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Exam 1 Part B

by: Erika Notetaker

Exam 1 Part B PSY 321

Erika Notetaker

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About this Document

Covers social self, dissonance, and attitudes and persuasion (chapters 5-7)
Social Psychology
Dr. Carrie Smith
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erika Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Exam 1 Part B Notes: *The Social Self* - What is the self?  A mental representation of personal experience including thought process, a physical body, and a conscious experience of individuality.  Separate and different than other “selves” in the room  Continuous over time and space  You can orient past and present  Develop self at about 2 years of age o Red dot test: Put red dot on forehead, put child in front of a mirror. Do they touch their forehead? -What are the functions of the self?  Contains our self knowledge  Organizes our knowledge as well  Self schemas/ actual selves o Work like other schemas, what we pay attention to, what we remember o We have our own reality  Self reference effect: because we know ourselves if we can link more information to ourselves we remember it well.  Self elaboration: link information to you  Possible selves: people that we could become. (Can even be possible selves that we don’t want to be)  Ought selves: Selves that we should become (out of duty/obligation)  These selves are NOT the same person  Self discrepancy theory (Higgins) o When there is a disconnect between selves it can lead to emotional problems  Actual vs. Possible o Barista example (wants to be a lead chef) o Could be worse but could definitely be better o Can lead to depression  Actual v. Ought Selves o Not living up to internal expectations.  Self Knowledge o Self regulation/ self- control  Self-regulation: The CEO of you. “What you need to do”  Limited resources  Midterms  self-regulation prioritizes what you need to do for time management and studying. o Impression Management: How you present yourself to other people  Self-Esteem: o Your evaluation of yourself o “Am I good, competent, a worth while person?” o Are you happy with you? -Where does information about you come from?  Physical World: Pictures, Mirrors o Self-Perception: (Bem 1972) o Think about our behavior and to gain knowledge about ourselves o Over-justification effect (Green, Sternberg, and Leper 1967)  Difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation  When rewarded group was no longer rewarded for playing the game, their times drop significantly  Decrease of intrinsic motivation because extrinsic rewards/motivation  Doesn’t go back to baseline  Tricky to figure out if child is intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated when they are receiving rewards for participating in something such as a math game.  Social World o Also get information about ourselves from other people o Receive information about ourselves through direct feedback o Reflected-appraisal (more indirect) think things about ourselves because we think others thing things about us  Social Identity o Part of who we are is determined by the groups we belong to  Ex: being southern (hospitable, generous)  Cultural World (Markis and Kitayama) o We would think differently about ourselves if we were born in a different country  Independent Construal Self: see them selves as distinct, separate, and autonomous. (Western cultures are more likely to be this.)  Interdependent Construal Self: see themselves as a larger aspect (Eastern cultures) -Accuracy of Self-Knowledge?  Are we concerned with accuracy about ourselves? o Yes and No  Biases o Self-Serving bias: when we succeed/ perform well, we make an internal attribution (I succeeded because I’m awesome) o When we fail we tend to make more external attributions (I didn’t do well on that exam because my pen broke) o Green & Holman 1994 o False Consensus Effect: we believe that other people have the same opinions and attitudes that we do  Ex: you hated a movie and cant understand how your friend liked the movie.  Illusory Superiority Effect/Better than most effect We cant all be better than average, then that would just be average. o (2016 Inside Higher Education and Gallop) “How are race relations on campus’s nation wide?  They said <25% good o What about on YOUR campus  84% good  When you’re bad at something you tend to downplay the importance of that trait. o False Uniqueness Effect: Over estimate how unique our traits are o Unrealistic Optimism: when we think our futures are brighter than other people  All these traits do make us feel better -Are we good predictors of our own behavior?  Woodicka and LaFrance (2001) o Female Undergrads  Sample 1: read about interview and asked how they would react to the sexual harassment during that interview.  Sample 2: actually participated in that job interview  Don’t have time to think about their answer because they were put on the spot. -Are we better at predicting other people’s behavior?  Eply & Dunning o 90% said that they would Vote but said 70% of their friends would vote o 69% actually voted o Why? Because we give ourselves the benefit of the doubt o We are better at predicting what OTHER people will do. -Are we good predictors of our emotional experiences?  