Unit 2 Study Guide
Unit 2 Study Guide GEO3120
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Monday March 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO3120 at George Washington University taught by Dymond in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/30/15
South East Asia Myanmar Malaysia Borneo Island formation in the center of South East Asia Malay Brunei state on the top of the island Indonesia state on the lower half of the island 17000 islands Huge longitudinal expanse Compact State Ex Cambodia Areas should be equally connected or isolated People should theoretically feel more connected to the government Protruding State A signi cant compact type piece and territorial extension from that piece Ex Burma and Thailand The protruding piece may also be marginalized It is physically distanced harder to reach by infrastructure Increased military challenge Cultural difference Ex southern Thailand has more identi cation with Malayan in uences rather than the Buddhist in uences in mainland Thailand Example of situational geography Elongated State Where the length is 6x more than the width not precise so this won t be a fact on the test Ex Vietnam Chile is the best example of an elongated state Cultural divide North and South US and USSR exploited the geographic and political divide North more tradition communist structure South free market structure Fragmented State Water or another political territory separates your polity Indonesia is over a vast longitudinal space quotUnity in diversityquot Over this space you have various cultures and identities Government needs to create a national identity of Indonesians Aceh province further west in Indonesia had a secessionist movement has died since Meanwhile Philippines is close in space despite being multiple islands Perforated State Not a great example in South East Asia A country with a whole in it South Africa is perforated by Lesotho Lesotho is completely surrounded by South Africa Leaves the perforated state at the will of the state it is in Due to trade However the perforated state may have greater unity because it is at such odds with its direct neighbor Physical Geography Climate Hot Wet Maritime Tropical latitude Everyone is near the water affects everyone Modi es the climate Rivers Irrawaddy Major River of Burma Transportation and communications Word of mouth up the rivers Infrastructure of the river quotIf a river moves people a lot it is a communications riverquot 1300 miles long Navigable for 870 miles Flows from North to South Empties into the Andaman Sea Situated in that delta is Yangon Rangoon quotIt39s no longer the capital of Burma But who gives a shitquot ACTUAL QUOTE FROM JOE The real power is still in Rangoon The new capital is a ghost town Naypyidaw Good soil but ood prone along river Salween River 1740 miles long Originates in the Tibetan Plateau Very important Especially during the monsoon season snow on the Tibetan plateau melts and river water ows Only navigable for 74 miles Freshwater source Human consumption and agriculture Lets out to the right of Rangoon Mekong Originates in Tibetan Plateau Very close to Salween for a period of time But the Mekong lets out in South China Sea in a vast delta in southern Vietnam Just to the left of Ho Chi Minh City Longest river in South East Asia Forms the border between Burma and Laos And between Thailand and Laos Flows through Cambodia and then into Vietnam 6 countries China Burma Laos Cambodia Thailand Vietnam Political issues Very polluted river Starts in China So every downstream country feel the effects of every upstream country Every country changes the ow and the pollution Affects Vietnam the most ironic since they use it the most for agriculture Construction of dams Geology Eurasian plate is converging with the Indian plate Indian plate arcs around Australia Islands along this arc quotBurma platequot subcontinental plate Active volcanoes along the plate margins Indian plate Philippines plate Acting against het Paci c plate and the Eurasian plate Moving east and west Manila Trench Tsunami Tsu harbor Name wave No plural form of the word ThaHand Tsunami was a megathrust earthquake come from convergence tectonics In Open Water Tsunami may travel 200500 mph Wavelength may be several miles to 105 of miles wide May only be 3 feet high Tsunami Dynamics Slow and build height as they approach the coast Ocean along coasts withdraws prior to strike not always Arrive as several waves andor a quot oodquot of sea water Generation Megathrust convergent earthquakes Underwater landslides Displace a lot of water Eastern US Volcanic eruptions Meteors December 26th 2004 Indian