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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by AliciaAXO on Monday September 26, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 352 at University of Kentucky taught by Christina Gentile in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Comm And Social Media in Communications at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 09/26/16
Chapter 1 Social Identity of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) Recognizes the absence of nonverbal cues in CMC Causes users to form impressions that are based on the social groups & categories of communicators rather than any interpersonal cues interactions may shape Allows for assessments of the dynamics through which CMC users negotiate relationships & develop relational norms absent common cues in FtF communication Anonymity changes the importance of personal vs. social identity Social Identity We relate to others based on common group memberships When social identity is salient (important/most prominent), we are more likely to behave according to norms & beliefs of that group Group Identification Manipulated by promoting participants explicitly to look for unique & distinct characteristics Greatest scores on attraction Deindividuation Effects Physical isolation & visual anonymity can lead to loss of selfawareness & herd mentality Ex: Political or sports based conversations online “You’re a moron” Group connection is so strong, you lose your individual One of the most dominant theories of CMC CuesFilteredOut Theory Considers the absence of nonverbal cues in CMC as an impersonalizing deterrent to the expression & detection of individuality & the development of interpersonal relations online Social Influence Theory Utility & richness of medium dependent on perceptions of how medium can be used Utility = Usefulness of the medium Richness = What we can do w/ the medium Phone call>email (> = more rich) Socially Constructed The interactions/relationships people have w/ strong ties in their network will influence how they perceive the medium Emphasis is placed on communication Perception results from interaction w/ others The type of interaction & the quality of conversation will shape perceptions in regard to how medium should be used Focuses on the factors that change users’ perceptions about the capacities of CMC & their consequent uses of the medium Strong ties vs. weak ties/ direct perception vs. metaperceptions Ex: Snapchat Friends tell you to download, you do; how do you know what to post? Friends Social Information Processing (SIP) Users adjust to the lack of nonverbal cues by making use of the cues that might be available Typographic, Chronemic, & language & content Despite restricted nonverbal cues in CMC, users can still develop impressions & manage relationships over time. Framework for explaining & predicting differences b/w textbased CMC & offline communication, & multimedia communication Seeks to explain how, w/ time, CMC users are able to accrue impressions of & relations w/ the others online, & these relations achieve the level of development that is expected through offline communication We form impressions based on w/e online cues are available Small cues thus take on larger meaning online Communicators adapt social meaning into language that they would otherwise express nonverbally Ex: # of followers/friends & social attraction Curvilinear relationship People w/ high # of friends, low attraction rating People w/ regular # of friends, high attraction level We need more time online vs. offline to develop relationships Older studies compared online vs. offline w/o accounting for time Relationships were seen as impersonal All about strong & weak ties Hyperpersonal Model CMC can facilitate more socially desirable communication & relationships & lead to idealized perceptions b/w communicators Better relationships formed online that offline Idealized images of ourselves Due to the absence of nonverbal cues, CMC users engage in selective selfpresentation & partner idealization Selective selfpresentation & feedback 4 Concurrent Elements Sender – Selective selfpresentation Create the best version of yourself May construct messages that portray themselves in preferential ways, employ desirable characteristics Receiver – Overattribution Process Online we over attribute certain similarities (ex: oh you’re in college) When receiving messages from others in CMC, an individual may tend to exaggerate (fill in the blanks) perceptions of the messages sender Characteristics of the Channel Contribute to enhanced message construction Ex: Can edit messages vs. FtF you cannot The mechanics of CMC interface Users exploit the ability to take time to contemplate & construct messages mindfully Asynchronous CMC Allowed users to avoid the problems of entrainment associated w/ FtF meetings The ability to synchronize attention & interaction w/ collaborators Feedback Process – Behavioral Conformation Enhancements