Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC/CYAF 471
Popular in Human Sexuality
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cara Cahalan on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC/CYAF 471 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Rosemary Esseks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
Reviews for Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/27/16
Human Sexuality – Exam 1 Study Guide Introduction and historical perspective Biopsychosocial Approach: o Bio genetics, anatomy, hormones, etc. o Psycho previous experiences, psychopathology o Social overall community context Pederasty sexual relationship between young man and dominant older man, mentoring Behaviors common in nonhuman animals: o Masturbation, sexual interactions with the same gender, and sexual signaling (flirting) Approach to sexuality in: o Ancient societies Egypt treats STIs, circumcision and contraception via sponges, women allowed to divorce but not have abortion, temple prostitution part of religious observance Greece gods engaged in sexual behaviors, assumed everyone was bisexual, pederasty practiced, women had no legal rights and kept at home Hebrews 1 god provided 1 behavior standard, codified laws, nonprocreative sex devalued and/or inhibited, but marital sex celebrated, women are husband’s property Romans fewer restrictions on sexual behavior, upper class sexual excesses, samesex relationships tolerated, women more socially visible China Taoism heterosexual sex combining yin (feminine, inferior to yang) and yang (masculine), sexual activity achieves harmony, manuals to increase proficiency. o Nonwestern cultures Indian cycle of life and rebirth, sex valued, sexual manual Kama Sutra, females < males Islamic Muhammad supported women’s rights, soninlaw saw women as more sexual than men, modest dress, celibacy not encouraged, sex outside of marriage death Christianity and sexuality o Paul of Tarsus reject “desires of the flesh”, chastity is highest goal, marriage to avoid sin for those who couldn’t abstain o Augustine of Hippo sexual desire associated with original sin, sex okay for procreation, female submission is divinely ordained o Thomas Aquinas more restrictions on sexual behavior, persecution of same gender sexual behavior, virgin/whore dichotomy, sex not for procreation was discouraged o Martin Luther marital sex valuable to strengthen marriage Sexuality in: o Protestant reformation Luther and Calvin marital sex is valuable o Enlightenment (18 century) sex as natural drive, increased women’s rights, gays/lesbians persecuted o Postrevolutionary America secularization of society lead to a relaxation of sexual prohibitions o Victorian era strict codes of behavior, abstinence encouraged as birth control, angel in the house (upper class women celebrated), prostitution spiked Graham and Kellogg eat bland food to reduce masturbation Antimiscegenation Laws 1670, outlawed sexual contact and marriage between whites and nonwhites, race mixing makes inferior people o Ex: Richard & Mildred Loving prosecuted for violating the Virginia law, overturned rendered all remaining similar laws unconstitutional Comstock Laws 1873 to prevent distribution of material considered obscene through the mail Pioneers of sexual research: o Henry Havelock Ellis both genders enjoy sex, sexual orientation is innate, “erogenous zones” coined o Sigmund Freud adult personality determined by individual’s success/lack thereof in negotiating stages of sexual development in childhood, sex drive is normal, represson psychopathology o Richard Von KrafftEbbing deviant (anything non procreative) sexual behavior. o Clelia Duel Mosher conducted first survey of sexual behavior, female issues focused on o Magnus Hirschfeld first scientific focused on sexuality, developed clinic to treat STIs, infertility, and sexual problems. Pioneers of sexology: Alfred Kinsey first largescale survey of sexual behavior many thought to be deviant but o actually found to be common o Evelyn Hooker nonheterosexual orientation is not inherently pathological. 1973—APA drops homosexuality from list of mental illnesses. o Virginia Masters & William Johnson—direct observation to study physiological arousal during sexual activity. Produced major discoveries in the mechanisms of sexual response Sexual Revolution roots from feminism, penicillin (treatment of STIs, WII), and the birth control pill (reproduction under women’s control) female employment increased, Birth control movement o Margaret Sanger against Comstock Laws, contraception improved quality of life, reduced poverty, and prevented abortions o During the Great Depression, acceptance of birth control increased Gay liberation movement o Gays/lesbians persecuted after WWII o Stonewall incident raided gay bar in NYC, clash with police increased gay activism Eugenics movement (US and Nazi Germany) o Government could improve population through sterilization of people with undesired characteristics