plate subducted under the Eurasian plate 90 megathrust other records say 93 Sumatra Island in Indonesia Ache got hit rst Then Thailand Then Sri Lanka and even went to Africa Greatest impacts were greater hit Reaction time was greater for those that were further away Phuket heavily affected Banda Aceh City in Aceh area of Indonesia Heavily affected India Plate Slides beneath Eurasian Burma plate Meets pockets of resistance Compressional forces build up Top plate is lifted up Underwater Water is displaced Waves Earthquake lnitial rupture likely more than 62 miles long The overriding plate was lifted up 4550 feet Maybe 745 miles of plate boundary eventually quotslippedquot Vertical land displacement under ocean displaces water Vertical water displacement several meters Sri Lanka Global Efforts Pledged billions Some debt cancellation International relief in all formphysical on site Geography played a role in relief efforts Use of GIS to see what most was affected Attempted cooperation between 3 world regions lnternet impact HUGE America was weary post 911 world Worried about aiding governments that were footholds of terrorism Donor Fatigue Other key disasters that got global attention So much money had gone to Sri Lanka that other events did not garner enough money Total Dead and Missing 290000 lapan Most prepared country for Tsunamis prior to the wave 15000 deaths Nuclear disaster leaks and potential for more signi cant leaking Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Okuma Japan Population High density Especially in Malaysia High reliefs push everyone into lowlands lndone a One of the largest in population Largest Muslim population Java is extremely high density 3000 people per square mile 141000000 people Culturally political economic core Extremely mountainous islands and volcanic activity Affects density Very packed into the habitual low lands Borneo Lowest population density in the region Singapore 35 times the area of DC Population pressure is a problem Area of 244 and density of 22540 Manhattan has a density of 51613 and an area of 31 Singapore One main island 6063 islands surrounding that Right off the tip of the Malay Peninsula Bridge across the strait ofJohor to the mainland 1312 of all maritime trade passes through the South China Sea Singapore is in a vital location Singapore is a vast deep water port And relatively protected It is an island a country and a city state Singapore is building islands Out of garbage Creating land ll and trying to expand the new island Why Need more living space To burn trash away from the city and people Nature reserve Reservoirs for drinking water Drinking water is an issue in Singapore Not enough water for the population Not even with the amount of rainfall a year Import water from Malaysia Despite tension between the two Ethnicity 1 Chinese a 34 of the population 2 Malay a 15 of the population 3 Indian a Historically southern Indian i Brought by British b 7 4 Mixture of foreigners Religion Buddhism number one religion Islam practiced by the Malay Christian Hindu Language English one of the official languages Because of British enterprise Language of International Business Manda n Malay Tamal Indian population Public education is bilingual English take your pick Raf es British East India Company He made Singapore important Singapore is trying to establish a Singaporean identity 1 family 1 political party has ruled since this is a country in 19705 This is not a resource rich island Made Singapore an Entrepot Middleman Singapore Planned Parenthood Used to encourage educated families to reproduce But poorer families were encouraged to not have children or to have only one Singaporean Status Easy to get in if you have something to bring to the table If you have connections money power Also easy to get in on the opposite side of the spectrum for labor Singaporeans need maids etc Singapore calls itself a green city Government Housing 8090 High living standards But it39s only the elite of the elite who own their own houses separate from the government This includes housing developments sponsored by the government Singapore is in the top 5 or top 3 busiest ports in the world Transshipment Remember it39s an entreprot Peranakan Unique community quotThe Straight Chinesequot From China who came to the Malakai straights Moved during the British era Learned English Were used by the British for administrative work About 20 years ago they were marginalized By the mainstream Chinese However tradition is being encouraged for the sake of tourism Enjoying a resurgence of identity now Government Pledges to a democracy PAP is the dominant party And the only