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Exam 1/Midterm

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Exam 1/Midterm 352

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About this Document

This study guide covers chapters 1-4 in the book, and article notes. Class slide notes, and text notes included
Interpersonal Comm And Social Media
Christina Gentile
Study Guide
social, social influence, information processing, SIDE, uses, gratifications, deindividuation, Hypermedia, Privacy management theory, SocialMedia, SMS, CMC, Microchannels, Microblogging
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by AliciaAXO on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 352 at University of Kentucky taught by Christina Gentile in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Comm And Social Media in Communications at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 1  Social Identity of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE)  Recognizes the absence of nonverbal cues in CMC  Causes users to form impressions that are based on the social groups & categories of  communicators rather than any interpersonal cues interactions may shape  Allows for assessments of the dynamics through which CMC users negotiate  relationships & develop relational norms absent common cues in FtF communication  Anonymity changes the importance of personal vs. social identity   Social Identity  We relate to others based on common group memberships   When social identity is salient (important/most prominent), we are more likely to  behave according to norms & beliefs of that group  Group Identification  Manipulated by promoting participants explicitly to look for unique & distinct characteristics   Greatest scores on attraction   Deindividuation Effects  Physical isolation & visual anonymity can lead to loss of self­awareness & herd  mentality   Ex: Political or sports based conversations online   “You’re a moron”  Group connection is so strong, you lose your individual   One of the most dominant theories of CMC  Cues­Filtered­Out Theory  Considers the absence of nonverbal cues in CMC as an impersonalizing deterrent to  the expression & detection of individuality & the development of interpersonal  relations online  Social Influence Theory   Utility & richness of medium dependent on perceptions of how medium can be used  Utility = Usefulness of the medium  Richness = What we can do w/ the medium  Phone call>email (> = more rich)  Socially Constructed   The interactions/relationships people have w/ strong ties in their network will  influence how they perceive the medium  Emphasis is placed on communication  Perception results from interaction w/ others  The type of interaction & the quality of conversation will shape perceptions in regard to  how medium should be used  Focuses on the factors that change users’ perceptions about the capacities of CMC &  their consequent uses of the medium  Strong ties vs. weak ties/ direct perception vs. metaperceptions   Ex: Snapchat   Friends tell you to download, you do; how do you know what to post? Friends   Social Information Processing (SIP)  Users adjust to the lack of nonverbal cues by making use of the cues that might be  available   Typographic, Chronemic, & language & content   Despite restricted nonverbal cues in CMC, users can still develop impressions & manage  relationships over time.  Framework for explaining & predicting differences b/w text­based CMC & offline  communication, & multimedia communication   Seeks to explain how, w/ time, CMC users are able to accrue impressions of &  relations w/ the others online, & these relations achieve the level of development that  is expected through offline communication   We form impressions based on w/e online cues are available   Small cues thus take on larger meaning online  Communicators adapt social meaning into language that they would otherwise  express nonverbally   Ex: # of followers/friends & social attraction  Curvilinear relationship   People w/ high # of friends, low attraction rating   People w/ regular # of friends, high attraction level   We need more time online vs. offline to develop relationships   Older studies compared online vs. offline w/o accounting for time   Relationships were seen as impersonal   All about strong & weak ties  Hyperpersonal Model    CMC can facilitate more socially desirable communication & relationships & lead to  idealized perceptions b/w communicators  Better relationships formed online that offline   Idealized images of ourselves   Due to the absence of nonverbal cues, CMC users engage in selective self­presentation & partner idealization  Selective self­presentation & feedback   4 Concurrent Elements  Sender – Selective self­presentation  Create the best version of yourself   May construct messages that portray themselves in preferential ways, employ  desirable characteristics   Receiver – Overattribution Process  Online we over attribute certain similarities (ex: oh you’re in college)  When receiving messages from others in CMC, an individual may tend to  exaggerate (fill in the blanks) perceptions of the messages sender   Characteristics of the Channel  Contribute to enhanced message construction  Ex: Can edit messages vs. FtF you cannot  