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by: Breanna Deaver


Marketplace > North Dakota State University > Science > Bio 150 > SAMPLE UPLOAD DO NOT BUY
Breanna Deaver

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Reading guide for next exam.
General Biology I
Angela Hodgins
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Breanna Deaver on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 150 at North Dakota State University taught by Angela Hodgins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Science at North Dakota State University.




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Date Created: 09/26/16
Biol 150 – Reading Guide 1 This reading guide will help you determine which information in the required reading is most important. After reading each of the sections indicated in the book, you should be able to do each of the numbered objectives in this reading guide. The questions on the quiz that is due on Tuesday, will be written to see if you have mastered these objectives. The best way to read and learn this material, is to write notes about each of the numbered objectives as you are reading. Pretend that each objective is a question on a test, and write out the answer that you would give in order to demonstrate your complete understanding of the objective. There are extra notes in this reading guide that provide information that is not found in the book. You are responsible for this information. Bioskill 2 (pg. 21) Reading Guide After reading Bioskill 2, you should be able to: 1. State on which axis the independent and dependent variables are graphed. 2. State the type of data that should be graphed using a scatterplot. 3. State the type of data that should be graphed using a bar chart. 4. State the type of conclusion you can draw from a scatterplot, such as the one shown in Figure B2.1c. 5. State the type of conclusion you can draw from bar chart (or column graph) such as the one shown in Figure B2.2a. Chapter 2 Reading Guide After reading Chapter 2, sections 2.1 and 2.2, you should be able to: Introduction 1. State the theory of chemical evolution state. Section 2.1 2. List the 4 most common elements found in all living things. 3. Explain the meaning of the following terms: atomic number, mass number, isotope, orbitals, electron shells, valence shell, valence electrons 4. Given the atomic number of any element in the top 3 rows in the periodic table, draw the atomic structure of that element and indicate how many electrons are in the valence shell. The maximum number of electrons in the first electron shell is 2 and in the second and third electron shells is 8. 5. (Note:) Atoms form bonds with other atoms, because they are most stable when they have full outer electron shells. So when atoms come together covalent or ionic bonds will form so that each atom has a full outer shell. State the difference between a covalent and an ionic bond. 6. Define electronegativity and describe the difference between a polar and non-polar covalent bond. Extra Notes on Electronegativity Electronegativity is a quantitative property of an element that can be measured. The chart below shows electronegativity values for elements in the periodic table. Note that the electronegativity values range from 0.7 in the lower left side of the chart to 4.0 in the upper right side of the chart. As described in the book, two atoms with similar electronegativities will share electrons in a covalent bond equally and two atoms with dissimilar electronegativities will not share electrons in a covalent bond equally. Here are some general rules that you can follow to determine what type of bond will form between any two elements (note: these rules do not work 100% of the time, but for most of the molecules that you will encounter in biology they do work): Bond Type This type of bond will form between 2 atoms if the absolute difference between the electronegativities of the 2 atoms is Non-polar < 0.5 covalent Polar covalent > 0.5 and < 1.5 Ionic > 1.5 For example, the difference between the electronegativity of C (2.5) and H (2.1) is 0.4, so these two elements will form a non-polar covalent bond. The difference between the electronegativity of C (2.5) and O (3.5) is 1, so these two elements will form a polar covalent bond. When the difference in electronegativities between two atoms is very large (>1.5) the pull on the electrons of one of the atoms is so much greater than the other that an electron leaves the atom with the lower electronegativity and is transferred to the atom with the greater negativity. When this occurs 2 ions are formed. The atom that lost an electron will have a + charge and will be a cation and the electron that gained the electron will have a – charge and will be an anion. 