provided by idealization, selective selfpresentation, & channel effects reciprocally influenced matters forming a feedback system Ex: “OMG hey” to friend, “OMG hey” response; same emotion Behavioral confirmation st Describe how one interaction partner’s impression about a target leads 1 partner to behave & how that behavior alters the responses of the target partner in return Behavioral Disconfirmation 1 Individual anticipates an unpleasant interaction w/ a target person &, to avert the unpleasantness, over accommodates in order to improve the person’s demeanor Ex: Catfishing is enabled more through this theory, especially through the elements Warranting Principle Warrant To authenticate or validate Warranting Value The extent to which info is perceived to be manipulated The less info controlled by the person to which it is referring the more valid it is considered Ex: Reference letter Info presented by sender’s network is trusted more than info presented by senders rd Ex: 3 party comments & social attraction When we can validate info, we are more likely to believe it Theories are important because they give us a particular framework to work w/in & explain why it is important Guiding force to view things Chapter 9 SelfDisclosure & Theories SelfDisclosure Key factor in developing relationships online environments as it is in FtF contexts Online selfdisclosure may include nonverbal communication, including pictures posted of self, which may be a conscious mechanism used to disclose self Revealing personal or private info about self that is generally unknown & not available from other resources Dimensions Depth/Intimacy, Honesty/Authenticity, Conscious, deliberate intent to disclose, or willingness to disclose Valence Intimacy (high/low) valence as positive/negative A person attempts to present qualities that make him/herself an attractive person, especially in the early stages of relationship development Positive selfdisclosure = viewed as more attractive Process of deliberately revealing information about oneself Must be deliberate You mean to do it, intentionality Must be significant Information that is NOT known by other people Models Social Penetration Theory Breadth & depth of information Depending on depth & breadth, relationships can be casual or intimate Relationship progresses more depth, less breadth Breadth # of topics Measuring depth Some revelations more significant “Peeling back layer of an onion” Benefits & Risks of SelfDisclosure Catharsis When we’re able to get something off of our chest (relief) Reciprocity No guarantee this will happen 24/7 SelfClarification To clarify beliefs, attitudes, & opinions SelfValidation Obtaining listeners approval Social Influence Risks of SelfDisclosure Rejection Person might disagree Negative Impression Ex: Political Views Decrease in Relational satisfaction Loss of influence Losing control of the conversation, could be viewed as less credible Hurting the other person FtF vs CMC: SelfDisclosure Differences Online selfdisclosure is typically to multiple people Breadth & Depth of info moves in different pattern online Regardless of the setting, goal is to present idealized version of self Strategy is done through selfdisclosure Presenting the ideal self is typically easier to do online b/c Hyperpersonal Model People are most comfortable sharing intimate disclosures w/ either a complete stranger or a trusted companion w/in a dyadic boundary Chapter 2 Privacy Social Networking Site (SNS) Construction of a profile in a system that can be bounded/restricted if desired Inclusion of others w/ whom they share some type of connection Viewership & surfing capabilities among the list of contacts if desired Communication Privacy Management Theory How people regulate revealing & concealing info Both their own info & others Dialectical tension b/w accessibility & privacy Evidencebased theory Principles People equate private info w/ personal ownership We have a right to control the flow of info to others How much & w/ whom People create privacy rules to control this flow of info Rules are impacted by: SelfMonitoring High – Close attention to social Low – Only monitor your own feelings Cultural Expectations General Rules Risk/Benefit Ratio Critical Incidents Once private info is disclosed, it is now collectively owned Original owner & coowner(s) must coordinate agreed upon privacy rules Ex: “I told you this, now do not tell anyone.” If rules are not coordinated, disruption can occur & boundary turbulence will result Violations, disruptions, or unintended consequences Privacy & SNS Privacy settings are the norm, regardless of age Majority of people say their main profiles are set to private (58%) Gender Gap Women are more likely to keep profiles private Profile “Pruning” is on the rise Deleting people, comments, untagging pictures, posting content that you later regret High SelfMonitors tend to be more private online More aware of their social situations CPM & SNS Disclosure Practives CPM theory