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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Cara Cahalan

Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC/CYAF 471

Cara Cahalan
GPA 3.8

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Notes for all lecture material covered on Exam 1
Human Sexuality
Rosemary Esseks
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC/CYAF 471 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Rosemary Esseks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Human Sexuality – Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction and historical perspective­   Biopsychosocial Approach: o Bio­ genetics, anatomy, hormones, etc. o Psycho­ previous experiences, psychopathology o Social­ overall community context  Pederasty­ sexual relationship between young man and dominant older man, mentoring   Behaviors common in non­human animals:  o Masturbation, sexual interactions with the same gender, and sexual signaling (flirting)  Approach to sexuality in:  o Ancient societies  Egypt­ treats STIs, circumcision and contraception via sponges, women allowed to  divorce but not have abortion, temple prostitution part of religious observance   Greece­ gods engaged in sexual behaviors, assumed everyone was bisexual, pederasty  practiced, women had no legal rights and kept at home  Hebrews­ 1 god provided 1 behavior standard, codified laws, non­procreative sex  devalued and/or inhibited, but marital sex celebrated, women are husband’s property   Romans­ fewer restrictions on sexual behavior, upper class  sexual excesses, same­sex  relationships tolerated, women more socially visible  China­ Taoism­ heterosexual sex combining yin (feminine, inferior to yang) and yang  (masculine), sexual activity achieves harmony, manuals to increase proficiency.  o Non­western cultures  Indian­ cycle of life and rebirth, sex valued, sexual manual­ Kama Sutra, females < males  Islamic­ Muhammad supported women’s rights, son­in­law saw women as more sexual  than men, modest dress, celibacy not encouraged, sex outside of marriage  death   Christianity and sexuality  o Paul of Tarsus­ reject “desires of the flesh”, chastity is highest goal, marriage to avoid sin for  those who couldn’t abstain  o Augustine of Hippo­ sexual desire associated with original sin, sex okay for procreation, female  submission is divinely ordained  o Thomas Aquinas­ more restrictions on sexual behavior, persecution of same gender sexual  behavior, virgin/whore dichotomy, sex not for procreation was discouraged  o Martin Luther­ marital sex valuable to strengthen marriage   Sexuality in:  o Protestant reformation­ Luther and Calvin marital sex is valuable o Enlightenment (18  century)­ sex as natural drive, increased women’s rights, gays/lesbians  persecuted  o Post­revolutionary America­ secularization of society lead to a relaxation of sexual prohibitions o Victorian era­ strict codes of behavior, abstinence encouraged as birth control, angel in the house (upper class women celebrated), prostitution spiked   Graham and Kellogg­ eat bland food to reduce masturbation   Antimiscegenation Laws­ 1670, outlawed sexual contact and marriage between whites and nonwhites,  race mixing makes inferior people o Ex: Richard & Mildred Loving­ prosecuted for violating the Virginia law, overturned rendered  all remaining similar laws unconstitutional  Comstock Laws­ 1873 to prevent distribution of material considered obscene through the mail  Pioneers of sexual research:  o Henry Havelock Ellis­ both genders enjoy sex, sexual orientation is innate, “erogenous zones”  coined  o Sigmund Freud­ adult personality determined by individual’s success/lack thereof in negotiating  stages of sexual development in childhood, sex drive is normal, represson   psychopathology  o Richard Von Krafft­Ebbing­ deviant (anything non procreative) sexual behavior.   o Clelia Duel Mosher­ conducted first survey of sexual behavior, female issues focused on o Magnus Hirschfeld­ first scientific focused on sexuality, developed clinic to treat STIs,  infertility, and sexual problems.   Pioneers of sexology:  Alfred Kinsey­ first large­scale survey of sexual behavior many thought to be deviant but  o actually found to be common   o Evelyn Hooker­ non­heterosexual orientation is not inherently pathological.   