Psych 1010 Study Guide
Psych 1010 Study Guide PSYC-1000-01
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC-1000-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Intro to Psychology Midterm Study Guide Prologue: The Story of Psychology From speculation to science: the birth of modern psychology Aristotle theorized about personality, memory, motivation, etc. Wilhelm Wundt and psych’s first graduate students studied “the atoms of the mind” by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany (1879). This work is considered the birth of modern psychology as we know it today. The start of scientific psychology started with the opening of the first psychology laboratory 2 key elements that helped make psychology a science: Carefully measured observations (down to the seconds) Experiments Edward Titchener’s Structuralism Structuralism using introspection to explore the structural elements of the mind Somewhat unreliable it required verbal people Their answers varied depending on experience, intelligence, and verbal ability Psychology Pioneers William James (18421910) developed Functionalism. What are the functions of human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors? How did they contribute to our ancestors’ survival? Psychological Science Develops: Behaviorism John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner Dismissed introspection. What you cannot observe and measure, you cannot scientifically study. Trends in Psychology: Freudian/Psychoanalytic Psychology Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis His school of study and treatment focused on the role of the unconscious drives, wishes, and needs, and emphasized the important of childhood experiences His patients had no physical explanations for their ailments. Freudian psych asserts that unconscious desires/impulses that are repressed leak into normal life. Ex: alcoholism Humanism Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Studied people who were thriving Developed theories and treatments to help people to feel accepted and to reach their full potential Cognitive Revolution Cognitive psychology how we perceive, process, and remember information Cognitive neuroscience the brain activity underlying mental activity (likens it to a computer) The Big Issue in Psych: NN More in Chapter 4 Contemporary Psychology Crosscultural psychology studying different cultures and learning about people that way Gender psychology male vs. female studies Positive psychology comes from humanism. Involved with disorders, etc Biopsychosocial levels of analysis Biology genes, brain, neurotransmitters, survival, reflexes, sensation Psychology thoughts, emotions, moods, behaviors, motivations, knowledge, perceptions Social influences culture, education, relationships Psych in context with other professions A chemical psychologist (PhD) studies, assesses, and treats troubled people with psychotherapy (counseling, therapy, research) Psychiatrists are medical professionals (MD) who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients (can prescribe meds) Questions to consider _____ used introspection to define the mind’s makeup; _______ focused on how mental processes enable us to survive, adapt, and flourish What is natural selection? What is contemporary psychology’s position on the naturenurture debate? How do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach in studying psychological events? The ________ perspective in psychology focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture, while the ____________ perspective emphasizes observation of how we respond to and learn in diff situations. Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science How do we gather psychological information in a scientific way? Critical thinking refers to a more careful style of forming & evaluating knowledge than simply using intuition In addition to scientific method, critical thinking helps to develop more effective & accurate ways to figure out what makes them think, feel, and do the things they do The brain is designed for surviving/reproducing, but it isn’t the best tool for seeing ‘reality’ clearly. We’re not objective and detail oriented We have to catch out critical thinking errors to improve our thinking When our natural thinking style fails: Hindsight bias Overconfidence error Perceiving order in random events 1. Hindsight bias After learning the results of some psych research, you believe you could’ve predicted the very outcome. “I knew that would’ve happened.” Hindsight is 20/20. It seems like common sense after. Ex: birds of a feather flock together vs. opposites attract 2. Overconfidence error 1: Performance We’re too certain in our judgments. We overestimate our performance, rate of work, skills, and degree of selfcontrol. Ex: unscrambling speed Overconfidence error 2: Accuracy We overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge. We’re more certain than we are accurate. This is a problem on eyewitness testimony and tests too 3. Perceiving order in random events Coin toss/ roulette wheel. It’s dangerous to think you can make a prediction from a random series. Likelihood of tails does not increase in a coin toss if it’s landed 10 times on heads We