Text Book Notes Unit 2
Text Book Notes Unit 2 GEO3120
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Text Book Notes South East Asia Introduction Varied beliefs and traditions World39s wealthiest and most impoverished in one area Wealthiest Singapore Thailand Indonesia Brunei Malaysia and Philippine39s per capita Poorest Vietnam Cambodia Laos and Myanmar Dutch British Spanish hand French came in 15005 Only Thailand retained its independence Europeans had a lesser impact culturally than in other parts of the world Japan occupied most of the South East Asia area during WWII Post WWII Vietnam communist Spread to Laos and Cambodia Philippines Thailand Malaysia and Indonesian resist communism 1967 Indonesia Malaysia the Philippines Singapore and Thailand established the Association no Southeast Asian Nations to combat this threat Natural Environments Volcanic islands and coastal reefs now forming to some of the world39s oldest landscapes High elevation to signi cant low land Equatorial and Oceanic Climates Most of SEA is in tropical latitude Malaysia Indonesia and southern parts of the Philippines are in a tropical rainy climate Convective rain showers Surrounded by water Signi cant sea breeze Intense thunderstorms I net late afternoon evening Land breeze at night Skies are mostly clear then Landiscool Northern Philippines Indochina39s mainland Thailand and Myanmar have monsoon tropical climates Typhoons Opposite weather from LA because of El Nino Ex when Peru is dry the western Paci c is in an intense storm 19971998 major el nine event Indonesia had intense draught and forest res Continents and Islands Convergent plate bounders where plates slowly collide Much of the western an all of the southern and eastern periphery of South East Asia Boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates Himalayas Boundary between the Indian late as it pushed into Asia south ranges of Myanmar Indian plate 5 sub ducted beneath the Eurasian Plate and Indonesian island volcanic activity On the eastern margins of Southeast Asia more group of islands form due to the Paci c Plate being sub ducted beneath the Eurasian and Philippine Plates Transform Plate Margin where plates are sliding horizontally along one another Eastern boundary of the Indian Plate Ex unusual shape of Indonesia marks aft rot of uplift formed by pressures from the east Major Rivers Irrawaddy Salween Moong and Red Rivers Salween originates in the Tien Plateau and ows through Myanmar Irrawaddy ows through Myanmar Mekong rises in the Tibetan Plateau then ows through Indochina to its delta in Vietnam Flows through China Myanmar Thailand Laos Cambodia and Vietnam 1994 outline agreement between the lower basic countries to share the waters and protect them from environmental damage Red River lowlands form the northern Vietnam heartland Western Thailand also has a series of rivers Distinctive Eco Systems Contrast beetle continental Asia and the islands of eastern Indonesia Wallace Line marks the edge of plate tectonic action some 10 million to 15 million years ago that brought Australasian plants and animals to Southeast Asia Natural Resources Regional tin deposits Alluvial layers heavy mineral in concentrated lower down the valley or offshore due to the position of tectonic plates Water sharing Many rivers ow through many countries and some use more water than others Ex Thailand is critics for taking too much water Loss of sediment downstream Natural Hazards Plate boundaries have constant earthquakevolcanic activity Indonesia has the most active volcanic eruption in the world Ex in Sumatra in 1010 and near Sulawesi and Bali Tsunami Where the Indian and Paci c Oceans meet Extensive convergence zones Tsunamis are waves usually generated by water displacement from megathrust substantial uplift sea oor earthquakes More tsunamis are generated in the Paci c Ocean than in any other of Earth39s oceans 2004 90 earthquake under the Indian Ocean December 27th 2004 Resulted from subducting onto the Indian Plate under the Eurasians plate Extensive loss of life and property Pollution Erosion and Mining Excavations Expanding agriculture together with the cutting of forests for export lumber have resulted in extensive deforestation in many parts of the region Soil erosion Watershed ooding Destructive offshore sedimentation of sheries and coral reef areas Pollution of air and water and soil is a serious problem in South East Asia 19905 forest rst on Borneo and Sumatra Coupled with ElNino enhanced drought Covered Malaysia and Indonesia with a dense smog Illegal logging practices hurt the environment as well Globalization and Local Change Wide range in per capita income for South East Asia Signi cant global connections began in the 16005 Economic growth of hot e Southeast Asian countries in the late 19005 Due to exportation of raw materials And later manufactures goods to American and European markets By 20005 it was bolstered by international trade Financial crisis in 1990 Created ASEAN But they see each other as companies rather than countries Population Dynamics Movement and Growth Population on mainland Asia is closed in lowland river alley and along coastal zones Java has some of the most densely populated land in the region Natural Increase 1965 combined population of the countries of South East Asia was 275 million Doubled in 2010 Should be 699 million by 2025 Only exception to high growth rates were Cambodia and Lao deign with war Annual natural population increase rates are falling to about 1 in Myanmar Singapore and Thailand Falls in total fertility rates Most of the region has fertility rates lower than 2 Up until 19605 Thailand grew at Moe than 3 percent because of government enragement of large family World Bank then recommended a family planning program which became policy in 1970 Buddhist monks even blessed contraceptive pills In 2010 60 of Indonesia39s population lived on 7 of the land Have since been working on redistributing the population as well as family planning Migration and Resettlement in Indonesia Transmigration program in Indonesia Began in 1950 To move people around the landscape Did not adequately take into account age skill level ethnicity ore geographically appropriate farming systems Nearly half of al migrants failed to raise their standards of living And in the 19905 tribal group39s con ict became an issue Impact of AIDS In the 19905 Thailand and Myanmar became the centers39 of the AIDS expansion Thailand in particular has a thriving sex truism trade In 2000 nearly 800000 Thais had AIDS and around 400000 had died Traf c in People Business of forcing people into hard labor or position Fast t rowing market This region supplies