JTC 100 Exam 1 Study Guide
JTC 100 Exam 1 Study Guide JTC 100
Popular in Media in Society (GT-SS3)
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by libby071 on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JTC 100 at Colorado State University taught by Joseph Champ; Kimberly J Spencer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 624 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
What do reporters need to remember about news readers? Readers are in a HURRY: provide focused stories that emphasize one clear news value Readers have SHORT attention spans: keep stories brief Readers want stories that PERSONALLY connect: present a variety of perspectives Readers want stories told in a COMPELLING way: graphic/visual format for appeal There is more than ONE type of reader: appeal to a variety of news values and stories What was the point of ancient human communication media such as petroglyphs, hieroglyphs, pyramids and statues? Served as way for humans to tell their stories Preserved stories as a form of medium Communication was associated with power and was used as a control factor How did newspapers originate in Europe? Acta Diurna: roman newspaper carved on tablet and posted after Senate meetings for people to read Corantos: one page sheets about specific events Gutenberg invented the metal press st o 1 used for printing bibles o Printed pamphlets and chapbooks: allowed access to more readers Define Colonial Press: Defined US journalism Free (anything) vs Open (works to a certain point) press Press as a watchdog: media watches over everyday people Creation of 1 amendment Define Partisan Press: Political party associations Opinionated Elitist and expensive to purchase Causes the rise of minority/ethnic press Define Expansion/Frontier Press: Occurred during railroad expansion Creating of telegraph lines: radical invention in communication o Allowed news to travel faster than humans o Information became commodity that could be bought and sold o Easier to coordinate large scale efforts over space and time o Stories became short because it was expensive to sent telegram Avocation of community: informed, entertained and provided a sense of identity for people on the western frontier John Peter Zenger: Wrote for the New York Weekly Journal Accused of publishing false information about NY governor Governor burned down news building and had Zenger arrested Zenger was cleared of charges and Freedom of Press was established: media allowed to publish the truth and question people in power What innovations did newspaper publisher Benjamin Day bring to the New York Sun and the newspaper industry during the ‘penny press’ era? first paper for the masses= medium for social change Created ad supported media Ads began to pay for newspaper production when they purchased ad space o Reduced newspaper cost to 1 cent o Offered simple direct stories o Crime coverage o Reporter and newsboy jobs created Yellow Journalism: sensational to overly dramatic crime, scandals, celebrities, etc. This was named because yellow was a color to grab attention. Two characteristics included sensationalism, and investigative reporting, "watchdogs." Joseph Pulitzer: justified the use of sensational news stories in the New York World decided to rebuild dispatch newspaper hired Nellie Bly as an undercover reporter Nellie Bly: exposed conditions in Blackwell Island Asylum by going undercover o wrote about mistreatment of patients o results created improvements to hospital wanted to participate in new form of journalism What counter-strategies did The New York Times employ to compete with the yellow journalism newspapers for readers in the late 1890s? New York Times never made up stories and eventually dropped their prices and attracted more population Why was each of the following newspapers important in the development of American newspapers? Boston News-Letter; Cherokee Phoenix? Boston News Letters was mostly current events and was first successful American Newspapers Cherokee Phoenix was the first Native American newspaper in Native American language What did new technology such as the typewriter mean for these newspapers? Increased speed and reliability Mechanical processing Less time consuming Larger audience How did many newspaper corporations respond to the rise of radio and then television? Radio became major competitor, followed by tv Decrease in advertising revenue Decrease in audience Newspaper consolidation o Family owned newspaper bought out by corporations Newspaper Terms: Communication: transmission of source from messenger to receiver and requires a response from the receiver Medium: means of sending information Mass Communication: process of creating shared meaning between mass media and audience Media Literacy: able to effectively and efficiently understand and use any form of mediated communication What are the main differences between magazines and newspapers? Magazines are non-daily, smaller style, and focus on short stores, entertainment, opinions, etc. Newspapers focus more on daily events, are larger; more print What was so important about the Saturday Evening Post? four-page newsletter caught general interest of public longest published magazine in America large readership with general interest: photos and popular fiction focused on women Why were women's magazines important in the development of the modern magazine? allowed pleasure for female mind allowed for a mass medium began to