Good at the “What”  Not so good at judging the duration and intensity o We tend to think in the extremes (If we broke up I would die) -Other People and the Self  Spot Light Effect: Concerned that other people are thinking about us.  We think people are especially tuned in to our appearance and our behavior.  But really everyone else is also walking around in their own “spotlight” o Gilvoich, Medvick, and Savitsky (2000)  What percent of people in a lecture hall would notice if you wore an embarrassing T-Shirt  People predicted about 50% of the people in the lecture hall would notice  The reality: not even 25% noticed the embarrassing T- shirt.  Self-Verification: we want other people to see us as accurately as we perceive ourselves.  Don’t do this all the time (usually we want self-enhancement) o Evidence? Swann and Hill (1982)  What if you see me as I see myself? What if you don’t?  Don’t want to be perceived as good but as accurate  Ex: Dr. Smith doesn’t see herself as sweet although other people have told her that she is sweet. -Do we want to interact with people who see us positively or negatively?  It depends (positive with positive) (negative with negative) -Self Esteem: the evaluation that you have of yourself (what is your attitude towards yourself? Is it positive? Or is it negative?  High self-esteem: positive  Low self-esteem: negative  Types (2) o 1. Explicit self-esteem: your conscious awareness of yourself o 2. Implicit self-esteem: unconscious what your mind automatically thinks of yourself  How do we measure this?  Name letter effect: my #s associated with me are winners.  Implicit Association Test (IAT) o High implicit self-esteem will automatically press good on things about themselves o You can have high implicit and low explicit self-esteem and vise versa. -Cultural Differences in Self-Esteem  Self-esteem is higher in western cultures because we are more individualistic.  More collective cultures are more in the middle between high and low  Does western exposure affect self-esteem? o Heine & Lehman (2003) o Self-Esteem did go up when people were more westernized  With implicit self-esteem you don’t see a difference between Asian and Western cultures -Maintaining self-esteem  Self evaluation maintenance model (Tesser)  We are motivated to view ourselves in a favorable light -In order to do that we take action  (1) Reflection: flatter ourselves with associations of other people o Ole Miss beating Bama (WE won) vs. Losing to Bama (They lost) o “Basking in reflective glory/ Cutting off reflected Failure”  Ciadini ET AL (1976)- sports attire o Study 1: If a team won you would see more team colors worn that following Monday and if they lost you wouldn’t see as many team colors worn. o Study 2: Pronoun Usage o “We wont” / “they lost” o General knowledge test o Describe most recent football game  Did well: totally okay with describing winning or losing  Did poorly: try to boost self esteem with describing how they won the football game.  (2) Strategic Social Comparison: comparing ourselves to other people o Downward social comparison: comparing one self to someone who is worse off than you. (Boosts our self-esteem) o Upward social comparison: comparing oneself to someone who is better off than you. (Motivation) o Maintain self-esteem by manipulating our social environment  We can choose who we hang out with  If it is a skill/trait that we care about/ key to our self-concept we tend to use strategic social comparison o Dr. Smith using downward social comparison when regarding fashion and who she hangs out with.  If it is a trait that we do NOT care about/NOT key to or self- concept we use reflection. o Dr. Smith could be friends with Eli Manning because he is good at football and she isn’t good at football. o Doesn’t mean we don’t want to hang out with total fails at life but we just need both types of processes to balance out our self-concept.  Research: Tesser, Campbell, & Smith (1984) o Wth are oth friends o 5 and 6 graders were friends with others that weren’t as good as them in certain areas. o Even in middle school we manipulate our social environment.  Also engage in self-handicapping o When our success is uncertain we create obstacles for ourselves that increase our chance of failure o (I failed because I was hungover, not because I’m stupid) o Our self-esteem was maintained but now we set ourselves up for failure  Ex: Dr. Smith’s friend Greg only likes women who have boyfriends. So when he gets rejected he can blow it off and be like oh well she had a boyfriend. -Considering self-esteem  Why does self-esteem even matter o If I am good person then others must think that too o Socio-meter Theory (Leary): self-esteem propels us to persist in the face of failure  Okay so higher self-esteem is better? o What do we know about low self-esteem?  Lower life satisfaction, feel more hopeless, have more stress, less able to cope, and engage in more anti-social behaviors. -But…  Think about our generation  Stability of self-esteem o Stable self-esteem: thinking of yourself as a certain type of person consistently o Unstable self-esteem: how we perceive ourselves is inconsistent on a regular basis.  