around half of the women and children traf cked every year around the world Effects of Rapid Urbanization Urbanization is increasing everywhere Singapore is 100 urban Most countries had a concentration of people jobs infrastructure health care and education opportunities in the largest or primate city Ex Bangkok in Thailand 20 times the population of Thailand s next largest city Most countries encourage manufacturing more than they do agriculture Negative effects of expansion pollution and congestion have little impact on government policies of expansion Urbanization under Communism Cambodia Laos and Vietnam are communist All have distinct urban planning strategies that seek to river growth rate and resettling people in rural areas to produce food Ex Phnom Penh Cambodia was systematically depopulated in the late 19705 under Pol Pot Ex Saigon grew during the Vietnam War as people migrated to escape violence and Saigon was protected by American forces But when the communist government oak over Saigon after the 1975 reuni cation of South and North Vietnam they renamed it Ho Chi Minh City and implemented a deurbanization policy To reduce quotunhealthy39 overcrowding Economic zones were set up People were sent back to their original villages Ethnic Chinese people were persecuted 75000 left the country Allowed amounting Ho Chi Minh 175 million Policy changed again in the 19805 Slower controlled urban growth Geographic Identity Burmese Thais Cambodians Vietnamese Mays Indonesia39s and Filipinos Chinese communities are signi cant in all countries 7 of the total population Myanmar Malaysia Singapore and part of Indonesia have Indian ethnic groups Signi cant language diversity as well Animistic religions are prevalent Islam dominates Indonesia Malaysia and rune Buddhism is the chief religion of the mainland countries Philippines are mainly Roman Catholic Many of the Chinese business people in Indonesia Malaysia and Singapore are Christians ThaHand Identity by region Northern and western areas of Thailand are mainly Buddhist with historic links to Myanmar Karen minority upland groups that migrate from Myanmar Laos and Chain Northeast people share languages ND artistic traditions and Buddhism with the Lao people to the East Central Thailand people speak standard Thai and their Buddhism is more akin to that of the Khmer people in Cambodia Indone a Many island varied ethnic mixes Western Indonesia has lots of Hindu adherents who cultivate wet rice on Java and Bali Sophistical culture of social and agricultural traditions Islamic coastal gropes include Malays on Sumatra and the Makassar39s on southern Celebes Kalimantan s has many indigenous tribal groups dominated by the Dayaks Human Rights Human rights abuses exist along ethnic lines Malaysia 1969 race riots Led to new policies to correct the economic quotimbalancequot where ethnic Chinese owned nearly all of the business Myanmar remains a battle between the hill country people Shan Karen and others and the central government that sever lay oppresses them Yangon is less troubled Indochina suffered greatly from many con icts in the latter half other 19005 19751979 an estimated 17 million people died from starvation disease or execution Killers still live in the country without being prosecuted Until King Sihanouk signed a law in 2001 creating a tribunal to put the remaining Khmer Rouge leaders on trial Cumbia and Vietnam still have genocidal eradication of the hill people Vietnamese hatred of the Chinese Expulsion of Chinese businessmen in 1975 ASEAN and APEC The Southeast Asian Mainland Islands and Beyond Association of Southeast Asian Nations Initially a defense alliance Peace established economic growth Badges the physical and human geographic diversity of both mainland and insular south East Asia ASEAN countries experienced rapid industrialization beginning in the late 19605 Stimulated by foreign investment and government encouragement Brunei joined n 1984 Cambodia Laos Myanmar and Vietnam joined in the 1990s Wants to accelerate regional economic growth social progress and cultural development However diversity in religions and culture and language challenge the cohesion of the org Why it works better as just a economic collaboration Asia Paci c Economic Cooperation APEC Much more geographically inclusive Economic alliance quotMember economiesquot not member countries 2005 21 members Included Latin America Canada and the US Proper interaction with Thailand has proved an issue Another challenge has been the de nition of what a quotfair economic treatmentquot is in regards to agricultural products ASEAN wants to be competitive against APEC ASEAN membership is currently working on some common economic goals with few countries outside of South East Asia Singapore Most globally connected city in Southeast Asia Population is well education and mobile A city a country and an island 5 million people live in 620 square km Most materially healthy in terms of GNI per capita Hong Kong and Singapore have been enroots since colonial times Two busies ports Simpered imports Rae materials and un shed goods for other countries Nan the region adds value to them through processing re ning and manufacturing and then sells the for pro t to various global markets Chinese people began migrating to Singapore in the colonial era Chinese people are the largest ethnic group 76 Chinese 15 Malay 7 South Asian Independence care 0 Malaysia nada Singapore as a federate in 1963 Sin glare declared Independence in 1965 Of cial languages are Malay English Chinese and Tamil The Malay group is less educated and earns less than the majority Chinese or many Indians and other minority groups Yet the Singapore government makes special provisions for them such as Muslim schools Government turned Singapore to hightech industry In 19905 Singapore manufactured 40 of the world39s computer disks However affected in 2001 by US and Japanese cutbacks in tech Singapore and Malaysia are in constant competition Malaysia opened a new port PTP at the southern tip of its peninsula Singapore depends on Malaysia for nearly half of its fresh water needs Government is overly involved Small crimes harsh punishments At one point even encouraged reproduction only by the most successful of the population and discouraged it amount the quotless giftedquot Very little crime almost none to speak of Cleanest and safest urban environments Personal View Living as an Ethnic Minority in Malaysia Seetha ravindran Third generation Malaysian Indian She is a computer scientist Lots of urban growth Increasing leisure opportunities and stores Many people live in the suburbs and commune in by motorcycle car bus train and