recognize women as people How did women’s magazines content evolve over time during the 1800's? focus shifted to politics addressed suffrage movement advocated consumerism Define muckraking: “literature of exposure” reporters who would crawl through society's "muck" to uncover a story o Unhealthy food, child labor, trade prices and electoral corruption successful because of national circulation and social problems, progressive era, more money time and space for reports Contrast general interest versus special interest magazines. Why did magazines aimed at a general audience start to fade in popularity in the 1950s? General interest was for a large diverse crowd special interest was for certain types of people General interest faded because people wanted to read magazine with their interest only that they could relate to What is the difference in the orientation vs. entertainment standard of news production? Orientation: what we NEED to know Entertainment: what we WANT to know High in Orientation: story on NASA High in Entertainment: story on the death of Michael Jackson High in Both: Clinton/Monica Lewinsky sex scandal What are the eight news values used to judge as issue or event's newsworthiness as we discussed in class? 1.controversy/conflict 2.impact/consequence 3.physical proximity 4.psychological proximity 5.human interest 6.the unusual 7.prominence 8.timeliness What is the difference between absolutist ethics and situational ethics with respect to the debate over deploying deception in covering a story? Absolutist: arguing no deploying Situational: case by case basis How does advertising differ from the other forms of media content? -intent -format -brevity -incidental exposure What important contribution did Benjamin Day of the New York Sun make to newspapers and advertising? -low-cost, ad-supported media -ads paid production costs What types of businesses were among the first to rely upon advertising? Urban/division of labor National Markets How are the rise of advertising and the development of the modern department store inter-related? Rise of brands What are positive contributions of advertising in modern society? industrialization/competitive economy -prosperity, higher income -democracy: choice -literacy Branding: assigning a brand to the name Positioning: to divide the marketplace into parts, or segments, which are definable, accessible, actionable, and profitable and have a growth potential Campaign: work in an organized and active way toward a particular goal, typically a political or social one What are the creative challenges in producing an effective ad? -Attention -Relate need -Prompt action -Reinforce/repeat buying How does the association principle work? connecting with positive value (even though may not be obvious) How does segmentation work? (demographics, behavior, psychographics) Separate audiences into groups based on demographics, behavior, etc. What are some of the most common creative strategies used in ads? -celebrity endorsement -plain folk -snobbery -bandwagon -hidden fears -sex -humor Why is it good for advertisers to take advantage of 'relational memory' and tap into a person's sense of nostalgia? Because the audience will remember the advertisement when the advertisers tap into that nostalgia or relational memory What did philosopher Jürgen Habermas mean by the term “public sphere”? What was his criticism of how the modern mass media have disrupted or negatively affected political debate in the public sphere? He meant that it is important of the public to also be included and discussing problems and decisions. He thought that mass media has negatively affected the public because of manipulation from slick promotion or advertising. What were the opposing viewpoints in the debate between Walter Lippmann and John Dewey about the role of news media in a democracy and the ability of citizens to engage in political decision-making? Lippman believed that the public did not care about politics and that someone will decide from them. he also believed that the media should just supply the info for the public. Dewey believed that citizens should participate in ideas and the media should not encourage public to debate. What are the criticisms of contemporary political advertising, primarily negative political advertising, with respect to its impact on our public sphere of political discourse? What was the first political attack ad on television and who did it target? Negative political ads could sway voters because they had no idea who to vote for They focused on the candidate and what was wrong with them, not political issues. A lot of money was spent on these negative ads. The first political ad attack was “daisy” ad o Between Johnson and Goldwater o Countdown of daisy petals to atomic bomb blast illustrating this will happen if Goldwater is elected What is electronic populism? According to critics, what harm or threat does it pose to our system of governance? Electronic populism is from margins to mainstream Otherwise known as making candidates look less political It can harm our system by the public paying attention paying attention to this entertainment rather than the orientation side of it. What e-strategies have been developed and used effectively by the Barack Obama campaign for fundraising during the 2008 and 2012 presidential race? “new school” strategies Microgiving: easy to donate small amounts Multi-channeling market: hitting variety of media platforms “personal fundraising”: peer to peer donating or friends as friends to give money When it comes to regulating or controlling the mass media, what is the difference between formal controls and informal rules or controls? Give specific examples of formal rules and informal rules used to control the mass media. Formal rules include laws and regulation informal is cultural values and norms An example of formal would be the first amendment An example of informal is ratings Prior Restraint: When government prevents or blocks sharing of media content in places of serious threats or national security Government must prove it is a threat or dangerous Be familiar with the Pentagon Papers case. What was it about and what was the significance of the Supreme Court ruling in the case and its decision that the New York Times could resume publication of the documents? What was the real reason the Nixon administration wanted to block publication of the Pentagon Papers other than the administration’s claim of a national security threat and “clear and present danger”? Daniel Ellsberg wrote about controversies, etc. (several pages of documents that held secrets about Vietnam and government restrained New York Times article Government did this because it was a clear and present danger because they know we were not going to win and did not want to give off more war violence Supreme court sides with right to publish; although Nixon tries to block because he believes it is clear and present danger Why did the Supreme Court side with Hustler publisher Larry Flynt in the Jerry Falwell case in 1988? the statement made about Falwell was a satirical piece, deeming it opinion Flynt had much more protection since Falwell was a public figure How does proof of liberal or defamation involving public figures differ with defamation of character involving private persons? What mud pain tiff prime in each situation? If you are well known, you may not win a person not well known will most likely win Shield laws? What are the key arguments made but the news media in favor of Shield laws? Shield laws protect reporters from having to reveal their sources for controversial information used in news stories What are the three parts of the legal definition of obscenity determined by the “Miller Test,” according to the ruling in the Miller v. California case (1973)? Miller Test: tests that determined obscenity Three main parts are "community standards" o 1. appeals to prurient interests as a whole (sexual desires) o 2. patently offensive (by state law) o 3. lacks serious value (literary, artistic, political, or scientific) Wikileaks has come under heavy criticism for publishing tens of thousands of documents on what subjects regarding the U.S. government and military? Julian Assange- In late 2010, Wikileaks began releasing thousands of US classified documents. (Gather and reveal secret and unknown info and share with public) faced several charges Possible Exam Questions: 1. In class we discussed such ancient human communication “media” as petroglyphs, hieroglyphs, pyramids, and statues. We discussed how they can be said to represent early attempts to…? a. Create lasting image b. Communicate c. Tell us what was important to creators d. All answers 2. We know that a “fashion plate” is a term used for a stylish woman. The term started with… a. 19 century fashion illustrations etched into steel plates for printing b. A series of collectable plates produced by General Mills that featured images of stylish women c. An early composite bonding print process used in early women’s magazines d. A brief craze highlighted in 19 century women’s magazines in which a plate was fashionably put into a woman’s hair 3. Which of the following is NOT on the list of eight news values? a. Controversy/ conflict b. Familiarity c. Unusual/ novelty d. Prominence 4. In class we discussed how the “orientation” value of news is connected to the idea of ….? a. Wanting to know b. Needing to know c. Entertainment d. The unusual 5. If you believe that the use of hidden cameras is okay if it is the only way to uncover a story of corruption, your ethics are ….? a. Absolutist b. Prurient c. Situational d. All of the above 6. Which of the following is NOT something that reporters need to remember about news readers? a. Readers want stories that personally connect b. Readers want stories told in compelling ways c. Readers are one size fits all d. Readers have short attention spans 7. What is one wa that reporters can consider what readers want, while still providing a valuable service of keeping people informed on issues that matter? a. Write stories so they emphasize specific news values, such as impact b. Use a variety of visual presentations of news, such as infographics c. Write brief, focused stories d. All of the above 8. The segmentation strategy used by advertisers based on categorizing consumers according to their attitudes, beliefs, interests, and motivations, and often determined using focus group research is known as …? a. Demographics b. Psychologies c. Geodemographics d. Psychographics 9. The Obama campaign created a highly successful and unprecedented Internet fundraising campaign by using all EXCEPT the following e- strategies? a. Multi-channel networking b. Payroll e-contributions c. Micro-giving d. Peer-to-peer fundraising ANSWERS: 1. D 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. D 8. D 9. B
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