1973—APA drops homosexuality from list of mental illnesses. o Virginia Masters & William Johnson—direct observation to study physiological arousal during  sexual activity.     Produced major discoveries in the mechanisms of sexual response    Sexual Revolution­ roots from feminism, penicillin (treatment of STIs, WII), and the birth control pill  (reproduction under women’s control) female employment increased,     Birth control movement­ o Margaret Sanger­ against Comstock Laws, contraception improved quality of life, reduced  poverty, and prevented abortions o During the Great Depression, acceptance of birth control increased  Gay liberation movement  o Gays/lesbians persecuted after WWII o Stonewall incident­ raided gay bar in NYC, clash with police  increased gay activism   Eugenics movement (US and Nazi Germany) o Government could improve population through sterilization of people with undesired  characteristics o United States was first country to take action, 30 states accepted and 30,000 people sterilized  o Nazi Germany­ forced sterilization people with genetic illness, 400,000 sterilized, not war crime  due to eugenics laws in Allied countries  Research­   Sexology­ scientific study of sexuality   Challenges in sex research o Nature of content­ privacy, uncomfortable discussion, link to emotional/moral issues, high non­ response rates  o Sampling issues  Random sample = each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected,  representative  Self­selection bias­ volunteers are more likely to be sexually experienced and liberal  Demographic bias­ middle class college communities o Response issues  Self­report bias­ self report influenced by tendencies towards social desirability  Retrospective self­report tends to be unreliable as memories degrade with time  Descriptive design­ examine phenomenon or group of phenomena; no manipulation of variables  Experimental design­ manipulation of variables to investigate causation o Experimental group­ receives intervention o Control group­ no intervention, compared to the experimental group o Must have randomization of subjects­ equal chance of being in either group  Randomized controlled trials­ randomly get 1 of a number of interventions  o Advantages­ lot of control to investigate causation o Disadvantages­ hard, groups can be impractical, experiment too artificial, very expensive   Surveys – questioning of subjects o Advantages­ cheaper, higher response rates, less subject to researcher biases  o Disadvantages­ subject to self­report bias, skip uncomfortable questions  Interviews­ structured or unstructured o Advantages­ more flexibility than surveys, rapport  better information  o Disadvantages­ self­report and interviewer biases, interpersonal format is uncomfortable, costly  & time­consuming  Direct observation o Advantages­  accurate/less subject to bias than self­report data o Disadvantages­ reactivity (behavior changes because it is being measured); may not generalize to population, not practical and expensive   Correlational designs­ measuring 2 or more variables to determine whether they are statistically related o Positively correlated (high with high), negatively (high and low) o Advantages­ enables determination of relationship between variables o Disadvantages­ doesn’t explain relationship between variables, not prove causation   Ethical principles o Do no harm o Informed consent­ research subjects must be aware o Ex: Tuskegee syphilis study (1929­1972)  Low­income African American men who were never told they had syphilis and were  repeatedly prevented from receiving treatment  To this day, has created mistrust of public health interventions Male Anatomy, Physiology and Health   Penis­  o Root­ base of penis, attaching it to pelvic bones o Shaft­ length of penis o Glans­ head of penis; filled with nerve endings o Foreskin­ loose hood of skin over glans o Urethral orifice­ opening through which urine & semen are voided o Internal penis structures  Cavernous bodies­ engorge with blood during erection  Spongy body­ underside of penis; engorges with blood during erection  Penile urethra­ hollow tube that conducts urine & semen out of body o Size­  Average is 3­4 inches in length when flaccid, 5­6 inches