the light rail system Because housing in Kuala Lumpur is more expensive Many people of mixed parentage Chinese came to work in tin mines Indians came to work on plantations Chinese are now mainly middle class Indians are professions such as lawyers and doctors Indians was mostly from Northern India as part of the police force and security services Also from Kerala and Sri Lanka 1970s Malaysia began its transition to an industrialized economy aided by its petroleum boom 1986 economic growth exposed labor shortages More women be amen invoked in the labor force for high tech manufacturing Malaysian labor force grew faster than the total populate as foreign workers owed in to take increasing numbers ofjobs Immigrant workers from Indonesia Bangladesh and the Philippines Malaysia sought to become a service hub and IT sector But some of the poorest Indians became laborers living a handtomouth existence Displacement of workers as Malaysia builds more golf courses and housing estates Resulting in Indian ghettos in urban centers Malays are rstclass citizens In charge of government too Chinese people have to have Malay partners Strict racial quotas in higher education governmentjobs and business ownership Many nonMalay feel disadvantages in economic educational and political realms Many wellto do Indian Malaysians are moving to countries that are MO welcoming of immigrants Getting a permanent visa in Malaysia is nearly impossible South Asia Intro Land from the Himalayan peaks to the Indian Ocean Indian Subcontinent 15 billion People May be 2 billion by 2025 More than any other world region but the smallest world region Common culture interacting increasing lee with global in uences Uneven political social and economic geographies Region is hemmed in by the northern mountain wall Internally it is dominated by the great plains often Indus Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers People came originally through the northern mountain passes to access the rich plain 5 Muslim invaders came from the ocean European invaders also came from the Ocean India Pakistan Bangladesh and the Mountain and Islam Rim countries India is much globalized Western gills soap operas sports and languages New Indian TV stations brought a mainly Indian emphasis and now provide programing in 15 languages Indian lm industry produced more lms than the American one Natural Environment Dependence on uncertain rainfall of the season monsoon winds And long dry season Make water access crucial Monsoon Climates Heavy summer downpours over much of the Indian subcontinent but little rain the rest of the year Temperatures in South Asia become unbearably hot and air rises loweratmospheric pressure Wet monsoon breaks in JuneJuly Winds change direction Being drawn into the low atmospheric pressure area over the con nent Southwesterly winds from the Indian Ocean bring moisture 10000 mm of rain a year in the Himalayas In the peninsula sot of the monsoon rains fall on the Western Ghats Mountains Leaving the eastern lands in shade produces lower and less regular summer rainfalls that vary sharply from year to year Small number of tropical cyclones near the Bay of Bengal Monsoon rains ales miss most of Northwestern parts of South Asia including Pakistan and Afghanistan Together they form the Thar or great Indian Desert One of the most arid regions Main source of water here is the Indus and its tributaries Formed by melting Himalayan snow Winter season of the dry monsoon Himalayan Mountains cut off South Asia form Central Asia and its freezing air South Asia remains warm and dry Winds ow outward from high pressure north west Only Northern Sri Lanka and southeastern India receive rain in this season Surface Features Himalayan Mountains Northern boundary of the region Incur Mount Everest 29035 ft And 50 other mountains that rise of 25000 ft On the Tibetan Plateau Result from continental plate fragment that is peninsular India crashing in to the Eurasian continental plate Collision thickened the crustaI rocks to produce the highest mountains Continuing thrust SignaIed by earthquakes Raises the mountains by 6 cm per year HOWEVER as the mountains rise glaciers and rivers cut them and wear them down At present these factors balance each other out Indus and Ganges Breach the Himalayan wall in the far northwest Deep vaIIeyed carved by clackers and rivers provide lower routes Ex Khyber Pass through the Hindu Kush range Gives access to Afghanistan and Central Asia 0 Historic paths of entry for Aryan and Central Asian groups The passages ream in a focus of tension between India and Pakistan which vie for control of the Kashmiri region In the northeast of the Himalayas the ranges are lower and the turn southward into Myanmar Peninsular Hills and PIateaus Highest points of the insular is along the Western Ghats rise to just over 8000 ft Mostly plateaus and hills slowing towards the Bay of Bengal Along the east coast a broken line of hills the Eastern Ghats 5000 ft Lava from the split between the continental plate and the peninsula stiII ow through the Deccan PIateau Major River Basins Indus Ganges and Brahmaputra Melting Himalayans snows ant the monsoon rains combine in powerful ood ows in these rivers Build up deposits of alluvium up to 300 m thick beneath the plains Alluvial fans in the northern margins of the plain o Junction of steep mountain courses with the lowlands Badland topography where occasional rainfall runoff cuts dense networks of steep sided gullies into undefeated alluvial deposits At the mouth of granges and Brahmaputra join to form a huge delta of owling food bale lands occupied by Bangladesh Plains are densely populated and intensively farmed Ganges River also has great religious signi cance for Hindus Forests and Soils Much of South Asia was originally forested After centuries of clearance the teak forests of southern India and the restone the Himalayan slopes are almost all that remained Most fertile soils occur beneath the former forests Subject to annual ooding Or around the lava plateaus Natural Resources Precious stones mineral ores iron and uranium and coal reserves Deposits of oil and natural gas occur in the thick sediment beneath the major valley arras and just offshore Critical natural resource is water Monsoon rains had made it possible to support large civilizations The Ganges and Brahmaputra brought economic life to the lowlands south of the Himalayas Especially after irrigation Nan water storage techniques were developed lndus brought water to the arid lower valley Water was instrumental teen the green revolution Punjab and Haryana and part 5 of Uttar Pradesh Production nose by irrigating more land Applying more