have the wrong idea of what randomness looks like How to be scientific Be systematic and objective You have to be a critical thinker. Analyze info, examine assumptions, look for hidden bias, put aside our own biases and look at the evidence. Look for how the info was collected, look for other possible explanations as well. Ex: pop psychology (how to be happy, etc) Scientific method Get an idea, set up a way to test that, experiment, make careful organized observations, analyze whether the data fits our ideas, and try to make conclusions. Theory a set of principles that explain some phenomenon and predict its future behavior. Ex: “All ADHD symptoms are a reaction to eating sugar” Hypothesis a testable prediction consistent with our theory Ex: “If the child eats sugar, the kid will act more distracted, impulsive, and hyper” Good operational definitions needed Operational variable how research variables are defined Ex: o impulsivity = # of times of calling out without raising hand o hyperactivity = times getting out of seat o inattention = time working on task before getting distracted replication trying an experiment again using the same operational definitions of concepts and procedures you could introduce a small change in the study. Ex: ADHD sugar test on college students Research goal & strategy: Description Descriptive research a systematic, objective observation of people. Provide a clear, accurate picture of people’s thoughts, behaviors, and attributes 1. Case study: examining one individual in depth Ex: speech symptoms after a stroke Phineas Gage with railroad spike in head. His personality changes after his accident (cursed a lot, alcohol, rude) frontal lobe has a lot to do with selfcontrol, inhibition, and judgment. Danger of case studies: unrepresentative information It also doesn’t tell us why something happens 2. Naturalistic observation Observing people in their natural setting & not changing anything Ex: social behaviors of kindergarteners 3. Survey Gathering info through selfreport Many cases, less depth than case study Ex: political beliefs of 17yearolds in USA Try to get a representative sample (population vs. sample) and try to randomize and vary the sample Random sampling a technique for making sure that every individual has an equal chance of being in your sample Ex: computer programs for a sample of 200 people Selection of participants is driven by chance Cheap as well Still doesn’t tell us why Correlational research Correlation a measure of how closely two factors vary together, or how well you can predict a change in one from observing a change in the other Ex: Case study: boy sleeps less, more episodes of aggression Naturalistic: kids with more clothes more likely to fall asleep Scatterplots Ex: a dot for each person for height and shoe size Positive correlation: when one variable goes up, the other does too. They vary in the same direction Negative correlation: when one variable goes up, the other goes down Ex: the higher number of Facebook friends, the lower amount of studying Correlational coefficient a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables 1. Direction of relationship (positive/negative) 2. Strength of relationship (0.001.00) Range of correlation [1, 1] 0 = no relationship/correlation at all (close to 0 = weak) 1/1 = strongest correlation/relationship Conclusions Positive correlation between ice cream sales and rate of violent crime The cause: hot weather NO CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP Ex: selfesteem and depression correlate., but we don’t know the cause of them How to find causation Experimentation manipulating one variable in a situation to determine its effect Ex: removing sugar from the diet of a ADHD child to see if it makes a difference or trying an intervention to improve selfesteem & depression 1. Manipulate factors that interest us 2. Control other factors Control group does not receive it. Serves as comparison Random assignment to control experimental groups is how you control all variables except the one you’re manipulating First sample, then assign Placebo effect How do we make sure that the experimental group doesn’t experience an effect because they expect to experience it? Placebo an inactive substance/other fake treatment in place of the experimental treatment Doubleblind neither participants nor research staff know which participants are in the exp/control groups Naming variables IV: variable manipulated by the experimenter DV: the outcome factor Confounding variables the other variables that might have an effect on the dependent variable Ex: temperature in ice cream vs. violent crime Correlation vs. causation Breastfed children vs. intelligence scores At least one confounding variables: genes Mothers w/ higher intelligence more likely to breastfeed as well From data to insight: statistics Value of statistics 1. To present a more accurate picture of our data than we’d see otherwise (scatterplots) 2. To help us reach valid conclusions from our data Tools for describing data Bar graphs are useful but can be manipulated Measures of central tendency Mean Median Mode Range Standard deviation Ex: income mean can be skewed vs using mode or median Normal curve bellshaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data. Most near the mean Drawing conclusions from data Is the difference b/w groups reliable? Can we make generalized predictions about the rest of the population? Is it significant? Could it be caused by random chance/variation? To achieve reliability 1. Nonbiased sampling (representation) 2. Consistency (responses & observations) 3. Many data points Statistically significant differences 1. When data is reliable AND 2. The difference between groups is large Chapter 2: The Biology of the Mind Phrenology Developed by Franz Gall in the early 1800s Phrenology the study of bumps on the skull & their relationship to mental abilities and character traits Yielded the idea of localization of function the brain’s different areas that do different things Biological psychology Neurons (nerve cells) atoms of the mind Dendrite (ear) vs. axon (mouth) Glial cells support, nourish, and protect neurons & assist neural transmission Action potential Neural impulse that travels down an axon like a wave Fires when threshold is reached (when excitatory > inhibitory by a certain amount Synapse gap b/w neurons Whole proves is called electrochemical communication system Uses electricity & chemicals Reuptake After neurotransmitters were not received in a synapse, the sending neuron takes them back to be used again Ex: SSRI antidepressant drug prevents reuptake of serotonin Keys that almost fit Agonist molecule mimics neurotransmitter fills & activates it like the neurotransmitter Ex: morphine like endorphins Antagonist blocks neurotransmitter & fills lock so it can’t get in and activate the receptor site Antihistamine inhibits action of histamine The nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) and the spinal cord The peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the rest of the nervous body gathers and sends info to and from the rest of the body Sensory neurons carry messages IN from the body’s tissues and sensory receptors to CNS for processing Motor neurons carry instructions OUT from CNS to body’s tissues Interneurons (spinal cord and brain) process info between sensory input and motor output Nerves (not same as neurons; bundled up axons work together) Nerves consist of neural “cables” containing many axons Part of PNS; connect muscles, glands, & sense organs to CNS PNS Autonomic selfregulated actions heartbeat, breathing, digestive system 1. Sympathetic (arousing) fight or flight 2. Parasympathetic (calming) rest and digest Somatic controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles Neural networks “Neurons that fire together, wire together.” These complex webs of interconnected neurons form with experience Practice makes a huge difference Interneurons in the spine Reflex your spine’s interneurons trigger your hand to pull away from a fire before you can even say ouch! Interneurons sometimes have “a mind of their own” Endocrine system Refers to a set of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones Much slower than electrochemical Send messages through bloodstream Adrenal glands (& pancreas) Produce hormones such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol Hormones can linger for a while 1. Releases hormones as a result of stress 2. Effect: increased BP, blood sugar, heart rate They provide ENERGY for flight or fight Pituitary gland “master gland” regulates other glands Controlled by hypothalamus Produced growth hormones (esp. during sleep) & oxytocin, the “bonding” hormone Areas of brain and their functions (oldest to newest) Brainstem & cerebellum coordinates the body Limbic (border) system manages emotions and connects thought to body Cortex (outer covering) integrates information Less complex brain structures Brainstem (pons and medulla) Medulla controls most basic functions such as hear5tbeat and sweating Pons helps coordinate automatic and unconscious movements Thalamus (inner chamber) “sensory switchboard” Receives info from senses and sends it to higher brain functions Reticular formation (netlike) Enables alertness (arousal) being awake Cerebellum Helps coordinate voluntary movement Also: nonverbal learning and memory (riding a bike) Limbic “border” system consists of: Hippocampus Amygdala Hypothalamus Hippocampus Processes conscious memories (ones you’re aware of) Works with amygdala to form emotionally charged memories Amygdala Processes intense emotions, esp rage and fear Hypothalamus Below thalamus Regulates body temp, ensures adequate food and water intake; involved in sex drive A reward center makes us feel good when doing things that are good for survival (more rewarding to rats than food) Directs endocrine system via messages to pituitary gland Cerebral cortex; the lobes consist of: Outer grey “bark” structure that in wrinkled in order to create more surface area for 20+ billion neurons 300 trillion synaptic connections Frontal lobes (behind forehead) “executive functions;” involved in speaking, muscle movements, and making plans and judgments, inhibition of impulses Also active in use of working memory and processing of new memories Phineas Gage’s frontal lobe was damaged= loss of ability to suppress impulses and modulate emotions Parietal lobes include the