ANTH 102 Exam 1 Study Guide
ANTH 102 Exam 1 Study Guide ANTH 102
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Manili Alaniz on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Dr. Vincent M. LaMotta in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in Anthropology at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
ANTH Study Guide 1 Lecture 1: Archeology (Intro Lecture) Archaeology puts us in touch with the past Ankn-Amun (King Tut) o Ferrah of Eygpt ruled for about 10 years and died at the age of 18 o 300,245 years later Howard Carter escavated Valley of the Kings in 1920s o Found his tomb with thousands of undisturbed objects o Because he didn’t do much as king, most of what we know is through archeology It can provide a voice for people who are not represented in history If an object has no context, it has no value Archaeology connects us with the present William Kathje’s Garbage Project o Project discovered that “what people say they do and what they actually do are two separate realities” Archaeology can chart a guide for the future We can look at where you’ve been and apply what we learned to redirect course Background to the Study of Archeology Anthropology Study of human behavior and evolution Subfields include biological, cultural, linguistic, and archaeology Archeological Sites Where people lived and left remains Four Components of Sites: o Artifacts: An object/item created or modified by human action (tool) o Ecofact: An unmodified natural item (brought to the site) o Feature: An immovable structure, layer, pit, etc. (if you take out of the field then it loses its integrity. o Sediment: “Dirt” or deposits in which a site and its materials are buried; can be original, carried by the wind, or brought by people o Strata: Sediment layers (singular: “startal”) o Stratigraphy: study of site’s layers Formation of Archeological Sites Almost always disturbed Pompeii was a rare exception o Volcano erupted and covered it in 60 feet of ash o Ash covered people’s bodies-preserved pictures of lives at that moment Gradual, planned abandonment o People take possessions and leave little behind (usually leave big bulky items) Fieldwork: Survey and Excavation Survey: discovery (walking around) Vertical Excavation: digging deep cross section through type of time periods; goal is to understand chronology and culture change Horizontal Excavation: Broad aerial exposure of layer from a single time period Recovery and Analysis Screening: taking buckets of dirt and dumps dirt through screen and picks through the leftovers for artifacts Context Refers to potential associations between objects in a site Archeological Inferences Using physical evidence to reconstruct human behavior and other aspects of past societies that we can no longer observe Inferences are like hypothesis because we cannot actually observe the past Ethnoarchaeology Person goes to society where people have same technologies as studying Observe how people make, use, and dispose artifacts Cultural Adaption People began to use tools; tools became a buffer between humans and environment Faster than biological evolution Unique human adaption based on experience, learning, and uses tools Geological Time Scale (Holocene, Pleistocene, Plio- pleistocene, Pliocene) African Origins: Human Ancestors and the Earliest Archeological Sites Humans are Primates Hominins: Refers to humans, chimpanzees, and ancestors (leading up to modern human ancestors) Distinctive Human Traits Bipedal/locomotion: walking on two legs upright Manufactor/use of tools Carnivory- we evolved to eating meat because our teeth were made for herbivores Large brains/intelligence- more complex behavior Fossil Hominins of East and South Africa Fossil: A bone that has been transformed into something stable (rock- like) Australopithecus and Paranthropus earliest ancestors o Small brain size, no tool evidence, bones prove they spent life on trees Bipedalism in Hominins As early as 4 to 6.5 mya Lucy Skeleton (Australopithecus, 3.2 mya) o 40% of complete skeleton o Creature was biped- earliest evidence, little brain activity Laetoli Footprints (first arch. site found by Mary Leaky, Tanzania, 3.6 mya) o Found by Mary Leaky o Volcanic eruption left soft ash on the ground where creatures walked over it and left prints o Bipedal locomotion Homo habilis (2.5 to 1.6 mya male) o Found by Leaky family (Mary and Louis) o Bigger brain, dexterity, found early tools Olduvai Gorge (East Africa) o Leaky family found it o Two tectonic plates meet and create a grove/canal that lets you see layers Earliest Stone Tools Gona, Ethiopia (2.6 mya) found sustained stone tool use Oldowan Industry/Basal Paleolithic o Found in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania (1.8 mya) o Found materials from 6 miles away o Suggest degree of planning not seen in chimps o Remans of few large mammals found (elephant of buffalo) o Stone tools used to butcher animals Quarry Locality o Thousands of stone debris with no/few animals o Inferred that this is where they found/made tools then left to where they actually used them Multiple Purpose Localities (campsites) o Broken bones of many different animals, stone tools, debris o Clear association with tools and animals means more meat in diets o Cut marks on bones of large herbivores and different marks distinguish tool marks vs. tool marks o Cuts from tools over tooth marks (indication scavenging) Human Cultural Adaptions By using tools, they have equivalent of other scavengers and have evaded area of food chain where they didn’t originally belong They are now competing with other predators because of technology Homo Erectus: Out of Africa Homo erectus (1.9 mya, Africa) Rapidly spreads to Asia and eventually Europe First discovery in Java (Eugene Dubois in 1891) o Hard time convincing they were part of our lineage o Only found skull cap Features: o Biped o Lived on ground o From neck down they looked like modern humans o Larger brain size but still small o Large jaw and mouth- Still using jaws and teeth roughly (eat hard/tough food and for tools) o Prominent brow ridge Responsible for tool technology, meat eater, and systematic predatory hunter; they also use fire Early Homo Erectus in Africa Nariokotome Homo Erectus Skeleton (Kenya, Lake Turkana, 1.6 mya) o Found by the Leakys o Rare nearly complete skeleton of 12 year old boy o Body proportions were like modern humans Acheulean Stone Tool Industry (1.9 mya in Africa) Bifaces: flakes on both sides to create a sharp edge along perimeter Relatively little change in this period Tools: cleaver, handaxe, flake tools that can be used for butchering or digging Pleistocene Climate Change and Hominin Adaptions Pleistocene Epoch (lasts 2 my – 10 ky) o “Ice Age” period of cooling and formation of ice sheets o Climate changes had major impact on habitats and sea levels Later Homo Erectus Sites in Asia, Europe and Africa Zhoukoudian (“Dragon Bone Hill” cave complex, China, 700-200 kya) o Fossils were packed up beginning of WWII and lost o Casts are still available o Homo erectus was inferred to be doing activities in cave Control of Fire and Cultural Adaption Uses of Fire: o Light o Heat o Protection of Predators o Cooking (expanded diet, changes anatomy/biology) o Heat treatment of stone Ologesailie (Kenya, 900-700 kya) o Found handaxes at site o Evidence of hunting baboons Atapuerca- Gran Douna (Spain, circa 900 kya) o Hills/caves in locality o Found earliest homo erectus in Europe o Damage found on bones (cutmarks) suggests cannibalism Expansion to Northern Europe Europe had mainly tundra environment so homo erectus developed adaptations (tools/diet) Cultural Adaptations needed to penetrate Northern Latitudes Controlled use of fired Clothing/shelter Large mammal hunting because of reduced availability of plant foods and seasonal food shortage Cultural Adaptations to European Enviornments Schoningen (Germany, 350 kya) o Wooden spears found (8) which is rare. Important because you can kill at a distance which is safer and could be used for larger animals o Fire pits o Animal remains Evolution of Later Homo Erectus (Erectus 2.0) Big Brains and Hunting Ache Hunters of Paraguay o Hunted: 78 mammal species, 21 reptile species, 14 fish, 150 birds o Did not reach maximum proficiency until 35 years old o They know how to trap, capture by hand or with traps- Hunting skills are complex o People who already have skills (not learned/perfected) will survive and reproduce Hunting required raw materials to build (capacity for learning) Early Evidence for Symbolic Behavior Atapuerca- Sima de los huesos (Spain, 500-350 kya) o Deep pit/shaft about 175 feet below ground which