fertilizers and pesticides Chemicals washed into the rivers and then into elds Irrigated cropland went form 18 more than 50 Irrigation in South Asia Tanks excavated undress of years ago is the most common Local dams and canal systems Supplemented by medium sized dams Coordinated projects over the last 100 years Over 1000 large or mediumsized dams were constructed after 1947 Most remaining sites involve grandiose construction plans for the upper Ganges and lndus in the Himalayas Environmental Problems Clashing plates cause problems Set off earthquakes Ex Later Maharashtra in 1993 Ex Buhl Gujarat in 2001 More frequent less devoting earthquakes happen at the base of the Himalayas Flooding is a major problem in the14 lower Ganges and Brahmaputra vaHeys Especially over their combined delta Peak oods in 1998 and 2007 Affected over 30 million people Impossible to move this many people out of the unloadable area Or contract effective ood prevention measures But improved ood preparedness is needed Droughts And the viability of water is of crucial signi cance Water shortages raise major social issues In urban and rural areas Although the urban middle classes can install storage tanks against times of rotate slum dwellers win in line with buckets Village uppercastes can use good wells the untouchable have to nd their water elsewhere Maldives Island an date GagesBrahmaputra Delta face drowning by a rising ocean level as global warming proceeds Tsunami 2004 India and Sri Lanka were struck Massive earthquake generated off the coast of north Sumatra Damage and loss of life were great among shers and those in the rousted industry who occupied coastal sites UN then made a system to warn for such events Human Induced Environmental Problems Hinduism Jainism and Buddhism proclaim the importance of care for the environment Highcaste Hindus avoid killing animals for food jains abhor any killing Air Pollution Making the herbicides and pesticide use item green revolution resulted n dangers concentrations of chemical factories 1984 Union Carbide presidency plant in Bhopal India water leaked into a methyl isocyanate storage tank triggering a chemical reaction and aloud to toxic gases Killed 3000 people And another 12000 in adjacent slum areas The site still remains highly contaminated Increasing damage to the Taj Mahal because of air pollution Led to the closure of metal workshop in the surrounding areas Reduce sulfur gas Agglomeration of industrial development north of Mumbai and Delhi produce massive air pollution that destroys farming livelihoods and makes winter smog worse Water Pollution 40 of the Indian population lives in the middle and lower Ganges River basin Land is intensively cultivated Many factories and urban areas Some believe Mother Ganged will preserve them for harm But health dangers from various sources increase Heavily polluted ef uent form a concretion of leather thinning works near to ritual bathing sites Occurring both the source and downstream use areas Upstream water storage requires building dams and ooding Even where dams are constructing in sparely inhabited mountain they eventually l with sediment or may be destroyed by earthquakes 1993 local activist supported by foreign environmentalist in uenced the World Ban to withdrawal it funning for a dam on the Narmada River But work resumed in 2000 90000 people were displaced Downstream Extraction of water for irrigation alters river owy patterns Ex Ganges River oods are reduced by rye season ow is much lower Population Pressures Hinduism Sikhism lsla Buddhism Jainism and Christianity Universalizing religions clash with ethnic religions Central and state government nd that applying their rules locally often clashes with the interest of feudaltype warlords and landowners Small region of the world High density of population Grates concentration of people re in lowlands of the Indus gangs and Brahmaputra rivers Low population in desert areas of Pakistan the mountainous areas of western and tort abstain Afghanistan and the swampy Ran of Kutch within India And northernmost India Nepal Bhutan These areas hold little prospect for future population expansion Total population of 15 billion 2010 2 billion in 2025 Compared to South East Asia s 17 billion Birth rates are higher than death rates Although both are falling Birth arts are highest among the materially poorer groups especially in rural areas leading signi cant changes the social bland cad political pressures from hereto disadvantaged groups Pakistan s population except Bangladesh in 2005 And in 2025 an even further increase in the difference Higher fertility rate in Pakistan Although both have the same life expectancies Bangladesh has more problems feeing its population Stimulated the government to institute effective family planning By the 19905 half of married women used birth controls Pakistan needs an educated work force Undermined by the combination of in uences form lslamic religious practices feudal landlords and poor government Enrollment rates in the 1990s were at 30 compared to 70 in India and 80 in Indonesia and Chan Pakistan and Afghanis had the most rapid growth rate Sri Lanka increased at 12 In most countries total fertility rates are declining Many young people In 2010 44 of Afghanistan39 population was less than 15 years of age Birth Control Gender Inequalities and HIVAIDS in India Bath control methods gained acceptance slay among a largely illiterate people Male sterilization was perceived as economic suicide for families Major political issue in the 1977 elections D ousted Indira Gandhi s government until 1980 More effective family planning in the 19805 and 19905 Rising levels of literacy increased urbanization and improvement on the status of women Hindu women of higher castes used birth control more than poorer castes and less educated Muslims Indian middle class family39s now stabilizing at around 23 children per family But this is a small percentage of the population does not include the poor More women adopt family palling sterilization once they have had a boy But many families in rural areas want large families Also many Muslims disapprove of birth control Fewer females than males 107 males to 100 females Sharp differences between states 95 males per 100 females in Kerala 116 males to 100 females in Haryana Millions of missing fameless in India because of female infanticide Mothersmidwives killed 16 million baby girls a year 1997 HIVAIDS Problem form the 19905 India s cases at 23 million Less than half the previous estimate of 57 million Southern Indian states are affected more apart from Kerala Account for 80 of the cases Government then launched an education campaign