sensory cortex Occipital lobes include visual areas; they receive visual info from the opposite visual field Temporal lobes include auditory processing areas Motor cortex controls voluntary movements Precise control= more brain space needed. Why faces and fingers need larger space. Our speech is very special Somatosensory cortex sensory input Association areas bigger space for integrating/associating information more complex animals have more cortical space for this Wholebrain association activity Complex activities require communication among association areas across brain Memory Language Attention Meditation & spirituality Consciousness Plasticity flexibility of brain If the brain is damaged: It usually doesn’t repair damaged neurons, but it can restore some functions It can form new connections and reassign existing networks Ex: constraintinduced therapy get “bad” side working again Splitbrain studies In extreme cases, to end whole brain seizures, people have had to cut the corpus callosum a band of axons connecting left and right hemispheres Split visual field Right eye can be said left hemisphere has verbal ability Left eye can’t be said but can be drawn Left hemisphere Thoughts and logic Details Languagewords and definitions (literal) Calculation Pieces and details Majority of humans are left brain dominant Right hemisphere Feelings & intuition Big picture Language: tons, inflection, context (inferences) Perception Wholes, including the self Chapter 3: Consciousness and the TwoTrack Mind Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environment Conscious vs unconsciousness activity: the dual track mind Conscious “high” track our minds take deliberate actions we know we are doing Ex: problem solving, naming an object, defining a word Unconscious “low” track our minds perform automatic actions often without being aware of them Ex: walking, acquiring phobias, processing sensory details into perceptions and memories “I saw a bird;” we see unconsciously notion, color, form and depth Our brains get us ready to respond without us realizing it Why do we have 2 tracks? Benefit: not having to think about everything we do all at once Ex: you can speak without thinking about the definitions of each word You can walk and chew gum and carry on a conversation You couldn’t figure out the meaning of a poem without this Unusual consequences Selective attention our brain is able to choose a focus and select what to notice there are millions of bits of info coming at our senses every second blocking out other stuff and focusing is a skill cocktail party effect we can focus out mental spotlight on a conversation even when other conversations are going on around us we can hyperfocus on a convo while driving a car, putting the driver & passengers at risk. You do both complex tasks HALFASS. Selective inattention our failure to notice part of our environment when our attention is directed elsewhere Ex: not noticing danger in the city from being on our phones Inattentional blindness when our environment is focused, we miss seeing what others think is obvious Magicians use this Change blindness person swap Brains are better at the big picture, so we miss details Sleep & biological rhythms 24hour biological ‘clock’ 90 min sleep cycle Circadian rhythm body’s natural 24hour cycle, roughly match do day/night cycle of light and dark These factors vary: Body temp Arousal/energy Mental sharpness ‘larks’ and ‘owls’ daily rhythms vary with age General peaks in alertness Energy peaks 20 y/old owls Morning peak 50 y/old larks Sleep cycles Left and right eye movements, EMG (muscle tension), EEG (brain waves) 90 minutes 4 different sleep stages Alpha waves relatively slow brain waves of a related awake stake Falling asleep Your breathing slows down Brain waves slow and become irregular You may have hypnagogic (while falling asleep) hallucinations Brain waves change from alpha waves → NREM1 NREM1 light sleep NREM2 moving into deeper sleep NREM3 deepest stage of sleep REM rapid eye movements dreams occur between periods of wild brain activity & REM Heart rate and breathing becomes rapid Sleep paralysis brainstem blocks motor cortex’s messages and muscle doesn’t move Paradoxical sleep the brain is active but the body is immobile The length of REM lengthens the longer you remain asleep. With age, there are more awakenings and less deep sleep Why do we sleep? The amount & pattern of sleep is affected by biology, age, culture, and individual variation Age in general, newborns need 16 hours of sleep; adults need 8 hours or less Individual variation some people function best with 7 hours of sleep. Others may need 9 or more Culture North Americans sleep less than others and less than we used to because of lightbulbs, etc Light and brain regulate sleep Circadian rhythm is hard to shift (jet lag) This rhythm is affected by light (pineal gland decreases production of melatonin) 1. Sleep protected our ancestors from predators 2. Sleep restores and repairs the brain and body 2. Sleep builds and strengthens memories 4. Sleep facilitates creative problem solving 5. Sleep is the time when growth hormones are active Respect sleep as a tool for high IQ and good learning Effects of sleep loss/deprivation