends it is Hephaestus’ child (Harmonia). i Cadmus founds the city of Thebes and he chooses Harmonia to be the queen. So Hephaestus wants to give her a gift to celebrate but he finds out that she isn’t his daughter. He still makes her a present but it is a necklace that when worn, causes illness. j. How does Ares act? What does he like to do? With whom did he have an affair? Ares is a paradoxical Divinity. Ares is the God who gives manly courage to soldiers in battle/war. He had an affair with Aphrodite. (Resulted in Harmonia) k. Why is Hermes connected to hinges? He is associated with the transitional phase of life. Like the hinges, he can open/close doors to cause changes in someone’s life. l. What does kakometis mean? Cunning intelligence with a bit of deception mixed in. m. What are the attributes of Hermes? God of many things: i Hinges, travelers, thieves, trade and contract Crafty in his speech and deceitful. Psychopomopos = escorts into the underworld. n. What does Pan do? (remember the wonderful picture from Naples that I showed you in class) The term panic spans from him. He “increased the flocks” (highly sexual) Artemis and Athena a. In what sense is Artemis anticity. Where do we find her sanctuaries? Artemis is found in areas of very little civilization like the woods, ocean, etc. Eschatia: edge of civilization b. Why does she like to hunt so much? What is her connection to the rites of passage? The act of transformation is sometimes represented through the sacrifice of animals. She is the Goddess of the rites of passages. She is known for renovating teenage girls into women who are ready for marriage. c. Know the rituals that took place at Brauron and Artemis’ connection to the moon. When girls get their first period (usually 1213 years old) they head out to Brauron to undergo a rite of passage. They take their childhood toys with them to burn in a large fire. The girls reenact the story of boys slaying the bear. This emphasizes the death of a carefree childhood. The girls also participated in footraces as competitions Moon represents periods/cycles d. Know the basics of the Actaeon, Iphigenia, and Hippolytus stories. Actaeon i is hunting and he stumbles into a clearing. Artemis is naked in the stream and Actaeon is happy. She tries to hide herself and she transforms Actaeon into a deer. Actaeon’s hunting dogs eat him because they were deer hunting. ii Artemis is violated by Actaeon (Do not touch before its ready) Iphigenia i After offending Artemis, Agamemnon was commanded to kill Iphigenia as a sacrifice to allow his ships to sail to Troy. In some versions, Iphigenia is sacrificed at Aulis, but in others, she is rescued by Artemis. In the version where she is saved, she goes to the Taurians and meets her brother Orestes. e. Why is Athena called Pallas? From where did she obtain her breastplate? Some ancient authors claim during the gigantomachy; one giant was called Pallas. Athena defeats Pallas and uses his skin as a breast plate. Other authors: she got the name from a child that she baby sat. Triton’s child. The child’s name was Pallas. She taught the girl to be like her. She taught her combat. One time Pallas attempts to spear Athena and Athena kills Pallas. So she builds a statue to pretend (called Palladium). Athena accidentally knocked Palladium of the mountain to Troy. The Palladium is the most important artifact: city will never fall. f. In what ways does she reflect the character of the Athenians? She gives them the olive tree which gives them an abundance of resources. g. Remember the Erichthonius story and its significance. “From the Earth” Hephaestus accidentally ejaculates onto Athena and she gets pregnant. The daughters of King Cecrops will care for the baby. i The baby is placed in a box and they are told never to open the box. The girls open the box one day and see a child that is so ugly that they jump off the acropolis. The baby was ugly because it was born “from the ground” h. How do Poseidon and Athena differ? Athena represents control and Poseidon cannot control his actions. i. Know what the Panathenaea is. Know who Arachne is. Panathenaea is Athena’s birthday. i Every 4 years the Athenians build a robe for the statue of Athena. Arachne i talented mortal weaver who challenged Athena, goddess of wisdom and crafts, into a weaving contest; this hubris resulted in her being transformed into a spider. j. What is special about the eyes of Athena? Glaukopis: owl eyed or gleaming eyed Her eyes represent intelligence. Quizlet Study Materials https://quizlet.com/150991340/cl222test1flashcards/
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