on AIDS However most action comes from private organization and funds from abroad Although the Indian government is releasing funds Indian Social Relations Vulnerable groups prostitutes and truck drivers are particularly prone to infection the low status of women in families also assist transmission Those infected by husbands are cast out by their inIaws Many HIV positive men lose their jobs Copal sells their drugs at a low cost Increasing Urban Population Indira cities hold 30 of the population Rising from 250 million to 600 million by 2025 Provide encomia opportunities New jobs new factories From 19802010 the number of cities with over 1 million people jumped from 1243 By 2015 the largest cities are Mumbai Delhi and Kolkata and the will be 3 world of the world39s 10 largest cities India Bangladesh and Pakistan are largely rural countries 36 of the population living in town Pakistan 28 of the population living in town Bangladesh Bangladesh has fewer large cities Dhaka is the capital Shantytowns arrivals of rural people and social tensions are the troubles 19905 con ict between Muslim groups was made worse by the glaring contrasts between rich and poor Capital cities of Kabul Colombo and Kathmandu are the largest in the sub region and contain extensive shantytowns In Afghanistan the valley around Kabul have the highest concentration of people The Himalayan states have the most people near the Indian border South Asian Urban Landscape Many buildings were constructed of materials such as wood short life But permanent religious royal or military buildings Ex Hindu temples Older precolonial section of towns left a heritage of high housing densities with poor transpiration access along winding alleys People of similar castes trade live and work together Added a central market administrative offices and a clock tower normally Also British style churches 5 Britain developed major ports such as Kolkata Mumbai Chennai Karachi and Colombo Hill station towns were used by the Britain s as vacating homes almost for them to escape the heat After independence and partition migrants moved between Indian and Pakistan to large cities and were accommodated in refugee camps Modern cities have major industrial areas Most common around Mumbai in Maharashtra and nearby Gujarat South Asians Abroad 15 million Indians live abroad Largent groups in Nepal South Africa Malaysia and Sri Lanka the Persian Gulf states the UK Canada and the US Shopkeepers and business men in Fiji and the Caribbean because they were sent as laborers there during British colonialism and remained to work Professionals move to the UK and the US for betterpaid opportunities More recently people are owing to the oil rich Persian Gulf states Many Pakistanis Bangladeshis and Sri Lankans ales olive and work abroad Moved to Persian Gulf and South East Asia Sent remittances to South Asia India In 2010 2nCI largest Population but 4th GDP PPP Growing working age group Expected higher economic growth rate Possible to outshine Brazil or Russia World39s largest democracy Government Upper house is statenominated representative Lower hours is directly elected form Indiawide constituencies Women have a stipulated minimum number of seats in the government 29 states 6 union territories States issue social programs Union government is in charge of defense foreign affairs and currency SelfSuf ciency and quotSlowquot Development enterprises Jawaharlal Nehru rst prime minister Transferred land from the aristocracy to the peasants To rid feudalism Planed to make India a selfsuf cient industrial power Foreign competition was excluded by high import duties Civil service expanded Overemployment Little money for investment in infrastructure or manufacturing And if invested the project often didn39t work and used much of public money 9 Overcapacity uneconomical units corrupting and a fall in industrial productivity 0 Low priority given to food protection led to shortages and famines lndri Gandhi Nehru39s daughter Prime Minister in 1966 Green Revolution Reversed the neglect of agriculture 9 Famines of 19605 ended 19805 Indira and her success son Rajiv began to open lndia up to world encomia forces 9 Deep indebtedness also from costs of the revolution Crisis and Reform 1990 Gulf War caused oil prices to increase Remittances of Indian workers from the area stopped 1991 Reformist party took over government Reduced food and health care subsided Middle class approved as well did corporations Devalued the rupee exports are cheaper Indian government lost its control over the internal economy Annual economic growth increased from the 4 to 8 Economic growth came slowly in the 20005 Privation and market links were the way to become wealthy But only for the wealthy 9 Develop high tech goods and foreign connections some moved abroad Upper caste only Politics in the 905 was speci cally caste based 1998 BJP became the main party in government took power Strong Hindu nationalist mandate Detonated nuclear weapons 2004 Congress Party regained control Problems of poverty unemployment weak demand and low levels of investment continue to be major challenges quotRed corridorquot Eastern India Increasing MaoistNasality terrorist activity Further deterrent to economic growth People Religion Langue and Ethnicity y Predominantly Hindu And sizeable minorities Hindu festivals draw thousands Religions is extremely important everywhere Even the minority religions Muslims remain vulnerable in India Christian in the north in quotNagaland39 want independence Sikhs who had murdered drivel Sikh and then were ousted by the government assonated PM Indira Gandhi Diversity in languages is greater than that of religion 30 of the population speaks Hindi 15 official languages lndoAryan language sari prevalent in the north and those of Dravidian origin in the south 1600 languages spoke overall English is used in the legal system Speakers of a minority language are at an increasing disadvantage Caste Comely and unequal set of practices The word quotuntouchable39 is not spoken Today quotDalitquot is more commonly used Questioning their social position since 600 AD lndian Congress Part assisted them with special favors Ex reserving collage and civil service places for them Today caste discrimination is most obvious in rural areas Dalits are still barred from using the same wells as uppercaste Hindus Urban Contrasts of Wealth and Poverty Materially very wealthy 1 million people 1 of the population Visible politically Encouraged under the British New wealthy linked to high tech industry Wealthy live in guarded colonies educate their children in private schools and send them abroad for higher education Smaller family