o United States was first country to take action, 30 states accepted and 30,000 people sterilized o Nazi Germany forced sterilization people with genetic illness, 400,000 sterilized, not war crime due to eugenics laws in Allied countries Research Sexology scientific study of sexuality Challenges in sex research o Nature of content privacy, uncomfortable discussion, link to emotional/moral issues, high non response rates o Sampling issues Random sample = each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected, representative Selfselection bias volunteers are more likely to be sexually experienced and liberal Demographic bias middle class college communities o Response issues Selfreport bias self report influenced by tendencies towards social desirability Retrospective selfreport tends to be unreliable as memories degrade with time Descriptive design examine phenomenon or group of phenomena; no manipulation of variables Experimental design manipulation of variables to investigate causation o Experimental group receives intervention o Control group no intervention, compared to the experimental group o Must have randomization of subjects equal chance of being in either group Randomized controlled trials randomly get 1 of a number of interventions o Advantages lot of control to investigate causation o Disadvantages hard, groups can be impractical, experiment too artificial, very expensive Surveys – questioning of subjects o Advantages cheaper, higher response rates, less subject to researcher biases o Disadvantages subject to selfreport bias, skip uncomfortable questions Interviews structured or unstructured o Advantages more flexibility than surveys, rapport better information o Disadvantages selfreport and interviewer biases, interpersonal format is uncomfortable, costly & timeconsuming Direct observation o Advantages accurate/less subject to bias than selfreport data o Disadvantages reactivity (behavior changes because it is being measured); may not generalize to population, not practical and expensive Correlational designs measuring 2 or more variables to determine whether they are statistically related o Positively correlated (high with high), negatively (high and low) o Advantages enables determination of relationship between variables o Disadvantages doesn’t explain relationship between variables, not prove causation Ethical principles o Do no harm o Informed consent research subjects must be aware o Ex: Tuskegee syphilis study (19291972) Lowincome African American men who were never told they had syphilis and were repeatedly prevented from receiving treatment To this day, has created mistrust of public health interventions Male Anatomy, Physiology and Health Penis o Root base of penis, attaching it to pelvic bones o Shaft length of penis o Glans head of penis; filled with nerve endings o Foreskin loose hood of skin over glans o Urethral orifice opening through which urine & semen are voided o Internal penis structures Cavernous bodies engorge with blood during erection Spongy body underside of penis; engorges with blood during erection Penile urethra hollow tube that conducts urine & semen out of body o Size Average is 34 inches in length when flaccid, 56 inches erect Larger not associated with greater sexual satisfaction Size can be changed only by surgery, but results tend to be dissatisfactory Circumcision surgical removal of penile foreskin o Currently performed on majority of male newborns in United States o Arguments for: custom, cleanliness, reduced STI rates, UTIs o Arguments against: surgery carries risk of infection Process of erection o Erection engorgement with blood, causing size increase o Arteries triggered to expand ANS increased blood flow outflow reduced retain excess blood arteries constrict causing excess of blood Scrotum pouch of skin containing testes o Outside the body sperm production requires lower temperature o Hang loosely from body or move closer depending on temperature & sexual stimulation o Tunica dartos inner layer of scrotum, moves scrotum up & down along with muscles of spermatic chord Testes male gonad, make sperm and hormones o Descent during fetal development inguinal canal from abdominal wall to scrotum o Cryptorchidism testes don’t descent o Epididymis store sperm Spermatogenesis sperm formation o Takes 72 days total; 300 million mature per day o Spermatogonium immature sperm, develop in outer lining of seminiferous tubules, then move toward center o Spermatozoa mature sperm Head chromosomes & enzymes to penetrate egg Midpiece generates energy Flagellum tail that provides propulsion Spermatic chord attaches to testes o Vas deferens carry sperm from testes to seminal vesicles, 18 inches long Seminal vesicles add secretions to sperm, making up 6070% of volume of semen o Secretions Fructose energizes sperm Alkaline counteract vaginal acidity Prostaglandins contractions in female reproductive tract to help move sperm o Merge with vas deferens to form ejaculatory