has thousands of hominin bones o One theory is that it was a burial pit o Only artifact is a red stone handaxe Late Pleistocene Hunters of Eurasia and Africa & the Modern Human Diaspora (Part 1—Neanderthals) Neanderthals in Europe Complex behavior Long term adaptions to cold/rugged lifestyle Traits: Robust, heavily muscled Short and Stocky (5ft) Heavy for height Barrel shaped chest, short limbs Thicker bones, larger joints, larger muscle attachements Large brow ridge Large occipital bun (neck muscles) Neanderthals had large brains Larger than modern humans and bigger noses (to warm cold air) Teeth as Tools Evidence of gum disease and wear suggests using front teeth to grip meat while cutting/working on material Injuries on bodies (broken bones) similar to hockey goalies/rodeo riders Neanderthals: History of Discovery Neander Valley (Germany, 1856) o First fossils found o Concluded it was early human but caused debate (not early human just had a disease La Chappelle- aux- Saints (France) o Neanderthal Skeleton The Upper Paleolithic (50 kya to 10 kya) Cultures of western Europe Aurignacian (32-22 kya) Perigordian (33-22 kya) Short periods of time but had big changes in characteristics Characteristics: Extensive Use of bone, wood, shell, antler, and ivory for tools o Begin to see new types of tools o Bone is flexible but durable; good for projectile weapons Refinement of stone-tool technology o Hallmark of upper Paleolithic flaked stone blade technology o Blade is lone, narrow flake with many sharp cutting edges o Solutrean Points: can be up to a foot long and paper thin Elaboration and Diversification of technology o Atatls: often called “dart throwers” - Has elaborate carvings, designed for for killing at a long distance - Interchangeable parts o Bone needle findings suggest development of fitted clothing Long Distance transport of raw materials o High quality stones are traded as well as movement of other artifacts First significant art and ornamentation and Evidence for Ritual o Portable Art: carvings, figurines, shaped and decorated objects - Don’t know exact meaning - Human/animal figurines made of Ivory - Shamanism: ritual practioner with healing powers obtained thorugh transforming into animals o “Venus” figurines (25 kya) - Exaggerated female features (breasts, stomach) - No face and small arms - Might depict female fertility o Mural Art: o Lascaux Cave (Perigord Region, France, 17 kya) - Most important collection of paleolithic art - Caves are special purpose sites visited periodically - Most likely used to preform rituals (hunting/animal fertility/initiation) o Depictions of humans are rare (when they do its mix of both animal and humans) o Occasionaly see hand stencils o Prey animals common (large omnivores); exaggerated form (pregnant) o Not interactive, just added paintings over the years o Cavern of the Cats - Bird Headed Human Deception with guts spilling out and human falling with bird on the floor Significance of Personal Ornamentation and Ritual Burials in Upper Paleolithic Body Ornamentation as means of communication social information such as gender identity, mate status, group affiliation Ritual Burials (first real examples with grave goods) o Objects disposed have meaning o People are treated in death how they were treated in life (same staus) o Orche: red covered burial Upper Paleolithic Lifeways Followed migratory patterns into other parts of the world Modern Human Diaspora Diaspora: global colonization, technology, and symbolic communication Migrated/populated every inhabitable place on the planet Technology and symbolic communication made it possible Colonization of Australia Settled in 38- 40 kya which required open sea crossing (boats and navigation skills) Colonization of the Americas- Paleo Indians Clovis (11-9 kya) o Earliest recognized paleo indian culture in North America o Hunted mammoth, bison and used finely made spear points (Clovis point) Monte Verde Site (Chile, South America) o Evidence with artifacts, hunting tools, footprints o Radio carbon dates say 13 kya which forced archaeologists to consider coastal route model o Beringia- land bridge connecting Alaska and Russia that enabled migration into North America By 8000 BC (10 kya) modern humans had completely populated the Americas
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