The mechanics of CMC interface  Users exploit the ability to take time to contemplate & construct messages  mindfully  Asynchronous CMC  Allowed users to avoid the problems of entrainment associated w/ FtF  meetings  The ability to synchronize attention & interaction w/ collaborators     Feedback Process – Behavioral Conformation  Enhancements provided by idealization, selective self­presentation, & channel  effects reciprocally influenced matters forming a feedback system  Ex: “OMG hey” to friend, “OMG hey” response; same emotion  Behavioral confirmation st  Describe how one interaction partner’s impression about a target leads 1   partner to behave & how that behavior alters the responses of the target  partner in return  Behavioral Disconfirmation  1 Individual anticipates an unpleasant interaction w/ a target person &, to  avert the unpleasantness, over accommodates in order to improve the person’s demeanor   Ex: Catfishing is enabled more through this theory, especially through the elements   Warranting Principle  Warrant  To authenticate or validate  Warranting Value  The extent to which info is perceived to be manipulated   The less info controlled by the person to which it is referring the more valid it is  considered  Ex: Reference letter  Info presented by sender’s network is trusted more than info presented by senders rd   Ex: 3 party comments & social attraction   When we can validate info, we are more likely to believe it  Theories are important because they give us a particular framework to work w/in & explain  why it is important  Guiding force to view things  Chapter 9  Self­Disclosure & Theories  Self­Disclosure  Key factor in developing relationships online environments as it is in FtF contexts  Online self­disclosure may include nonverbal communication, including pictures  posted of self, which may be a conscious mechanism used to disclose self  Revealing personal or private info about self that is generally unknown & not  available from other resources   Dimensions  Depth/Intimacy, Honesty/Authenticity, Conscious, deliberate intent to  disclose, or willingness to disclose  Valence  Intimacy (high/low) valence as positive/negative  A person attempts to present qualities that make him/herself an attractive  person, especially in the early stages of relationship development   Positive self­disclosure = viewed as more attractive   Process of deliberately revealing information about oneself   Must be deliberate   You mean to do it, intentionality   Must be significant   Information that is NOT known by other people  Models   Social Penetration Theory  Breadth & depth of information  Depending on depth & breadth, relationships can be casual or intimate  Relationship progresses  more depth, less breadth  Breadth ­ # of topics   Measuring depth  Some revelations more significant   “Peeling back layer of an onion”  Benefits & Risks of Self­Disclosure  Catharsis   When we’re able to get something off of our chest (relief)  Reciprocity  No guarantee this will happen 24/7  Self­Clarification  To clarify beliefs, attitudes, & opinions   Self­Validation  Obtaining listeners approval  Social Influence   Risks of Self­Disclosure  Rejection  Person might disagree  Negative Impression  Ex: Political Views  Decrease in Relational satisfaction  Loss of influence  Losing control of the conversation, could be viewed as less credible   Hurting the other person  FtF vs CMC: Self­Disclosure  Differences  Online self­disclosure is typically to multiple people  Breadth & Depth of info moves in different pattern online  Regardless of the setting, goal is to present idealized version of self  Strategy is done through self­disclosure   Presenting the ideal self is typically easier to do online   b/c Hyperpersonal Model  People are most comfortable sharing intimate disclosures w/ either a complete stranger or a trusted companion w/in a dyadic boundary  Chapter 2  Privacy  Social Networking Site (SNS)  Construction of a profile in a system that can be bounded/restricted if desired  Inclusion of others w/ whom they share some type of connection  Viewership & surfing capabilities among the list of contacts if desired  Communication Privacy Management Theory  How people regulate revealing & concealing info   Both their own info & others   Dialectical tension b/w accessibility & privacy  Evidence­based theory  Principles  People equate private info w/ personal ownership   We have a right to control the flow of info to others   How much & w/ whom  People create privacy rules to control this flow of info  Rules are impacted by:  Self­Monitoring   High – Close attention to social  Low – Only monitor your own feelings  Cultural Expectations  General Rules  Risk/Benefit Ratio  Critical Incidents  Once private info is disclosed, it is now collectively owned  Original owner & co­owner(s) must coordinate agreed upon privacy rules  Ex: “I told you this, now do not tell anyone.”  