7. Given any two elements in the first 3 rows of the periodic table, determine if a non-polar, polar or ionic bond will form between the atoms, and label any + - partial + (δ ) or partial – (δ ), or full + or – charge that will form. Extra Notes on determining the structure of a compound One of the recurring themes in biology is that structure determines function. The structure of an organ will determine its function in the body, the structure of a cell will determine its function within an organ, and the structure of a compound will determine its function within a cell. So to understand biology, it is not enough to know that the chemical formula for water is H O, 2ou need to know the structure of the molecule. How are the H’s and the O bonded together? So, in this course, you will be expected to determine the structure of a compound given the chemical formula for the compound or given the elements that are in the compound. Here is a strategy to use to determine the structure of a molecule: A. Draw the structure of each type of atom that occurs in the compound (Hint: don’t just try to imagine the structure, you should physically draw the structure or these types of problems will be much harder). For example, the structure of hydrogen and oxygen are shown below: B. After drawing the structure of each atom, determine the number of bonds that each atom needs to make to have a full outer shell of electrons. For example, hydrogen needs one electron to have a full valence shell of 2 electrons and oxygen needs to form 2 bonds to have a full valence shell of 8 electrons. C. Look at the electronegativity values for each atom, to determine what type of bond will form between them. For example, the electronegativity of H is 2.1 and the electronegativity of O is 3.5, so the difference between these values is 1.4 and the two atoms will form a polar covalent bond. If two hydrogens or two oxygens were to bond together, they would form a non-polar covalent bond. D. Now use the information that you have gathered to determine the structure of your molecule. For example, for H O2 you know that the oxygen needs to form 2 bonds to have a full outer shell and each of the hydrogens needs to form 1 bond. If you bonded the two hydrogens together, you would have the stable molecule H w2ere both hydrogens have full outer shells, but you would have nothing left to bond to the oxygen. Only by bonding each hydrogen to the oxygen can you form a stable molecule using these three atoms and looking at the differences in the electronegativities, you know that that the bonds between the oxygen and hydrogen are polar covalent. Oxygen has the greater electronegativity so it will be partially – and the hydrogens have the lesser electronegativity so they will be partially +. 8. Given the molecular formula for a compound, determine its structure and be able to label all partial and full charges in the molecule. Reading Guide 2 Cell structure (Sections 7.1, 7.2), General structure of Organic Molecules (Section 2.5) and Proteins (Section 3.1) Notes: Cell Types Section 7.1 and 7.2 will introduce you to two cell structures that have evolved on earth – prokaryotic and eukaryotic. All organisms on earth either consist of Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cells. Bacteria and Archaea have prokaryotic cells. All other organisms (Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists) have eukaryotic cells. Section 7.1 Bacterial and Archaeal Cell Structures and Their Functions After reading this section, you should be able to: 1. Identify the major structures in a prokaryotic cell 2. Describe the structure of the prokaryotic chromosome 3. Define organelles and cytoplasm 4. State the function of the plasma membrane Section 7.2 Eukaryotic Cell Structures and Their Functions 1. Compare the size of a eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell. 2. Define cytosol 3. State the 2 advantages of compartmentalization 4. State the 3 key differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Section 2.5 The Importance of Organic Molecules After reading this section, you should be able to: 1. State why carbon is a good atom for forming the “backbone of life”. 2. Define “Functional Groups” 3. Identify the structure of the following functional groups: amine, ketone, aldehyde, carboxyl, hydroxyl, phosphate, sulfhydral Section 3.1 Amino Acids and Their Polymerization After reading this section, you should be able to: 1. Identify the chemical structure of an amino acid, in both the ionized and non-ionized form 2. Use the structure of the R-group to Identify an amino acid as being either non-polar, polar or electrically charged Note: To identify if an amino acid is electrically charged, polar or non-polar, you should look at the R-group. If there is a full charge (+ or -) in the R-group it is electrically charged. If the end of the R-group contains an OH or NH bond, then it is polar. If the R-group contains only CH or SH bonds then it is non-polar. 3. Define hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and state whether a molecule is hydrophobic or hydrophilic 4. Define monomer, polymer and condensation 5. Contrast a condensation reaction and a hydrolysis reaction. 6. Describe how a peptide bond forms and identify the peptide bonds in polypeptide. 7. Label the N-terminus and the C-terminus of a polypeptide


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