allows a rich context to predict & examine CMC disclosure practices on SNS profile pages Influence of decision criteria in privacydisclosure choices drives the kinds of privacy rules that people apply to communicative situations SelfMonitoring & concern for appropriateness (CFA) dispositions also function as base decision criteria influencing privacy rules that are used Influence of family Privacy Orientations Families have a significant role in socializing children to learn kinds of privacy rules to which the family ascribes Serves as a guideline for choices about dissemination of family private info Influence of Context Catalyst for changing personal or collectively held privacy rules, b/c there is a need to reach participatory goal Camouflage is a privacy protection Ex: Strategies; coded language Chapter 3 SelfPresentation Theoretical Framework 2 Component Model of SelfPresentation Motivational Processes Degree to which we are motivated to control how others see us High goal importance, high motivation to control impressions Greater the likelihood of future encounters, greater motivation to control impressions Online Environment facilitates encounters where there is: An Anticipation of Future FtF = Greater motivation Ex: Online dating An Anticipation of Future Online Interaction = Moderate Motivation Ex: Discussion Boards, blogs No Anticipation = Low motivation (Ex: Anonymous chat) Publicness should increase motivation Online environment differs Content/Behavior is permanent Can potentially reach a large audience Construction Processes Actual implementation of creating that desired impression Step 1: Decide on a desired impression 2 Factors that influence how you decide on your impression: SelfConcept: How you see yourself Actual self: Characteristics one currently posses Idealself: Characteristics 1 would like to possess in the future Oughtself: Characteristics 1 thinks 1 should possess given social norms & expectations from others Audience People consider values of audience & tailor impressions Step 2: Implementation via CMC Conventional Signals – easy to alter Photos/textual statements Selective SelfPresentation (Hyperpersonal) Editability Reallocation of cognitive resources Able to focus on one thing/one task Online Dating Research Impression Motivation Goals Influencing Impression Motivation Serious daters wrote more, edited profiles more, & had more realistic profiles Publicness Online daters whose friends were aware of profile had more realistic profiles Impression Construction 81% of people misrepresented their height, weight, or age Deceptions were small though to make the person seem ideal Women’s pictures more attractive than their typical appearance, less accurate than men’s Online Dating Hack Strategically “sciencing” your way to love – video notes, Ted Talk Strategy: least way to expect love Least expecting – you will find love when you least expect it Try online dating; its predicated on algorithms Problem: Serendipity variable Online dating algorithms work well Problem: Simplistic questions & not honest to the person New Strategy: Created data points – important things to you Categorized into 2 tiers, high & low importance Created a scoring system Variable to consider – competition on the same sites Created to 10 fake males Qualitative – humor, tone, voice Content Matters Smarter people write more & uses nonspecific language Optimistic Language matters approachability Timing is important 23 hours inbetween communications Super Profile Taking in all factors analyzed into account & implementing them Conclusion You create your own framework & play by your own rules, not computer algorithms Chapter 4 Microchannels Communication Channel Medium through which a message is sent & received Microchannel Limit the length of the message Instant Messaging (IM) Most popular w/ adults; 1827 Short Message Services (SMS) Texting Surpass phone calls for all ages Microblogging Primarily textbased Limits # of characters & images (microposts) Messages are shared publicly online Just b/c content is limited, does not mean it lacks importance/quality “You can say a lot w/ a little.” Ex: Twitter – 9 most popular website in the U.S., Vine, FB status update Social Construction Theory Knowledge & reality construction are subjective & emergent 4 Premises: Humans know the world subjectively, through experience which is largely influenced by language Through social interaction, categories of language & meaning emerge w/in a specific context @ a particular point in time Patterns of communication lead to the social construction of reality Systems Theory Recognizes systems are embedded w/in hierarchies such that smaller subsystems exist mutually influencing dynamic Characteristics: Objects – Parts, elements, variables Attributes – Qualities/Properties of the systems or objects Internal Relationships among objects Environment – Context 7 Fundamental Elements of Human Communication Nonsummativity The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Interdependence