erect  Larger not associated with greater sexual satisfaction  Size can be changed only by surgery, but results tend to be dissatisfactory  Circumcision­ surgical removal of penile foreskin  o Currently performed on majority of male newborns in United States o Arguments for: custom, cleanliness, reduced STI rates, UTIs o Arguments against: surgery carries risk of infection   Process of erection o Erection­ engorgement with blood, causing size increase o Arteries triggered to expand ANS  increased blood flow  outflow reduced  retain excess  blood  arteries constrict causing excess of blood  Scrotum­ pouch of skin containing testes o Outside the body­ sperm production requires lower temperature o Hang loosely from body or move closer depending on temperature & sexual stimulation o Tunica dartos­  inner layer of scrotum, moves scrotum up & down along with muscles of  spermatic chord  Testes­ male gonad, make sperm and hormones  o Descent­ during fetal development  inguinal canal from abdominal wall to scrotum  o Cryptorchidism­ testes don’t descent  o Epididymis­ store sperm  Spermatogenesis­ sperm formation  o Takes 72 days total; 300 million mature per day o Spermatogonium­ immature sperm, develop in outer lining of seminiferous tubules, then move  toward center o Spermatozoa­ mature sperm  Head­ chromosomes & enzymes to penetrate egg  Mid­piece generates energy  Flagellum­ tail that provides propulsion  Spermatic chord­ attaches to testes o Vas deferens­ carry sperm from testes to seminal vesicles, 18 inches long  Seminal vesicles­ add secretions to sperm, making up 60­70% of volume of semen o Secretions  Fructose­ energizes sperm  Alkaline­ counteract vaginal acidity  Prostaglandins­ contractions in female reproductive tract to help move sperm o Merge with vas deferens to form ejaculatory ducts  Prostate gland­ alkaline secretions as seminal fluid passes through to the urethra  Cowper’s (bulbourethral gland)­ adds mucus and more alkaline secretions to seminal fluid o Fluid may appear prior to ejaculation  Seminal fluid­ on ejaculation contains about 200­500 million sperm, 1% of volume   Penile health o Smegma­ secretions and dead skin cells, cause infection  o Penile injuries­caused by sexual devices, or excess weight placed on penis during intercourse o Priapism  Painful & enduring erection  Can be caused by drugs (ex: ED medications, cocaine, marijuana)  Can cause tissue damage without treatment  Testicular health  o Testicular cancer­ most common form of cancer in males age 15­44, no symptoms until  advanced, painless mass, more curable cancer o Inguinal hernia­ when intestines protrude into pathway taken by descending testes o Testicular torsion­ twisting of testes on spermatic chord, severe pain  Prostate health  o Prostate cancer­ one of most common cancers in males, 80% of cases in men over age 65, 2x as  common in African Americans  Treatments­  ‘watchful waiting’, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy  May cause erectile dysfunction and urinary retention difficulties o Benign prostatic hypertrophy­ prostate enlargement due to age, difficulty urinating, increase  activity and don’t hold it, medications or surgery   Gynecomastia­ male breast enlargement  Anabolic steroid use­ synthetic sex hormones, excess testosterone converted to estrogen, liver damage,  increased cholesterol, testicular shrinkage  Andropause­ testosterone reduction in males over 70, decreased sex drive & muscle strength, fatigue,  and moodiness o Testosterone replacement therapy­ increase risk of prostate cancer  Dietary supplements do not need to be approved by or registered with the FDA, thus regulation is much  weaker than for medications  Muscle dysmorphia­ unrealistic concern that one’s body is undersized/lacks muscle o Increased risk of steroid use & suicide o Treated with SSRIs & cognitive­behavioral therapy  Kegel exercises­ tightening and relaxing of pelvic floor muscles, stopping urine stream o Can improve ejaculatory control, strength of organs, and overall genital sensation Female Anatomy, Physiology, and Health   Vulva­ external sex organs/genitals   Labia majora­ Two parallel folds of skin extending from mons veneris to the perineum o Inner surface contains sebaceous (oil) glands, engorges with blood during sexual