party The PAP has had a father and son rule the country for Singapore s history Economy Tourism quotThe regional hub for South East Asiaquot Hnance One of the nancial capitals of the world Shipping High Tech Services Manufacturing no natural resources water deficient have to import half of their fresh water from Malaysia South China Sea Important for trade 13 12 of all trade travels through here Lots of key ports Lots of industry Lots of commerce and manufacturing Coast of China Taiwan Borneo Malaysia Vietnam Bay of Bengal and India Spratly Islands Southern Central South China Sea NOTHING ON THESE ISLANDS Everyone is ghting for it Especially China WE WANT THE DRILLING RIGHTS UNCLOS The US is interested because it sees the South China Sea as an unstable zone Vietnam and China have exchanged re over the Spratly Islands Piracy Rampant in the South China Sea Because of the confusion over water territory Extent of water territory is constantly disputed Very little resources to halt the issue Speedboats and AK47s Majority are Malays and Indonesians After the cashpersonal effects on the ship South Asia Physical Geography North of the equator Very tropical Ability for rainfall throughout the year Due to its location Trade winds Elevation Tropical summer ring Coast of southern India to Bangladesh Most of the monsoon area Monsoon Area Western Ghats ORAGRAPHIC LIFT YAY And then just south of the Tibetan plateau Central India Deccan Plateau In the rain shadow of the Western Ghats And the Eastern Ghats Monsoon Large scale land breeze sea breeze Monsoon seasonal wind ship You can have a wet monsoon and a dry monsoon Dry monsoon winter Wet monsoon summer Dry Season High pressure builds up over the land Stable Descending dry air Spirals outward Clockwise rotation Fall winter and spring Wet Season Summer maybe into September Low Pressure Low surface air spiraling inward Rises in counterclockwise circulation Air ows from the water to the subcontinent 90 of the rain falls in these months in the tropical monsoon climate 5 Sometimes in 2 months Sometimes in 4 months 3X DC39s rainfall in one month Moisture is brought up into the Tibetan plateau Feeds water to the rivers that run through all the countries They originate with the wet summer monsoon in southern Asia Leaves Pakistan and Afghanistan dry lndus River Huge dry area But originates in the Tibetan Plateau Technically starts in china Flows through lndian controlled territory And Kashmir Then to Pakistan Exotic stream Necessary to Pakistan Freshwater source in a dry climate zone Majority of the population is in the Indus Valley As is the agriculture Driest part of Pakistan is in the east But also where the Indus is Ganges River North Indian plain Incredibly dense Origin the Indian Himalayas From snow and ice melt Fertile soil Crops sugar cane rice IentiIs 0 seeds wheat potatoes jute Majored deIta in Calcutta and Southern Bangladesh Only 80 miles for shipping Key for fresh water Religion Cremation Ashes thrown in river to symbolize rebirth HoIiest river is the Ganges It is associated with Iie People often bathe in the river Extremely dry and poIIuted Indian government is working to clean the river now Brahmaputra Runs 1800 miles Originates the Tibetan Plateau Merges with the Ganges in Bangladesh Massive w it very important deltas Immense ooding Highest population density Summer monsoons Causes more ooding Boat travel CycIones Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal Water greeted form a low pressure system Pushes water north had increases rainfall Causes more ooding Shape of bay aIso funneIs tides Sothern Bangladesh is at sea level Most ood prone water population in the world Geology Indian plate converges with Eurasian Plate Himalayas are growing Lots of earthquakes where the plates meet at the Himalayas Kashmir History Under British control of South Asia Also included Afghanis through Burma Maharajas kings Controlled smaller territories Barista ups principalities to govern Kept the Maharaja in Kashmir Religion Islam Hindu and Buddhism Islam 34 of the pupation Buddhism In Adakai Hindus in the south British exciting a portion plant before Con ict between Hindus and Muslim population Pakistan west is Islamic India south is Hindu East Pakistan Bangladesh Part of Pakistan originally 1947 Partition People were moved to country identi ed with their religion Allowed maharaja to decide what country to join Amhara is Hindu in Kashmir Bid for autonomy Immediate con ict Pakistan invades Noida to help protect Cease re in 1949 Cease re the terms Part in west for Pakistan Parte giben 0 India No o cia obrero Must be a vote by the people Never happened Areas