ducts Prostate gland alkaline secretions as seminal fluid passes through to the urethra Cowper’s (bulbourethral gland) adds mucus and more alkaline secretions to seminal fluid o Fluid may appear prior to ejaculation Seminal fluid on ejaculation contains about 200500 million sperm, 1% of volume Penile health o Smegma secretions and dead skin cells, cause infection o Penile injuriescaused by sexual devices, or excess weight placed on penis during intercourse o Priapism Painful & enduring erection Can be caused by drugs (ex: ED medications, cocaine, marijuana) Can cause tissue damage without treatment Testicular health o Testicular cancer most common form of cancer in males age 1544, no symptoms until advanced, painless mass, more curable cancer o Inguinal hernia when intestines protrude into pathway taken by descending testes o Testicular torsion twisting of testes on spermatic chord, severe pain Prostate health o Prostate cancer one of most common cancers in males, 80% of cases in men over age 65, 2x as common in African Americans Treatments ‘watchful waiting’, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy May cause erectile dysfunction and urinary retention difficulties o Benign prostatic hypertrophy prostate enlargement due to age, difficulty urinating, increase activity and don’t hold it, medications or surgery Gynecomastia male breast enlargement Anabolic steroid use synthetic sex hormones, excess testosterone converted to estrogen, liver damage, increased cholesterol, testicular shrinkage Andropause testosterone reduction in males over 70, decreased sex drive & muscle strength, fatigue, and moodiness o Testosterone replacement therapy increase risk of prostate cancer Dietary supplements do not need to be approved by or registered with the FDA, thus regulation is much weaker than for medications Muscle dysmorphia unrealistic concern that one’s body is undersized/lacks muscle o Increased risk of steroid use & suicide o Treated with SSRIs & cognitivebehavioral therapy Kegel exercises tightening and relaxing of pelvic floor muscles, stopping urine stream o Can improve ejaculatory control, strength of organs, and overall genital sensation Female Anatomy, Physiology, and Health Vulva external sex organs/genitals Labia majora Two parallel folds of skin extending from mons veneris to the perineum o Inner surface contains sebaceous (oil) glands, engorges with blood during sexual excitement Labia minora thinner red folds better majora and vestibule, forward parts prepuce, some erectile tissue Clitoris similar to penis, engorges with blood during sexual excitement o Shaft length of clitoris o Glans head of clitoris, nerve endings o Only function is sexual pleasure Female genital mutilation o Middle East, Africa, Asia virginity ensured, see clitoris as male, 80100 million worldwide Circumcision remove clitoral hood Clitoridectomy remove clitoris Genital infibulations remove clitoris, and both labia (most majora) o Cause infection, trouble urinating/menstruating, death o Condemned by WHO and UN Bartholin’s glands secrete fluid whose purpose is unknown; infection can cause swelling & irritation Hymen fold of tissue covering introitus at birth o Generally perforated at center to permit flow of menstrual fluids o “proof” of virginity, some do not experience tearing at first intercourse Urinary tract infections (UTIs) bacteria from colon, sexually transmitted o Increased urinary frequency & burning o Prevention wipe front to back, wash hands before touching genitals, urinate after intercourse Vagina tube of tissue from external genitalia to cervix (opening of uterus) o Penis & sperm travel up during sexual intercourse; menstrual fluid & babies travel down o 4 inches in length expands during intercourse & childbirth o Walls create secretions maintain chemical balance, lubrication o Grafenberg spot dime sized, in the lower 1/3 of vagina Stimulation causes pleasure, sometimes orgasm with up to 4 oz. of ejaculate Vaginitis inflammation due to antibiotics, irritation, even fatigue & poor diet o Signs include abnormal discharge, burning, itching, urinary urgency Uterus grows the babies o 3 inches long, 2 inches wide, 1 inch thick pear o Cervix lower portion, doughnut shaped o Fundus is domeshaped top of uterus o 3 layers Perimetrium outer layer, from same material as covering of other internal organs Myometrium muscular layer, contractions (menstrual fluid or babies) Endometrium inner layer, shed with each menstrual cycle Cervical cancer more common in sexual active women, have increased partners, and/or have contracted HPV o Cure rate close to 100% if caught early Pap smear detects cell changes that may lead to cervical cancer and other conditions o Endometriosis uterine tissue growing elsewhere in abdominal cavity, cause pain o Endometrial cancer abnormal bleeding, survival rate is 95% if caught before metastasis Ovaries produce ova (eggs) & hormones o Follicle cellular sac surrounding each ovum o Corpus luteum follicle