excitement  Labia minora­ thinner red folds better majora and vestibule, forward parts prepuce, some erectile tissue  Clitoris­ similar to penis, engorges with blood during sexual excitement o Shaft­ length of clitoris o Glans­ head of clitoris, nerve endings o Only function is sexual pleasure  Female genital mutilation  o Middle East, Africa, Asia­ virginity ensured, see clitoris as male, 80­100 million worldwide  Circumcision­ remove clitoral hood  Clitoridectomy­ remove clitoris   Genital infibulations­ remove clitoris, and both labia (most majora)  o Cause infection, trouble urinating/menstruating, death o Condemned by WHO and UN  Bartholin’s glands­ secrete fluid whose purpose is unknown; infection can cause swelling & irritation  Hymen­ fold of tissue covering introitus at birth o Generally perforated at center to permit flow of menstrual fluids o “proof” of virginity, some do not experience tearing at first intercourse  Urinary tract infections (UTIs)­ bacteria from colon, sexually transmitted o Increased urinary frequency & burning o Prevention­ wipe front to back, wash hands before touching genitals, urinate after intercourse  Vagina­ tube of tissue from external genitalia to cervix (opening of uterus) o Penis & sperm travel up during sexual intercourse; menstrual fluid & babies travel down o 4 inches in length­ expands during intercourse & childbirth o Walls create secretions­ maintain chemical balance, lubrication  o Grafenberg spot­ dime sized, in the lower 1/3 of vagina  Stimulation causes pleasure, sometimes orgasm with up to 4 oz. of ejaculate  Vaginitis­ inflammation due to antibiotics, irritation, even fatigue & poor diet o Signs include abnormal discharge, burning, itching, urinary urgency  Uterus­ grows the babies o 3 inches long, 2 inches wide, 1 inch thick­ pear  o Cervix­ lower portion, doughnut shaped o Fundus is dome­shaped top of uterus o 3 layers  Perimetrium­ outer layer, from same material as covering of other internal organs  Myometrium­ muscular layer, contractions (menstrual fluid or babies)  Endometrium­ inner layer, shed with each menstrual cycle  Cervical cancer­ more common in sexual active women, have increased partners, and/or have contracted HPV o Cure rate close to 100% if caught early  Pap smear­ detects cell changes that may lead to cervical cancer and other conditions o Endometriosis­ uterine tissue growing elsewhere in abdominal cavity, cause pain  o Endometrial cancer­ abnormal bleeding, survival rate is 95% if caught before metastasis  Ovaries­ produce ova (eggs) & hormones o Follicle­ cellular sac surrounding each ovum o Corpus luteum­ follicle after ovum has been released, producing hormones o Conditions relating to ovaries o Ovarian cysts­ when mature follicle fails to release an egg, possibly causing swelling & pain  Resolve without treatment o Polycystic ovarian disease can impair fertility, treated with hormones o Ovarian cancer  Most deadly form of reproductive cancer among women  Symptoms are vague; early detection is not common o Oophorectomy­ surgical removal of ovaries  Fallopian tubes­ transport ova from ovaries to uterus  Shedding triggers pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)  Phases of menstrual cycle­  o Menstrual phase  Fertilization hasn’t occurred­ estrogen & progesterone drops  endometrium sheds   trigger release of FSH  Tends to last 2­7 days o Proliferative phase  Rise in  FSH  follicles to develop  Developing follicles produce estrogen  endometrium thickens  Peak in estrogen  pituitary gland to reduce FSH and LH)  ovulation  Ovulation tends to occur 14 days before start of next period o Secretory phase  LH: ruptured follicle  corpus luteum which produces testosterone; endometrium  thickens  If no egg implant  no LH & FSH; corpus luteum degenerates  reduces levels of  estrogen & progesterone  restart   Menstrual cycle problems  o Dysmenorrhea ­ pain during menstruation o Amenorrhea­ absence of menstruation o Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)  80­95% of women have some symptoms  o Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, 5%)­ emotional, behavioral, physical, and cognitive  symptoms that significantly interfere with functioning, treat: SSRIs, birth control o  Hysterectomy­ surgical removal of the uterus