units are slowly becoming the norm Marriage is super important Urban middle class jobs in government services factories offices social work schools police or telephone exchanges Households dependent on government jobs occupy subsidized housing nice housing Girls in middle class marry in their late teens and men in their twenties Dowries tenser money to the man s family Largest group is the urbanized poor Unprotected informal economy work Children and elderly women are an integral part of the workforce Slums are recognized by manipulatives they have water legal electricity connection and shared sanitation But where they are not recognized the no lighting electricity or share sanitation Most are not recognized Homes are kept clean But disease is endemic Diarrhea tuberculosis typhoid hepatitis and cholera Castes remain the most signi cant social cleavage among the very poor Women in business face attacks from the high proportion of men Can have little personal freedom Physical and mental disabilities is another group in the poor castes Poor Rural Population Pulsation is largely rural 19602008 82 dropped to 71 rural But their share of India s GDP went from 50 to under 30 Even the remotest village became part of the global economy Zamindari system aristocracy land grants to elites how practiced a feudal way of life But land reforms put a exiling on the amount of land one family cold own not universally applied Few old landowning elites remain Today communities of landowning peasants is the norm Laborers have little chance of exacting a lifetime of poetry Debts are inherited by children Members of the family may be taken into bondage for not paying off a loan Womenrun cooperatives ad small rotating loans projects are the most effective moments to counter poverty Rural education is poor Except for Kerala Some wealthy farmers due to the Green Revolution Agribusiness is replacing some semisubstance farming Higher living standards Economic Development Indians living below the poverty line fell form 60 1982 to 42 2005 Still most remain very poor Indian scrapped many export restrictions expecting to double its sales abroad by 2007 Abolished price control Economy is looking globally Trading with Japan and China Still de cient in transportation and infrastructure Has a railroad system but needs updated Economic pro le is moving from farm based to factories and of ces Food production and the Green Revolution lndia produced enough food to support the basic needs of the whole population Price and methods do not guarantee everyone gets fed Indian production of food grans has increased 4X 190 million tons today Second largest what produce to China Bene ts form the Green Revolution were geographically and socially uneven Good for Pun jam and Haryana Negligible for areas where irrigation water was not viable Yields did not equal the costs put farmers out of business 34 of exports go to the oilrich but arid countries of the Persian Gulf India is the world39s 3rd largest cotton producer after US and China Boll worms are a problem May become resistant to pesticide Tea is an importation plantation crops l the northeastern part of India Coastal deltas around the peninsula were drained for rice growing Jute is a commercial ber crop grow in the western margins of the GangesBrahmaputra Delta Livestock is a major feature of India Most mineral rich part of Indian is the Chita Nagpur Iron ore and coal deposits Also have copper gold and manganese By 2000 India raised its coal mining output to 200 million tons a year 5th largest reserve of bauxite aluminum ore One of the top 10 shing countries n the world Very important to Indian diet Most forests have been cut Dif cult to nd any wood for materials or res Still grow on the southern slopes of the Himalayas Disturbing of manufacturing in India re ects historic crates specialties raw material locations the Births legacy of transportation hubs pots and administrative centers and encouragement offered by the union and state governments Small scale industries in India employ 140 million pee and produce 35 of al manufactured goods State governments often favor small businesses over large enterprises Largerscale heavy industrial sector of steel chemical and aluminum works Aluminum works are disturbed more widely across India And has received a lot of foreign investment Car and vehicle assembly became major parts of the selfsuf cient Indian manufacturing diversi cation Textile and garment comprise over 14 of India39s exports Mostly to US and Europe High tech industries increased from 2 billion to 2 billion 1995 2005 Bengaluru became India s rst quotelectronic cityquot Back of ce call centers Mumbai is the center of manufacturing a movie 5 The state of Maharashtra account for 14 of India s manufacturing output and is home to ore half of India s top 100 companies Gujarat north of Mumbai is the second most industrialized state Kolkata Other main manufacturing region in India Main headquarters ofjute manufacturing Iron and steel to the west of Kolkata output increased to 10 million tons Service sector is expanding rapidly Government employment remains a main source ofjobs Education policy in India needs to achieve a better balance between the basic levels of education that are still lacking and the oversupply of university graduates India39s tourist industry is growing rapidly and attracted 558 million people Poverty Was blamed on colonialism Now also on income Not enough strides yet Kerala An Anomaly in India Lush natural landscape High level of social development High life expectancy Literacy rate of 90 Girls barely lag behind boys 6 gap Little child labor And females fare well History of matriarchy among half the Hindu population Story of a child waiting for his father to return form working in the UAE Why so successful Coastal location Rulers Global contact and openmindedness 57 of the population is Hindu 23 Muslim 19 Christian Elected communist government Driving force behind the social political and economic reforms Overall success Limited job opportunity Agriculture is important Production no rice cashes and coconuts Fisheries are important North Africa and Southwestern Asia Introduction Cradle of three regions Source of world39s oil European control in 1920 resulted the imposition of new political boundaries Con ict around IsraelPalestine Struggle for the Kurdish and Sudanese people Environment Dry climate and desert vexation Evaporation rates are greater than precipitation Dominate the whole region But the lack of cloud cover make her nights cool or cold and freezes are possible in intern Rainy winters of the coasts of North Africa and eastern Mediterranean Lands Drought