after ovum has been released, producing hormones o Conditions relating to ovaries o Ovarian cysts when mature follicle fails to release an egg, possibly causing swelling & pain Resolve without treatment o Polycystic ovarian disease can impair fertility, treated with hormones o Ovarian cancer Most deadly form of reproductive cancer among women Symptoms are vague; early detection is not common o Oophorectomy surgical removal of ovaries Fallopian tubes transport ova from ovaries to uterus Shedding triggers pituitary gland to release follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Phases of menstrual cycle o Menstrual phase Fertilization hasn’t occurred estrogen & progesterone drops endometrium sheds trigger release of FSH Tends to last 27 days o Proliferative phase Rise in FSH follicles to develop Developing follicles produce estrogen endometrium thickens Peak in estrogen pituitary gland to reduce FSH and LH) ovulation Ovulation tends to occur 14 days before start of next period o Secretory phase LH: ruptured follicle corpus luteum which produces testosterone; endometrium thickens If no egg implant no LH & FSH; corpus luteum degenerates reduces levels of estrogen & progesterone restart Menstrual cycle problems o Dysmenorrhea pain during menstruation o Amenorrhea absence of menstruation o Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) 8095% of women have some symptoms o Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD, 5%) emotional, behavioral, physical, and cognitive symptoms that significantly interfere with functioning, treat: SSRIs, birth control o Hysterectomy surgical removal of the uterus o Total removal of entire uterus o Radical removal of uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes Menarche first menstrual cycle for a young woman o 12 in US but varies from age 815, related to general health & heredity Perineum between genitals & anus Menopause cessation of menstruation o Signs: lack of menstruation, hot flashes, and vaginal changes o Average age of onset is 51 o Hormone replacement therapy synthetic estrogen and/or progesterone Reduces hot flashes and osteoporosis Increases risk of break cancer and possibly heart disease Recommendation is to use lowest therapeutic dose for shortterm only Breasts produce milk for nourishment of offspring o Mammary glands produce milk; approximately 1525 per breast o Areola pigmented ring around nipple o Breast cancer most common form of cancer in women Risk factors: age, family history, and longer exposure to estrogen Prevention Annual mammogram after 40, Breast awareness selfexamination, Clinical breast exam o Mastectomy removal of breasts o Mammography mammogram checks when you have no symptoms Breastfeeding benefits: provides superior nutrition compared to formula and cow’s milk, reduced obesity, higher IQ, and disease resistance for baby Toxic shock syndrome bacterial toxin, could cause death Sexual Arousal and Response Hypogonadism testes unable to produce usual amount of testosterone Replacement therapy o Testosterone: improves desire and function in both males and females with low levels, not helpful for individuals with normal levels o Estrogen: relieve sexual symptoms caused by low levels but research is mixed Retrograde ejaculation semen flows into bladder instead of out of body, harmless Hormones: o Steroid: Testosterone in both genders, 2040x higher in males Produced in testes in males, ovaries in females (adrenal glands in both) o Low levels associated with reduced sexual desire in both genders Estrogen in ovaries in females and testes in males (lesser extent) Sexual response of vagina; lubrication, elasticity, and thickness of walls o Neuropeptide: Oxytocin released by hypothalamus o “Snuggle chemical” enhances motherchild bonding by increasing skin sensitivity (snuggle chemical) Castration removal of testes, causes markedly reduced desire and sexual activity Models of sexual response (Masters and Johnson): 4 stage model o Excitement physical signs of sexual arousal appear Females vasocongestion of clitoris, labia minora, and vagina, beginning of vaginal lubrication, breasts enlarge; veins become more prominent Males vasocongestion of penis & testes, beginning of penile erection, testes begin to elevate Myotonia muscle tension increases, causing grimaces, hand and feet spasms Both genders sex flush, nipples erect, muscle tension increases, hands and feet spasms, HR, BP and breathing increase o Plateau begun in excitement phase continue Females vagina outer third forms orgasmic platform & inner two thirds balloon, clitoris retreats under clitoral hood, uterus fully elevated, breast enlargement continues Males testes elevate further and increase size, pelvic thrusting becomes involuntary Both genders carpopedal spasms contractions of hands & feet (claw like) o Orgasm contractions causing intense, very pleasurable feelings Females contractions in vagina, uterus, and anus, platform contracts 315 times, multiple orgasms, women