Research shows that inadequate sleep can make you more likely to: Lose brainpower Gain weight Get sick Be irritated Feel old Altering consciousness: drugs Psychoactive drugs chemicals introduced into the body which alter perceptions, mood, and other elements of conscious experience Expectations play a huge role in how drugs actually affect you Dependence/addiction Many psychoactive drugs can be harmful to the body. Psychoactive drugs are particularly dangerous when a person develops an addiction/becomes dependent on the drug Tolerance refers to the diminished psychoactive effects after repeated use Feeds an addiction because used take increasing amounts to get the desired effect Withdrawal Painful symptoms of the body readjusting to the absence of the drug (after a tolerance developed and benefits wear off Worsens addictions because users want to resume taking the drug to end withdrawal symptoms Dependence (on a substance or activity) Tolerance Withdrawal Using more than intended Persistent failed attempts to regulate use Time spent preoccupied with substance, obtaining it, and recovery from it Important activities reduced because of use Continued use despite aversive consequences Depressants Chemicals that reduce neural activity & slow bodily functions Ex: alcohol (disinhibitor), barbiturates, opiates Chronic use → brain shrinkage Impact on functioning: Slow neural processing think slower and physically react slower Reduced memory formation because of disrupted REM sleep Impaired selfcontrol, judgment, selfmonitoring More aggression and accidents Casual sex, more aggression (men) Barbiturates Tranquilizers drugs that depress central nervous system activity Effect reducing anxiety and inducing sleep Problems reduced memory, judgment, concentration, can lead to death if combined with alcohol Opiates: highly addictive depressants Slow everything down and especially reduces pain High doses produce euphoria Made from the opium poppy Work at receptor sites for endorphins like morphine and heroin Stimulants Drugs which intensify neural activity & bodily functions Effects: dilated pupils, increased heart rate, breathing, alertness, and blood sugar; decreased appetite Ex: caffeine, nicotine Caffeine Adds energy Disrupts sleep Can lead to withdrawal symptoms if used daily Headaches, irritability, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, depresson Nicotine Main effect of nicotine use: addiction Increased alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate Releases neurotransmitters that relieve stress Starting to smoke = invited by peers and influenced by culture and media Continuing = positively reinforced by physically stimulating effects Not stopping = after regular use, smokers have difficulty stopping because of withdrawal symptoms, such as insomnia, anxiety, distractibility, etc Cocaine Blocks reuptake and increases levels at the synapses of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine Effect on consciousness: euphoria at least for 45 min Next: crash…agitation, depression, pain Tolerance over time, symptoms get worse, users take more just to feel normal Cycles of overdose and withdrawal can bring convulsions, heart attack, and death Methamphetamine Triggers the sustained release of dopamine, sometimes leading to shows of euphoria and energy Next: irritability, seizures, hypertension, violence, and depression “meth” addiction can become allconsuming Ecstasy/MDMA A synthetic stimulant & mild hallucinogen – increases dopamine and greatly increases serotonin Effects: euphoria, CNS stimulation, hallucinations, & artificial feeling of social connectedness and intimacy Next: regretted behavior, dehydration, overheating, and high blood pressure Chronic use: Damaged serotoninproducing neurons = permanently depressed moon Disrupted sleep & circadian rhythm Impaired memory and slowed thinking Suppressed immune system Hallucinogens LSD Interferes with serotonin transmission Causes hallucinations images and other “sensations” that didn’t come through the senses Marijuana Binds with brain cannabinoid receptors Depressant and mild hallucinogen Effects on consciousness: Amplifies sensations Relaxes, disinhibits impulses Euphoric mood Lack of ability to sense satiety Next: Impaired motor coordination, perceptual ability, and reaction time THC accumulates in the body, increasing the effects of the next use Over time, the brain shrinks in areas processing memory and emotion Smoke inhalation damage Biopsychosocial diagram on influences leading to addiction It takes multiple causal variables to cause something Biological factors dependence in relatives, thrillseeking in childhood, genes related to alcohol sensitivity and dependence, and easily disrupted dopamine reward system Ex: individuals w/ ADHD are more likely to use drugs Psychological factors seeking gratification, depression, problems forming identity, problems assessing risks and costs, lack of coping mechanisms Social influences media glorification, observing peers Recovery varies from person to person Labeling repeated behaviors as addictions/dependence can be valid because many of the criteria are met, and there may a dopaminerelated chemical process underlying some ‘addictive’ patterns Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture and Human Diversity Behavior genetics Study of how heredity and environment contribute to human differences Genes part of DNA molecules, found in chromosomes in nuclei of cells 46 chromosomes in 23 sets How genes work Genes aren’t blueprints; they are molecules They direct the assembly of proteins that build the body Genetic protein assembly can be turned on and off by the environment/other genes Any trait we see is the result of the complex interactions of many genes and countless other molecules Controlling variables Can we keep genes constant & change environment? Can we vary genes in the same environment? Fraternal and identical twins Identical twins = same genes (same sex) Fraternal twins = ordinary siblings in same uterus Twin and adoption studies How do genes make a difference in the same environment? Identical twins are more alike in: Personality traits (extraversion = sociability & neuroticism = emotional instability) Behaviors/outcomes like rate of divorce Abilities, overall intelligence, and test scores Attitudes, interests, tastes Specific fears Brain waves & heart rate Ex: Minnesota Twin Family Study twins were extremely similar even if they were raised in different environments Biological vs. adoptive relatives Adopted children are more similar to their genetic relatives than their environmental/nurture relatives Parenting Influences of parenting: Religious beliefs Values Manners Attitudes Politics Habits Why are siblings so different? Siblings only share half their genes Genetic differences become amplifies as people react to them differently Ex: extreme shyness genes that elicit negative responses Siblings are raised in slightly different families; youngest has more older siblings and older (wiser? more tired?) parents Temperament a person’s general level and style of emotional reactivity Parents are warmer to easy going kids and harsher to reactive kids Another difference NOT caused by parenting. Innate and genetic; most people don’t change temperament from infancy to adulthood 3 temperament types in infancy: Easy mostly happy, go with the flow Difficult mostly negative, hard to adjust to changes Slow to warm up hold back & hesitant, not intensely negative Heritability Heritability of a trait the amount of variation in the population that is explained by genetic factors This does not tell us the proportion that genes contribute to the trait for 1 person Also doesn’t tell us whether genetics explain differences BETWEEN groups Ex: people with exact same upbringing + difference in shyness = heritability for this trait is close to 100% Interaction of genes and environment Some traits are set by genes (ex: having two eyes) Other traits, such as physical and mental abilities, develop in response to experience Molecular genetics studies structure and function of genes Molecular behavior genetics how do the structure and function of genes interact with our environment to influence behavior? Genes for cancer may never be turned on. Toxins, stress, and diet come into the body and influence expression Selfregulation genes turn each other on and off in response to environmental conditions Ex: shortened daylight triggers animals to change fur color/hibernate = temperature genes activate Epigenetics the environment acts on the surface of genes to alter their activity Ex: obesity in adults can turn off weight regulation genes in offspring (infant rats) The trait of being adaptable is built into the human genome. Our bodies physically change to what’s going on around us they’re very open. We can change diet, lifestyle, etc. We live everywhere and eat almost anything Paradox: our genes allow us to not be tied so much to our genes Evolutionary psychology The study of how evolutionary principles help explain the origin and function of the human mind, traits, and behaviors We’re all alike because we’re homosapiens Natural selection certain behaviors had survival value to our ancestors Artificial selection of silver foxes Traits of friendless were chosen and carried on How might evolution have shaped the human genome? Ex: why does stranger anxiety develop between 913 months? Humans are learning to walk during that time Possible explanation human infants walking towards a lion won’t survive over an infant that clings to their parents Evolutionary psychology’s explanation of phobias Phobias of snakes, heights, dark, etc = maybe they lived longer and reproduced if they avoided these Clowns? Nothing to do with evolution Sometimes fears are useful Mating preferences b/w males and females 1 issue (quantity of mating) Men think about sex more and think casual sex is acceptable Why might natural selection have resulted in greater male promiscuity? Promiscuous men = more likely to have their genes carry on Promiscuity doesn’t increase the number of babies that women can have and would result in greater survival costs Men like fuller figures and not too young or old Women like men with resources These differences are less prominent in cultures that move to gender equality Homosexuality is not population control or misplaced instincts Critiquing evolutionary psychology This is all hindsight. However, it helps us to