uncurIed by China but were then claimed by India Cooperation with Chan and Pakistan Counter weight for India 1949 Present Constant con ict tensions is on and off Value of Kashmir Fresh water Indus Has historic and religion importance Has resources Energy resource Agriculture India wants tourism in this are Jheluppa River Flows through center Geopolitics Pakistan Boast nationalism Problems with Afghanistan Wants to protect the Islamic potation CIaim human rights abuses on Indian state India Wants to control the river Has the political edge Hopes 0 get Iand form Chan by getting Pakistani Kurdish population quotWorld39s largest democracyquot Degradation of political capital by ceding the area So they don39t39 want to lose the Kurds Feat of other wanting to separate Helped Bangladesh become independent Wants economic ponytail Secur y Onions on Kashmiri Mixed views in Indian Others want to be part of the Pakistan sate India claims its ghting termites India and Pakistan both of nuclear capabilities Fear of loss of nukes in volatile area Israel and Palestine CIA factor now reports gures on Gaza Strip and on the West Bank no longer titles quotIsrael and Palestine territoriesquot Levanto Turku Siria Afganistan Israel Gaza Egypt Art through Middle East thsical Geooraphv Israel almost as large as Maryland Includes Jerusalem Climate North Mediterranean Wet mild winter modi ed by elevation Warm dry summer South arid Warm and dry most of the year Very barren landscape Exceptionally dry Orographic lift Off of Golan Heights Higher rainfall in the mountains than anywhere else Key source of fresh water in the region Altitudinal Zonation Israelis are exceptionalism agriculturalists Altitude Latitude Windwardleeward Requires a lot of engineering skills Remember that altitudinal zonation varies with altitude and laterite of the location and whether you are windward or leeward Rainfall Jerusalem 232 inches Golan Heights 4050 inches a year Most rain falls January February No rainfall in the summer time temperatures do the opposite Eliot dry part of Israel South Almost no rainfall Golan Heights Incredibly strategic space Syria lost this area Wants it back Israel garnered the Golan Heights Physicalhuman signi cance Secur y quotEyes of the nationquot Fresh water Agriculture The Eastern 23 ofJordan are empty Everyone is an near to these mountains as possible Mt Hermon Largest mountain Greatest security Provides fresh water into the dry season Rivers Jordan River Small River Peaks midlate spring Can provide water into the dry season But diminishes in the dry season Areas of the Jordan River that are quite narrow Not a huge wide deep owing river Not used for transportation or commercial interests Flows into the Dead Sea Originates in the AntiLebanon Mountains on the LebanonSyria border 200 miles Through Israel and Jordan Lake TiberiusSea of Galilee and Jordan River aII supply water to Israel As do aquifers Mountains Starts in northern Israel goes under much of the west bank And then into central Coastal Sinai Peninsula Under Gaza Into Israel Israel is moving into a water de cit situation Population growth and agricultural use Salinization Fresh water getting salty Why If we don39t have enough fresh water coming into a fresh water system it will become more saline Dead Sea It39s the lowest place on earth Extremely salty Nothing can live in it No outlet for the salt Salt comes from the mountains All fresh water has salt in it As the water travels down it brings with it salt Flows into the Dead Sea Does not keep going onto the ocean The only outlet for the water is evaporation and so it leaves behind salt Dry area Overall water level and volume is decreasing Because we are consuming People are using the Jordan River in the North So not as much water is going into the Dead Sea Tourism Dead Sea Coast in Israel Beach Big hotels Resort area Some resorts on the Jordan side Israel has a very diverse modern economy Diamond cutting Chemical production Military equipment production High tech system Population Central Syria has a low density Most people in northcentral lsrael Or coastal reasons Southern half is a very low population lsrael 82 million Gaza 158 million West Bank 282 million 341400 lsraeli settlers in West Bank 18900 in the Israelioccupied GH 196400 in Eastern Jerusalem In 2010 Jews present in PalestineIsrael Almost 56 million Population ofJews in PalestineIsrael Went from 650000 in 1948 year of Israel s statehood under David BenGurion To 1 400 00 in 1951 Israel 75 Jewish 249 Arab Religions 751 Jewish 174 Muslims 2 Christians 16 Druze 39 other Remember that in the creation of Israel manufactured a Jewish majority