If rules are not coordinated, disruption can occur & boundary turbulence will  result   Violations, disruptions, or unintended consequences  Privacy & SNS  Privacy settings are the norm, regardless of age  Majority of people say their main profiles are set to private (58%)  Gender Gap  Women are more likely to keep profiles private  Profile “Pruning” is on the rise   Deleting people, comments, untagging pictures, posting content that you later  regret   High Self­Monitors tend to be more private online  More aware of their social situations  CPM & SNS Disclosure Practives  CPM theory allows a rich context to predict & examine CMC disclosure practices on  SNS profile pages   Influence of decision criteria in privacy­disclosure choices drives the kinds of  privacy rules that people apply to communicative situations  Self­Monitoring & concern for appropriateness (CFA) dispositions also function  as base decision criteria influencing privacy rules that are used  Influence of family Privacy Orientations  Families have a significant role in socializing children to learn kinds of privacy  rules to which the family ascribes  Serves as a guideline for choices about dissemination of family private info  Influence of Context  Catalyst for changing personal or collectively held privacy rules, b/c there is a  need to reach participatory goal  Camouflage is a privacy protection  Ex: Strategies; coded language Chapter 3  Self­Presentation  Theoretical Framework  2 Component Model of Self­Presentation  Motivational Processes  Degree to which we are motivated to control how others see us  High goal importance, high motivation to control impressions  Greater the likelihood of future encounters, greater motivation to control  impressions  Online Environment facilitates encounters where there is:   An Anticipation of Future FtF = Greater motivation  Ex: Online dating  An Anticipation of Future Online Interaction = Moderate Motivation  Ex: Discussion Boards, blogs    No Anticipation = Low motivation (Ex: Anonymous chat)  Publicness should increase motivation  Online environment differs  Content/Behavior is permanent   Can potentially reach a large audience   Construction Processes  Actual implementation of creating that desired impression  Step 1: Decide on a desired impression  2 Factors that influence how you decide on your impression:  Self­Concept: How you see yourself  Actual self: Characteristics one currently posses   Ideal­self: Characteristics 1 would like to possess in the future  Ought­self: Characteristics 1 thinks 1 should possess given social  norms & expectations from others  Audience  People consider values of audience & tailor impressions  Step 2: Implementation via CMC  Conventional Signals – easy to alter  Photos/textual statements  Selective Self­Presentation (Hyperpersonal)  Editability   Re­allocation of cognitive resources   Able to focus on one thing/one task   Online Dating Research  Impression Motivation  Goals Influencing Impression Motivation  Serious daters wrote more, edited profiles more, & had more realistic profiles  Publicness  Online daters whose friends were aware of profile had more realistic profiles  Impression Construction  81% of people misrepresented their height, weight, or age   Deceptions were small though to make the person seem ideal  Women’s pictures more attractive than their typical appearance, less accurate than men’s   Online Dating Hack  Strategically “sciencing” your way to love – video notes, Ted Talk  Strategy: least way to expect love  Least expecting – you will find love when you least expect it  Try online dating; its predicated on algorithms   Problem: Serendipity variable   Online dating algorithms work well  Problem: Simplistic questions & not honest to the person  New Strategy:  Created data points – important things to you  Categorized into 2 tiers, high & low importance  Created a scoring system  Variable to consider – competition on the same sites  Created to 10 fake males  Qualitative – humor, tone, voice   Content Matters   Smarter people write more & uses non­specific language  Optimistic Language matters­ approachability   Timing is important   23 hours in­between communications   Super Profile  Taking in all factors analyzed into account & implementing them  Conclusion  You create your own framework & play by your own rules, not  computer algorithms   Chapter 4  Microchannels  Communication Channel  Medium through which a message is sent & received  Microchannel  Limit the length of the message  Instant Messaging (IM)  Most popular w/ adults; 18­27  Short Message Services (SMS)  Texting  Surpass phone calls for all ages  Microblogging  Primarily text­based  Limits # of characters & images (microposts)  Messages are shared publicly online  Just b/c content is limited, does not mean it lacks importance/quality  “You can say a lot w/ a little.”   