predict the future Places too much on genes and humans have no control. We have free will. It doesn’t determine how we ought to be Nature/nurture How environment/experience affects brain development Forces guiding the cause of development Parents (the schools and neighborhood) Peers Culture Our environment gives us our experiences. Rats living in an “enriched” environment with more social interaction and physical play experienced greater brain size and complexity than rats living in an “impoverished” envt. Brain development means growth AND pruning Experiences activate and strengthen neural connections The unused connections are “pruned” away (life experiences tell the brain which to keep) If certain abilities are not used, they will fade The brain’s development doesn’t end with childhood One useful highway is better than many little roads Is parenting a powerful influence on development? The power of parenting is clearest at extremes severe abuse and neglect Nonabusive “average” parents should ease off on both blame and credit they assume for how their children turn out (still, warm supportive parents create the betterfeeling adult) Parents vs. peers Parents influence: Education & career path Cooperation Selfdiscipline Responsibility Charitableness Religion Style of interaction with authority figures Peers influence (how you interact with peers): Learning cooperation skills Learn path to popularity Choice of music and other recreation Choice of clothing and other cultural choices Good and bad habits Culture influence on development The nature of culture Culture pattern of ideas, attitudes, values, lifestyle, habits and traditions shared by a group of people and passed onto future generations Variation across cultures Each culture has schemas standards for acceptable, expected behavior Ex: greetings/wearing shoes in the house or not Culture shock you don’t know what’s appropriate/acceptable Cultural variation even within one culture (over time): Language changes in vocabulary and pronunciation Pace of life quickens Gender equality increases Sleep less, socialize in person less, stare at screens more People marrying for love, expect more romance as well More divorce, depression, loneliness These cultural changes occur too fast to be rooted in genetic change Individualist cultures value independence Personal strengths and goals; competition; individual achievement; finding a unique identity Collectivist cultures value interdependence Group and societal goals and duties; blending in with group identity; achievement attributed to mutual support Childrearing: cultural differences Ppl in indv cultures might raise children to be selfreliant & independent Ppl in coll cultures might raise children to be compliant, obedient, and integrated into webs of mutual support Ppl in Asian and African cultures might raise children to be emotionally and physically close to others than in western European cultures Ex: babies sleeping in separate beds in separate rooms might be seen as cold Although there are cultural differences, the differences within any group are usually greater than the differences between groups Gender development Gender refers to the physical, social, and behavioral characteristics that are culturally associated with male and female roles and identity Ex: selfesteem difference b/w groups is smaller than differences within each gender Differences between genders Biological women enter puberty earlier, live longer, and have more fat and less muscle Mental and behavioral health women more likely to have internalizing disorders (depression, anxiety, or eating disorders) and men more likely to develop externalizing disorders (autism, ADHD, antisocial personality disorders – sociopaths) Gender and aggression men more likely to be physically aggressive Gender and social power In most societies, men are socially dominant (positions controlling more people and resources) Gender and social connection: play When boys play: Focus on the activity Larger groups More competitive Not much intimate discussion When girls play: Focus on connection, conversation Smaller groups More social Girls tend to invite feedback Social communication & connectedness Men and women use communication differently Men: Often talk assertively State their opinions and solutions Things and actions Women: Seek input and explore relationships Speak more about people and feelings Both men and women turn to women when they want someone to talk to sharing worries/hurts When coping with stress, women turn to others for support more than men (“tend and befriend”) Nurture side of gender roles: the influence of culture Gender roles more behaviors Gender identity what it means to be male/female What biology initiates, culture accentuates Social learning theory Gender role behavior is learned through observation, imitation, rewards, and punishments Ex: a boy crying is teased by his friends = punishment A girl is hugged and comforted = reward Gender schemas the cognitive frameworks for organizing boygirl characteristics Children are internally motivated to categorize everything, including people (& are motivated to conform) who is a boy? who is a girl?
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