It takes a lot of effort in maintaining a grandiose self-esteem.  Secure v. insecure self-esteem o Secure: feeling good about who you are because of who you are o Insecure: regarding how you feel good about yourself because of external validation.  (I am a good person because I make good grades/have a lot of money)  Experience more anger, stress, relationship problems, drug abuse, and eating disorders  Almost lose their intrinsic motivation -Narcissism  Fostered by high-self esteem. Grandiosity, need for admiration and need to feel important.  Tend to lack concern with other people  Need to know that you know how great they are. Need reassurance  The have no basis for their reasoning  Underneath this? o Deeper level of low self-esteem -So is high self-esteem always a good thing?  It depends  Our generation is statistically more narcissistic than previous generations  Dewall Et Al (2011) o Study about songs: songs nowadays tend to be about “me, myself, and I”  Ex: Sexy and I know it. *Cognitive Dissonance ­What we know already:  We value “me and mine”  Construe our own social reality  We also have a need for consistency  o Dr. Smith, Jen, and David example. Dr. Smith is no longer friends with  Jen because she hates her husband David.   Balance Theory: need for balance ­Basics of Dissonance: Leon Festinger Its really hard to change a persons opinion when it is tied to the self Cognitive Dissonance: is an aversive motivational state that occurs when 2  cognitions are in conflict. Or when there is a disconnect between your behavior  and sense of self. o When you feel dissonance you feel uncomfortable o Which motivates us to get rid of what is causing us to feel uncomfortable  Festinger and Carismith (1959) o Had participants come in and do a boring task o Then had them tell other participants how great the task was o One group got $20 for telling the lie the other group got $1.  o People change their beliefs and say the task was interesting (the $1  group) why? They had to justify why they lied for only a $1.  If we experience dissonance, what do we do to get rid of it? o Change behavior (a smoker could just stop smoking) o Eliminate a dissonant cognition (smoker justifying that smoking isn’t that  bad) o Add a consonant cognition (I smoke because I get stressed out so really  its good for me) o Self­affirmations (boost other examples that are good about them)  Examples of dissonance reduction o Post decision dissonance:  Retail purchases: once we pick something, school, car,  relationship we say we love it o Brenm (1956)  Appliance ratings o Knox and Inkster (1968)  Horse race bets o Festinger, Riecken, Schacter (1958)   End of the world o Former Chancellor Robert Khayat  Hazed by football team but still loyal to them. Why?   Effort Justification: we go through something unpleasant and we  increasingly value what we went through o Arson and Mills (1959)  On gordg group about discussing sex  The 3  group who had to read the most unpleasant words to join  the group rated the discussion the best even though it was a  boring discussion.   Predicting Dissonance o When does inconsistency produce dissonance?  When the self is implicated  When we had free choice (like joining a frat)  When we have fully committed   When the consequences were foreseeable  When we expended real effort (you went through a lot to join the  group) *Attitudes and Persuasion ­Attitude: an evaluation of someone or something in a positive or negative manner ­What does this have to do with social psychology?  Attitudes can predict behavior  Because people have interest and changing our attitudes (which makes it social) ­Where does it come from?  Look in text ­How do attitudes differ?  Implicit: unconscious attitudes  Explicit: conscious attitudes ­Valence  Positive   Negative   Ambivalent: both directions (positive & negative) ­Attitude strength  Some attitudes are stronger than others o Attitude accessibility: how easily an attitude comes to mind (Alabama  game vs. Georgia southern)  o Fairly resistant to change (convince an ole miss fan to cheer for  Alabama… lol no.) ­Attitudes and Behavior  Attitudes affect behavior… right? o La Piere (1934): Traveled the country with a Chinese American couple o They stopped at 251 restaurants (all but 1 served them) o After trip sent each restaurant a survey asking if they would serve a  Chinese American and 92% said no.  o Conclusion?  What conditions of attitudes predict behavior   Lots of intervening steps.  What affects how well attitudes predict behavior? o Accessibility of attitude o Strong attitude o Level of specificity (when there is a disconnect we assessed the wrong  attitude) o Personal relevance (the more relevant something is to you)  Sivacek and Crano (1982) o Raising the drinking age from 18­21 o High vested interest (under 21) o Low vested interest (21 and up)  Interpersonal aspects of the situation  I’m going to order a salad because everyone else is even  though I really wanted a steak.  Other situational constraints o Dr. Smith wont be drinking cherry coke on campus  because they don’t sell cherry coke on campus. 


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