y Although currently the PalestinianArab birthrates are very high and Jewish birth rates are low Gaza Strip Very small territorially 2x the size of DC Very high density population 158 million People Gaza is coastal Very dry More closed off by Israel Much more conservative in Gaza strip More radicalized Trade Citrus crops Vegetables Some trade with Europe Israel is the biggest trade partner Oil Airseaports inoperable Some local shing Young population High birth rates High poverty Eastern portion of Gaza Strip used to be directly controlled by Israel More conservatives are willing to go live in these contested spaces Political conservative Jews living in neighborhoods in the Palestinian strip Moved out in 2005 Israeli army forcibly removed their own citizens from that area Retained a buffer zone 300 m West Bank Observer status in the UN Signi cantly larger than Gaza Around the size of Delaware Inland Further north Elevation Natural vegetation Much greener Agricultural primary economic component Exit strategy through Jordan Much better off in the West Bank than in Gaza Remittancesdonations when people go elsewhere work and send some of the income back International Adie Controversy over prior use of aide Yasser Arafat a lot of allegations of the misappropriations of fund Died in 2004 Leader of the PLO History Canaan es Related other Phoenicians Semitic peoples 10005 of years ago Lebanon parts of Syria Israel and Palestine Urbanmaritime culture Assimilated into Hebrew culture by 1000 BC Come Canaanite beliefs and linguistic structure fuse into Hebrew culture Hebrew tribes conquer the Canaanite Will assimilate the Canaanites into their culture Philistines migrated in 2 millennium be Fought intensely with Hebrew tribes Lost PRESENT DAY PALESTINIAN ARE NOT DESCENDENTS OF THESE Formation of Kingdom of Israel King Saul King David Largest territorial extent He defeated and assimilated any philistine Palestine culture Jerusalem was the capital King Solomon Israel fragmented North Israel fell to Assyria 722721 BC South Judah fell to Babylonia 586 BC Many Jews were exiled Began diaspora Fertile Crescent Arc From East Mediterranean To Persian Gulf Includes Tigris and Euphrates Above Syria and Iraq through the northern parts of each Israel under Control of Persia 500 BC GrecoEgyptian Rule 3005 BC Administration out of Egypt But Greece came to conquer Rome 1St century BC 6005 AD Palestine province of Roman Empire 3005 AD Christianity quotlegalizequot under Empire Jerusalem Christian pilgrimage cite Various Islamic Empires ArabIslamic in uences 6005 15005 Jerusalem original 1St direction for Islamic prayer Mohammad quotascendedquot from here in quotnight journeyquot to heaven Ottoman Islamic Empire 1500 19005 Turkish not Arab But also Islamic Sunni Defeated in World War I Euro Powers create quotPalestine Administrative Unitquot And Transjordan 1923 lands east ofJordan River British Mandate of Palestine Does not include Golan Heights Nationalism Prior to the increase of Israelites no national identity Subset of Arab ethnicity But solidi ed in response to Israeli power increase To the British both were problematic Rebellion against British Puts down by the British Zionist Nationalism Rebellions against Brits put down by Brits Several deadly upbringing in mid 19405 Brits considered BenGurion a terrorist as well as other key leaders BenGurion was the leader of the Zionist movement And the rst Prime Minister of Israel Mandate Period 650000 Palestinians tin the territory 80 Arab Muslim 9 Arab Christian 11 Arab Jews Jewish population increases from 11 to 30 by 1944 Balfour Declaration Issued by the Brushing in 1917 Saidquot the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish peoplequot quotNothing shall be down which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing nonJewish communities in Palestinequot quotRights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other countryquot TransJordan Hashemite39s Arabian Dynasty asserting lineage from Muhammad Wanted a united Arab Kingdom after WWI Monarchy dependent on British Lacked resources Small population First king was killed by a Palestinian 1951 Remember that the rst war between the State of Israel and Palestine was 1948 1949 Right after the rst war between Israel in Palestine So lots of Palestinians underJordan39s in uence Young grandson Hussein King in 1953 Married Queen Nor Lives in Maryland His son now the reigning King ofJordan Jordan has no natural resources No oil Transshipment area Challenged in terms of a resource economy Jordan has a small population Increasing with Palestinian refugees from con ict Now there are more Palestinians than