resistance plants Little vegetation Denser and thicker in the uplands North Africa Lebanon western Syria Turkey and Iran grasslands and woodland vexation increase as well Sand seas cover 14 of the Sahara Present aridity is one stage in a sequence of citations between more and less arid conditions Climate change Soils are poor and underdeveloped Underground aquifers provide water for therein Clashing Plates High mountain ranges Extensive plateaus contracts with wide river valleys Tectonic plate boundaries of the Africa Arabia and Eurasian plates Collision of the African and Arabian plates with the Eurasian plate form the highest mountain Ex Atlas in North Africa Ex Taurus Zagros and Elburz ranges in Turkey and Iran Mountain ranges extend from Northern Africa and Southern and Alpine Europe Volcanic eruptions along the geologically active belt injected mineralized uids that solidi es as veins in the rocks Fuels oil land natural gas in that area Major River Valleys Most water sources ow from the mountains or from rainy rains outside the region Snowmelt on the high mountain ranges of Turkey and Iran Feed the Tigris and Euphrates Nile River system has two major headwater branches that being in the rainy equatorial area around Lake Victoria And the seasonal rainy area along the Blue Nile Ethiopian Highlands White Nile River has tributaries hat are fed by rains through the year and supply a fairly constant ow of water Sudd Swamp in southern Sudan Blue Nile ow is more important because it is less subject to evaporation and produces the annual September Nile River Cultivation in a narrow zone just a few kilometers wide in a valley carved by the river Environmental Problems Arid regions are particularly fragile in response to human activities Populate nose growing new industries and cities are build and higher stands of living raise the demand on water all taxing on the geography Salinization drawing salt to the surface soil which reduces or destroys crop productivity 60 of the land in the TigrisEuphrates became unusable because of poor management Loss of farmland Oil industry is a major polluter Conventions of product on and distribution centers in the Persian Gul area pollute the atmosphere and water of areas around oil well surface seepages and where unwanted gases are ared off At the end often Gulf War Iraqis set oil well on re adding carbon gaze and particles to the atmosphere Global Environmental Politics Increase in C02 emissions by 152 in Southwestern Asia US about 15 and Europe declined Kyoto Protocol in 1997 Many in the MENA region rati ed the protocol But were not targeted by its goals So could continue with the C02 emissions Cultural and Political History First civilization Mesopotamia Region acted as an up with constant movement of people lnternal empires of the Assyrians Babylonians and Egyptians Gave way to external control form Persia Greece and Rome Byzantines before the 600 AD expansion of Muslims Religion After 1000 BC dormancy by regions with many gods gave way to regions based on a single god judaism was rst the Christianity then lslam judaism Began in 2000 BC Abraham and his descendants settled in the area after moving form Mesopotamia Historic role of family AD 70 the Roman Army destroyed jerusalem and dispersed jews throng Southwestern Asia Northern Africa and Europe Christianity Life teachings and depth ofjesus of Nazareth Believe jesus is the Messiah Christian church spread across Southwestern Asia into Arica and Europe Late 3005 AD the Roman Empire Content declared Christianity the state religion Islam Founded in Arabia Notably in Mecca and Medina Early 6005 AD quotSubmission to the will of Allahquot Muslims quotthose that submit to Allahquot Mohammed adopted many Jewish and Christian beliefs The Quran is the world of Allah revealed to Muhammad Muhammad died in 632 AD Arabs read Islam rapidly westward to Northern Africa and as well as into central Asia Uniting Arab peoples Converting Persians Turs and people in India Muslim Golden Age and father military expansion form the 8005 11005 Sunni muslin miss the majority Power based on caliphs Wahhabi set is an except on of strict religious SunnE Shia Look to Ali39s descend Twelve Shiism await the return of the 12th imam Known for commemorating and laminating Hussein39s death 90 of the population in Iran 60 of the population in Iraq Languages Four major language families 5 AfroAsiatic Arabic Berber and Hebrew Arabic is spoken by just under 50 of the population Also the preferred language doff the Quran Berber is primarily founded in Morocco and Algeria Hebrew is the offal language of Israel Indo European Farsi the of cial language of Iran Kurdish straddle turkey Syria Iraq and Iran Altaic Turkish Turkish speakers in Turkey use roman script Because of Western in uences Political Organization and Control Persian Dynasties Invading Mongols ruled Persia until the late 1400 Then the Safavids reclaimed Persian Until 1722 Use of the ulama to assert law and doctrine In 1722 the ulama took political control But could not resist the Afghans Ottoman Turks 15005 under Layman the Magni cent they conquered the Mediterranean coastland Took Balkan Europe as well Colonial expansion eroded the emir Did little after the 17005 Participated in WWI but were nished thereafter European Colonies and Proctors 18005 the Northern African coastland become colonies France Tunisia Marco and Algeria Italy Libya Britain Egypt Sudan and much of the southern Arabian peninsula after the 1869 opening the Suez Canal During WWI the Births and French built upon Arab nationalism to expel Turks League of Nations made Syria and Lebanon formerly ottoman French protectorates Oman Personal View Sultanate of Oman is located on the southeastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula Muscat it5 e capital Summers are hot and humid winter months are warm dry and sunny Monsoon rains tin the summer Portages occupied Oman from 15005 to mid16005 Then the Oman sultan drove them out Only to be reconquered in1798 by the British While most countries were going through modernization and liberalization Oman was medieval Hasty modernization since 19705 Construction is heavy and almost coast Literacy rates are rising Promoting gender equality Balance westernization with maintain of trading culture Modernization has attracted foreign development Men may occasionally wear western dre55 women wear traditional clothing in accordance with Islamic tradition Ai5ne in uences form trade Standard of living changes base on region and on one s national organ Ex the backbone of Oman s rapid modernization the labor force is comprised mostly of Sri Lankans Nicole Kessel summer of 2009 Omanis