o Total­ removal of entire uterus o Radical­ removal of uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes  Menarche­ first menstrual cycle for a young woman o 12 in US but varies from age 8­15, related to general health & heredity  Perineum­ between genitals & anus  Menopause­ cessation of menstruation o Signs: lack of menstruation, hot flashes, and vaginal changes o Average age of onset is 51 o Hormone replacement therapy­ synthetic estrogen and/or progesterone  Reduces hot flashes and osteoporosis  Increases risk of break cancer and possibly heart disease  Recommendation is to use lowest therapeutic dose for short­term only  Breasts­ produce milk for nourishment of offspring o Mammary glands­ produce milk; approximately 15­25 per breast o Areola­ pigmented ring around nipple o Breast cancer­ most common form of cancer in women  Risk factors: age, family history, and longer exposure to estrogen   Prevention­ Annual mammogram after 40, Breast awareness­ self­examination, Clinical  breast exam  o Mastectomy­ removal of breasts  o Mammography­ mammogram checks when you have no symptoms   Breastfeeding­ benefits: provides superior nutrition compared to formula and cow’s milk, reduced  obesity, higher IQ, and disease resistance for baby  Toxic shock syndrome­ bacterial toxin, could cause death  Sexual Arousal and Response   Hypogonadism­ testes unable to produce usual amount of testosterone  Replacement therapy­  o Testosterone: improves desire and function in both males and females with low levels, not  helpful for individuals with normal levels o Estrogen: relieve sexual symptoms caused by low levels but research is mixed  Retrograde ejaculation­ semen flows into bladder instead of out of body, harmless  Hormones:  o Steroid:   Testosterone­ in both genders, 20­40x higher in males  Produced in testes in males, ovaries in females (adrenal glands in both) o Low levels associated with reduced sexual desire in both genders  Estrogen­ in ovaries in females and testes in males (lesser extent)  Sexual response of vagina; lubrication, elasticity, and thickness of walls o Neuropeptide:  Oxytocin­ released by hypothalamus o “Snuggle chemical”­ enhances mother­child bonding by increasing skin sensitivity  (snuggle chemical)  Castration­ removal of testes, causes markedly reduced desire and sexual activity  Models of sexual response (Masters and Johnson): 4 stage model  o Excitement­ physical signs of sexual arousal appear  Females­ vasocongestion of clitoris, labia minora, and vagina, beginning of vaginal  lubrication, breasts enlarge; veins become more prominent  Males­ vasocongestion of penis & testes, beginning of penile erection, testes begin to  elevate  Myotonia­ muscle tension increases, causing grimaces, hand and feet spasms  Both genders­ sex flush, nipples erect, muscle tension increases, hands and feet spasms,  HR, BP and breathing increase o Plateau­ begun in excitement phase continue  Females­ vagina­ outer third forms orgasmic platform & inner two thirds balloon, clitoris  retreats under clitoral hood, uterus fully elevated, breast enlargement continues  Males­ testes elevate further and increase size, pelvic thrusting becomes involuntary  Both genders­ carpopedal spasms­ contractions of hands & feet (claw like) o Orgasm­ contractions causing intense, very pleasurable feelings  Females­ contractions in vagina, uterus, and anus, platform contracts 3­15 times, multiple orgasms, women fake (19­68%)  Males­ contractions in urethral bulb, urethra, penis, and anus  Emission phase­ seminal fluid builds up in urethral bulb, ejaculatory inevitability  Expulsion phase­ semen expelled from penis by strong contractions  Both genders­ involuntary muscle spasms occur throughout body, rectal sphincter  contracts  Simultaneous orgasms­ in some couples but uncommon o Resolution­ deep relaxation as body returns to normal  Females­ sex organs return to normal positions, takes longer if orgasm hasn’t occurred  Males­ rapidly after orgasm, sex organs back to normal   Refractory period­ most men are unable to orgasm again for awhile   Blue balls uncomfortable, persistent pelvic vasocongestion if orgasm isn’t  achieved  Helen Singer Kaplan­ triphasic model  Desire­ assists in understanding sexual dysfunctions  Excitement­ plateau