Jordanians Partition Independence and War UN Partition Plan Separate states for Israeli Jews and Palestinian Muslims Jerusalem NOT to be part of either sovereign state Internationally administered Territory for Israeli Jews Territory for Palestinian Muslims Jerusalem administer by the UN Jews cooperated HOWEVER if you look at speeches by BenGurion and more they declare a want for more Even recognized the value of Golan Heights Originally Jerusalem was in an Arab territory Palestinians and Arab neighbors reject the plan Pan Arab View can39t accept Israeli Jews in Palestine 1948 Israel declared immediate independence PalestinianArab neighbors immediately attack Including Jordan First con ict of 1948 1949 Israel garners territory Acquire land into and including WestJerusalem Israel is backed by the USSR Connection to Jerusalem Zionist leaders in Russia COLD WAR POLITICS US wasn39t very interested at rst Palestinian international position weekend 1949 Jordan quotnowquot control West Bank EastJerusalem and Old City Annexation 1950 gt400 K Palestinian Death of the King in 1951 because Palestinians wanted their own state not to be part ofJordan Palestinian refugee situation created in several countries quotRight of returnquot Egypt 1956 Suez Canal Crisis British in uence was increasing already before WWI Wanted access to Suez Nasser nationalizes Suez And Sadat charismatic nationalist leaders Revolution and the monarchy set up by the Brits following WWI was kicked out Nasser took over the Suez nalo Israel Britain and France joined forced to combatreverse Not allowed to keep it according to UN The US in particular made them give it back Nasser becomes quotelevatedquot in Arab communities Fresh Water and the Six Days War Israeli Preemption Signi cant Essential Not enough of it Squabbles over water Between Israel and Egypt 1967 CONFLICT Golan Heights is garner by Israel in this con ict From Syria West Bank from Jordan Sinai Peninsula from Erupt later returned Control now of the entire city ofJerusalem Israel was attacked in 1948 Syria and Egypt had begun to prepare Israel struck rst in 1957 Cold War strengthens relations with some other countries USSR intensi es support for Egypt Syria and Iraq Suez Canals blocked until 1975 UN Security Council Resolution 242 Israel needs to return territories acquired in this con ict Incredibly ambiguously worried Withdrawal of Israel armed forces from territories occupied in the recent con ict PLO rejected Syria did not agree until 1972 Yom KippurRamadanOctober War Egypt and Syria Attack Seeking lands lost in 1967 NO SIGNIFICANT LASTING CHANGE IN TERRITORY CONTORL Both sides EgyptSyria and Israel heavy losses Egypt and Syria blame each other Moshe Dayan blamed for not being prepared Prime Minister Golda Meir at the time Egypt US relations strengthened Because Egypt is annoyed with USSR And US is taking advantage of that Syria USSR relations strengthened US strengthened resolve for regional peace Camp David Accords Sadat Egypt and Menachem Begin Prime Minister at the time of Israel Sadat became president in 1970 Of cial Israeli Recognition Promised Big from USA Tech bene ts from Israel Sadat Shot in 1981 Assonated by Islamic fundamentalists in his own party for recognizing Israel Menachem Begin Responsible for retiring Sinai completely back to Egypt Several Meetings for the Camp David Peace Accords Between Israel and Egypt with Jimmy Carter at Camp David Sadat and Begin both receive Nobel Peace Prize Majored Obstacles Water Israel controls the fresh water Palestinians struggle for water Palestinian Refugees Right of return No one is trying to get back to prior to the partition plan any more Hoping for before 67 Demographics of Israeli Jews and PalestinianArab Muslims Palestinian population is growing much more quickly Palestinians everywhere Lebanon Jordan many have assimilated to a new Jordanian cuIture Syria In the West Bank you have everything Israeli Settlements 2005 disengage Gaza settlements Prime Minister Sharon But Israel increases settlements in the west bank More Israeli populations byJericho closer to the Jordan River Palestinian settlements in the north Asserting territorial control Israel although Israel has never of cially said it would like that area Lots of mixing around metropolitan area Jerusalem Important forJews Muslims and Christians The Wall Wailing Wall Most important religious cite forJews The whole old city is not much bigger than GW Foggy Bottom Campus Christian Quarter Jewish Quarter Armenian Quarter Christian and there for trade Muslim Quarter Then the temple mount on the eastern side
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