fake (1968%) Males contractions in urethral bulb, urethra, penis, and anus Emission phase seminal fluid builds up in urethral bulb, ejaculatory inevitability Expulsion phase semen expelled from penis by strong contractions Both genders involuntary muscle spasms occur throughout body, rectal sphincter contracts Simultaneous orgasms in some couples but uncommon o Resolution deep relaxation as body returns to normal Females sex organs return to normal positions, takes longer if orgasm hasn’t occurred Males rapidly after orgasm, sex organs back to normal Refractory period most men are unable to orgasm again for awhile Blue balls uncomfortable, persistent pelvic vasocongestion if orgasm isn’t achieved Helen Singer Kaplan triphasic model Desire assists in understanding sexual dysfunctions Excitement plateau phase as extension of excitement phase Orgasm eliminates resolution phase termination of sexual response Aphrodisiacs increase sexual behavior o Foods, animal products don’t work o Drugs of abuse: alcohol increase sexual behavior. Ecstasy enhance sensation Anaphrodisiacs decrease sexual behavior o Medications o Drugs of abuse: opiates decrease desire & behavior, cocaine loss of pleasure, nicotine reduce interest Brain and sexual resposne o Dopamine –euphoria and enhances sexual response o Serotonin – inhibits sexual behavior and oxytocin (no thanks, I’m good) o Frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex – directs decision making and impulse control o Spinal cord – controls vaginal lubrication and erection Sex and Physical Illness/Disability o Spinal cord injury Males: most retain capacity for erection, but cannot ejaculate or feel erection Females: about 50% retain capacity for orgasm from genital stimulation o Diabetes – can cause ED in men; desire, arousal and orgasm problems in women o Thyroid disorders – reduce desire Gender and Gender Expression Gender experience of being male or female, as influenced by biological or social factors Anatomical sex gender as signified by physical factors o Prenatal gender differentiation internal reproductive structures begin to develop Mullerian ducts female reproductive tract, disappear in males Wolffian ducts male reproductive, disappear in females External in 8 week after fertilization, same set of tissues Triggered by androgens Disorders of sex development o Androgenetic syndrome (AGS) chromosome/internal female externally male, high levels of androgens during prenatal development o Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) male chromosomes externally female, body doesn’t respond to testosterone rd o Sex chromosome disorders (23 set of chromosomes determine sex) Klinefelter’s syndrome XXY, male with smaller testicles, low testosterone, infertility Turner’s syndrome XO, normal external female genitalia but ovaries are underdeveloped Gender identity view of one’s self as male or female Gender roles patterns of behavior viewed by a culture as acceptable for a male or female o Includes attitudes, personality traits, body language, daily activities, and appearance Gender typing process of learning to engage in behaviors deemed genderappropriate o Social learning theory children learn genderappropriate behavior through observation of behaviors of other males & females o Gender socialization Socialization adults shape behavior through communicating behavioral expectations and reinforcing or punishing behavior o Gender schema theory children develop gender schemas Ideas regarding gender including behavior, physical characteristics, and personality traits Ages 23: can identify own gender. 46: gender concepts are rigid Once gender schemas develop, children begin to apply them to themselves o Androgyny both masculine & feminine personality traits Allows for greater flexibility; behave differently in different situations Suggested as a possible alternative to strict gender roles Research regarding behavioral gender differences: o Aggression (males), child rearing (females), cognitive abilities (malesspatial, femalesverbal), classroom (males speak more), o Personality difference – females tend to be more extroverted/nurturing, males more assertive/have higher selfesteem Evolutionary perspective of gender typing o Genderspecific behaviors that increase survival rate passed onto offspring Gender socialization o Socialization adults shape behavior through communicating behavioral expectations and reinforcing or punishing behavior Gender schema theory children develop gender schemas o Ideas regarding gender including behavior, physical characteristics, and personality traits Ages 23: can identify own gender. 46: gender concepts are rigid o Once gender schemas develop, children begin to apply them to themselves Gender stereotypes fixed, sociallytransmitted ideas regarding behavioral expectations of genders Sexism prejudice due to the expectation that a person will behave undesirably due to his or her gender
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'