phase as extension of excitement phase  Orgasm­ eliminates resolution phase  termination of sexual response  Aphrodisiacs­ increase sexual behavior o Foods, animal products  don’t work  o Drugs of abuse: alcohol­ increase sexual behavior. Ecstasy­ enhance sensation  Anaphrodisiacs­ decrease sexual behavior o Medications o Drugs of abuse: opiates­ decrease desire & behavior, cocaine­ loss of pleasure, nicotine­ reduce  interest   Brain and sexual resposne o Dopamine –euphoria and enhances sexual response o Serotonin – inhibits sexual behavior and oxytocin (no thanks, I’m good) o Frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex – directs decision making and impulse control o Spinal cord – controls vaginal lubrication and erection   Sex and Physical Illness/Disability o Spinal cord injury  Males: most retain capacity for erection, but cannot ejaculate or feel erection  Females: about 50% retain capacity for orgasm from genital stimulation o Diabetes – can cause ED in men; desire, arousal and orgasm problems in women o Thyroid disorders – reduce desire Gender and Gender Expression   Gender­ experience of being male or female, as influenced by biological or social factors  Anatomical sex ­ gender as signified by physical factors  o Prenatal gender differentiation­ internal reproductive structures begin to develop   Mullerian ducts­ female reproductive tract, disappear in males  Wolffian ducts­ male reproductive, disappear in females  External­ in 8  week after fertilization, same set of tissues  Triggered by androgens   Disorders of sex development o Androgenetic syndrome (AGS)­ chromosome/internal female   externally male, high levels of  androgens during prenatal development o Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)­ male chromosomes  externally female, body doesn’t  respond to testosterone rd o Sex chromosome disorders (23  set of chromosomes­ determine sex)  Klinefelter’s syndrome­ XXY, male with smaller testicles, low testosterone, infertility   Turner’s syndrome­ XO, normal external female genitalia but ovaries are underdeveloped  Gender identity­ view of one’s self as male or female  Gender roles­ patterns of behavior viewed by a culture as acceptable for a male or female o Includes attitudes, personality traits, body language, daily activities, and appearance  Gender typing ­ process of learning to engage in behaviors deemed gender­appropriate o Social learning theory­ children learn gender­appropriate behavior through observation of  behaviors of other males & females o Gender socialization­   Socialization­ adults shape behavior through communicating behavioral expectations and  reinforcing or punishing behavior o Gender schema theory­ children develop gender schemas  Ideas regarding gender including behavior, physical characteristics, and personality traits  Ages 2­3: can identify own gender. 4­6: gender concepts are rigid   Once gender schemas develop, children begin to apply them to themselves o Androgyny­ both masculine & feminine personality traits  Allows for greater flexibility; behave differently in different situations   Suggested as a possible alternative to strict gender roles   Research regarding behavioral gender differences: o Aggression (males), child rearing (females), cognitive abilities (males­spatial, females­verbal),  classroom (males speak more),  o Personality difference – females tend to be more extroverted/nurturing, males more  assertive/have higher self­esteem  Evolutionary perspective of gender typing­  o Gender­specific behaviors that increase survival rate   passed onto offspring   Gender socialization­  o Socialization­ adults shape behavior through communicating behavioral expectations and  reinforcing or punishing behavior  Gender schema theory­ children develop gender schemas o Ideas regarding gender including behavior, physical characteristics, and personality traits  Ages 2­3: can identify own gender. 4­6: gender concepts are rigid  o Once gender schemas develop, children begin to apply them to themselves  Gender stereotypes­ fixed, socially­transmitted ideas regarding behavioral expectations of genders  Sexism­ prejudice due to the expectation that a person will behave undesirably due to his or her gender


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