Ex: Twitter – 9  most popular website in the U.S., Vine, FB status update  Social Construction Theory  Knowledge & reality construction are subjective & emergent  4 Premises:  Humans know the world subjectively, through experience which is largely influenced  by language  Through social interaction, categories of language & meaning emerge w/in a specific  context @ a particular point in time  Patterns of communication lead to the social construction of reality   Systems Theory  Recognizes systems are embedded w/in hierarchies such that smaller subsystems exist  mutually influencing dynamic   Characteristics:  Objects – Parts, elements, variables  Attributes – Qualities/Properties of the systems or objects  Internal Relationships among objects  Environment – Context   7 Fundamental Elements of Human Communication  Nonsummativity   The whole is greater than the sum of its parts   Interdependence  The behavior/communication of 1 system member is influenced by & influences  other system members  Hierarchy  Systems are embedded w/in & contain other systems  Interaction w/ the Environment  Contexts exert influence on systems  Homeostasis  Systems work to maintain balance to promote stability in reaction to  environmental changes  Morphogenesis  Systems continuously change & adapt  Equifinality  The same ends can be reached by different means   5 Axioms  The impossibility of not communicating   All behavior, even a lack of behavior can be interpreted   One cannot not communicate  The content & relationship levels of communication  Every communication has content & a relationship aspect  Relationship aspect creates the context w/in which the content is to be  interpreted  Punctuation of the sequence  Experience communication as a series of beginnings & endings (punctuations) &  view their communication as impacted by the communication of others   Digital & Analogic Communication  Digital Communication  Meanings are contextual & subjective  Analogic Communication  Symbols have objective & generalized meanings  Symmetrical & Complementary Interaction  Interactions are always based on either equality or difference   Recognizes the complexities of the interaction  Focuses on patters of relationships that develop b/w people who interact   Social Exchange Theory  Offers an economic model for understanding choices individuals make as they develop,  maintain, & dissolve interpersonal relationships   People engage 1 another socially w/in a context of rewards & costs  Key concepts:  Reciprocity, fairness, negotiated rules, w/ info, approval, respect, power, group gain,  personal satisfaction  Outcomes:  Economic: Money, goods, services  Socioemotional: Love, status   Social Penetration Theory  Intimacy in relationships develops over time as partners progressively disclose more &  more personal information to one another  Key elements of the process:   Depth  The intimacy of the info shared in topic areas  Breadth  The # of topics on which relationship partners share info  4 Stage Relationship Development Process/Characteristics of Intimate Relationships that  Begin to Dissolve:   Orientation Stage  Initial Meeting; basic info is exchanged  Exploratory Affective Stage  Increased exchanged info; wide breadth, not depth  Affective Stage  Trust has developed to the depth of a close friend/romantic partner   3 Types of Information Disclosed in Growing Relationships  Cultural Info  Public, largely superficial, easily shared to new people  Sociological Info  Info derived from the social groups & roles to which a person belongs   Psychological Info  Most personally revealing type of info (feelings, attitudes)  Strong/Weak Ties Theory  Relationship strength variables  Time, emotional intensity, intimacy, & reciprocal service  Strong Ties  Ex: B/w family members or close friends  Indicate (usually) the actors share many connections w/ each other & their social  networks greatly overlap  Weak Ties  Ex: Closer to, but not exactly like, acquaintances   Allow for connections b/w actors who may have little in common  Importance in diffusion of innovations, job searches, & social networks  Bridging & Bonding   To describe 2 different types of social relationships  Bridging Relationships  Relationships that occur when individuals make connections across social networks   Inclusive, often tentative, & lack depth (weak ties similarity)  Ex: The WD­40 of relationships   Bonding Relationships   Relationships that provides emotional & physical support & are the foundation of  family & friend networks  The “superglue” of personal relationships  Promising Theories for Understanding People  Uses & Gratifications Theory  Individuals consciously choose & use media to gratify needs  7 Step Model  The social & the psychological origins of   Needs which generate  Expectations of   Mass media/Other sources which lead to  Differentiation exposure (engaging in other activities)  Resulting in  Need gratification  Other unintended consequences  4 Assumptions  Individuals as audience members actively engage in goal­seeking behavior   Individuals actively make choices as they use media  Audience members are able to self­report the gratifications behind their media  choices  Researchers should refrain from making value­judgments about media & message  choices  Personal Gratifications  Surveillance/Information­Seeking  Entertainment/Tension Release/Diversion  Personal Identity/Personal Integration   Immediate Access  Time Efficiency   Social Gratifications  Social Integration & The Development of Personal Relationships   Potential Implications of Interactivity in Hypermedia  Interruptability  Users ability to pact the communication  Granularity  The breaking of the message units into user­navigable prices  Graceful Degradation  The ability of the text to accommodate “wrong” requests from the user  Limited Look­Ahead  The inability of a user to determine the outcome of a “conversation” in advance  No default  Absence of a pre­programmed linear path  


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