The behavior/communication of 1 system member is influenced by & influences other system members Hierarchy Systems are embedded w/in & contain other systems Interaction w/ the Environment Contexts exert influence on systems Homeostasis Systems work to maintain balance to promote stability in reaction to environmental changes Morphogenesis Systems continuously change & adapt Equifinality The same ends can be reached by different means 5 Axioms The impossibility of not communicating All behavior, even a lack of behavior can be interpreted One cannot not communicate The content & relationship levels of communication Every communication has content & a relationship aspect Relationship aspect creates the context w/in which the content is to be interpreted Punctuation of the sequence Experience communication as a series of beginnings & endings (punctuations) & view their communication as impacted by the communication of others Digital & Analogic Communication Digital Communication Meanings are contextual & subjective Analogic Communication Symbols have objective & generalized meanings Symmetrical & Complementary Interaction Interactions are always based on either equality or difference Recognizes the complexities of the interaction Focuses on patters of relationships that develop b/w people who interact Social Exchange Theory Offers an economic model for understanding choices individuals make as they develop, maintain, & dissolve interpersonal relationships People engage 1 another socially w/in a context of rewards & costs Key concepts: Reciprocity, fairness, negotiated rules, w/ info, approval, respect, power, group gain, personal satisfaction Outcomes: Economic: Money, goods, services Socioemotional: Love, status Social Penetration Theory Intimacy in relationships develops over time as partners progressively disclose more & more personal information to one another Key elements of the process: Depth The intimacy of the info shared in topic areas Breadth The # of topics on which relationship partners share info 4 Stage Relationship Development Process/Characteristics of Intimate Relationships that Begin to Dissolve: Orientation Stage Initial Meeting; basic info is exchanged Exploratory Affective Stage Increased exchanged info; wide breadth, not depth Affective Stage Trust has developed to the depth of a close friend/romantic partner 3 Types of Information Disclosed in Growing Relationships Cultural Info Public, largely superficial, easily shared to new people Sociological Info Info derived from the social groups & roles to which a person belongs Psychological Info Most personally revealing type of info (feelings, attitudes) Strong/Weak Ties Theory Relationship strength variables Time, emotional intensity, intimacy, & reciprocal service Strong Ties Ex: B/w family members or close friends Indicate (usually) the actors share many connections w/ each other & their social networks greatly overlap Weak Ties Ex: Closer to, but not exactly like, acquaintances Allow for connections b/w actors who may have little in common Importance in diffusion of innovations, job searches, & social networks Bridging & Bonding To describe 2 different types of social relationships Bridging Relationships Relationships that occur when individuals make connections across social networks Inclusive, often tentative, & lack depth (weak ties similarity) Ex: The WD40 of relationships Bonding Relationships Relationships that provides emotional & physical support & are the foundation of family & friend networks The “superglue” of personal relationships Promising Theories for Understanding People Uses & Gratifications Theory Individuals consciously choose & use media to gratify needs 7 Step Model The social & the psychological origins of Needs which generate Expectations of Mass media/Other sources which lead to Differentiation exposure (engaging in other activities) Resulting in Need gratification Other unintended consequences 4 Assumptions Individuals as audience members actively engage in goalseeking behavior Individuals actively make choices as they use media Audience members are able to selfreport the gratifications behind their media choices Researchers should refrain from making valuejudgments about media & message choices Personal Gratifications Surveillance/InformationSeeking Entertainment/Tension Release/Diversion Personal Identity/Personal Integration Immediate Access Time Efficiency Social Gratifications Social Integration & The Development of Personal Relationships Potential Implications of Interactivity in Hypermedia Interruptability Users ability to pact the communication Granularity The breaking of the message units into usernavigable prices Graceful Degradation The ability of the text to accommodate “wrong” requests from the user Limited LookAhead The inability of a user to determine the outcome of a “conversation” in advance No default Absence of a preprogrammed linear path
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