themes rarely do any manual labor Omanis are known for their hospitality Nicole39s car gets stuck in the sand on the coast t lna Bengali area Lots of trash Went squid shing Global Perspective Discovery of oil post WWI brought the region into prominence again Huge postwar growth after WWII Pan Arabism Postindependence movements opposed to Western economic colonialism Sought to unite on mostly secular nationalism None succeeded in uniting the Arab world Arab league of 1945 Opposition to the establishment of Israel 7 founding members Now has 22 members Including the PLO Linked Arab countries in the western Mediterranean with those in the eastern Mediterranean and southwestern Asia Egypt was expelled 1979 Camp David Accords Egypt and Syria creased the United Arab Republic under Nasser with the intent of persuading other contuse to commit their futures to a single PanArab country 0 Soon broke up Islamism As countries wanted independence religious af liations become more signi cant 1970s and 19805 Organization of Islamic Conference Now has 57 members Pakistan Indonesia and Nigeria Want to return Jerusalem to Muslim control Current concerns Israeli excavation of the Western Wall near the Al Aqsa Mosque The possibility of sending troops to trouble spots in Muslim countries Withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq Resolution to the Israeli Palestinian con ict Also promotes cooperation among its members in economic cultural scienti c and social elds Works with the Islamic Development Bank 1970s Islamic groups also came to the fore Different interpretations ofjihad Less peaceful in nature Call for on Islamic state caliphate Field by 1967 and 1973 IsraeliArab wars Greatest success in the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution under Ayatollah Rolla Khomeini became of cial in 1983 1979 invasion of Afghanistan by the USSR Generated anotherjihad eld by Persian Gulf and western countries Uni ed Isla mists around the world Brigid sent from Egypt Algeria the Arabian Peninsula Pakistan and south east Sai 1989 the USSR withdrew Gulf Wars 19901991 Failure to impose military solutions in Algeria and Egypt were blows for lslamists Suddam Hussein failed to unite the Muslim world His invasion of Kuwait and threat to Saudi Arabia brought American troops to Saudi Arabia holy soil lslamist latures cause oust counters that had supported guerrillas to withdraw form extremist actions Even in Iran a democratic movement is building But lslamism get frustrated and expand terrorist actives since they have no support from the state Ex AlQaeda with 911 2001 Oil and Natural Gas Resources Huge oil and gas production from MENA accounts for 65 of the world total 62 of the world39s oil reserves Moroco Turkey Israel and Jordan produce no oil Tunisia Sudan Syria and Yemen produce and export modest amounts OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Courante39s Works as a cartel an organization that coordinates the interest of producing countries by regulating oil prices Qatar Indonesia Libya the UAE Algiers Nigeria Ecuador Gabon and Angola joined Gabon ended its membership in 1995 As of 2011 OPEC had 12 members And it accommodated for 77 of the owl total oil reserves MENA countries accounted for 73 of OPEC s oil reserves Has an oil embargo and wealth countries during the ArabIsraeli war in 193 Prices rose 4x So revenues of oil reducing countries boomed in the midlate 19705 Ex Saudi Arabia UAE and Iraq gained over 90 of their export earning form oil sales Meanwhile consumers of oil were affected by higher prices and then by economic recession High oil price and recession also adversely affected the world39s poorer countries Water Politics Civilization of ten Nile Tigris Euphrates River valleys were based on irrigation water Renewable supplies that come from rain and snowfall feeding rivers are meager over most of this region Underground reservoirs are extremely helpful But are nonrenewable Greater demands for water due to irrigation farming the rise of the oil industry and rapidly growing populations 80 of the region39s water is found Intel hila and TigrisEuphrates River basis The Jordan River is crucial t other countries that depend on it All the rivers ow through more than one country Need for cooperation 19752011 the amount off freshwater available to each person dropped by more than half 1959 Nile Waters Agreement Between Egypt and Sudan Building of the Aswan High Dam To store sufficient water and generate electricity Nasser in 19705 stored 3 times Egypt39s annua water usage Sudan receives only 13 of the annual ow To provide freshwater the wealthier countries have begun desalinization plants Which make seawater usable MENA accounts for 12 of twirl39s desalination capacity Saudi Araba and the UAE count for 30 of the world capacity by themselves Saudi Arabia receives 70 of its freshwater from desalinization plants Israel receives winter rain the total rainfall is low and summer drought brings water shortages Internal groundwater souse are now fully used Israel relies on external sours for 25 of tis water Brackish slight salty water is used for some farming but it can also damage the soils if used too much Agriculture Little opportunity for farming tin the arid lands Most of the arable land extends form the shores of the Mediterranean and Red Sea to the Persian Gulf The nil and TigrisEuphrates rivers provide irrigation Interior deserts have given rise to nomadic herding Some farming on the fringes of Turkey Building of dams in southeastern Turkey has enable it to increase production cotton soybeans grains fruits and vegetables Many of the problems in agricultural product on stem from the colonial countries39 economic focus Land approbation for European settlers and elites the seed irrigation water for intensive farming tied to markets in Europe So agriculture in many areas is geared to export cash crops Ex citrus fruits olive oil and cotton Domestically needed crops such as cereal grains vegetable dairy and poultry meats Productive has increase with the introduction of mechanization the application no fertilized and double corroding Population distribution and Dynamics Concentrated pupation near the Mediterranean and the red Seas the Persian Gulf and the fertile valleys of the Nile and the Tigers Euphrates Populations of al lathe region39s counters continue to grow rapidly Expected to increase by over 13 in the next 20 years High birth rates and falling death rates Large groups of young people Highest fertility rate in Yemen Second is the PLO Variation in immigration make Israel39s population growth irregular Growth rate fell form 28 19651980 But rose again in 19905 as a result of immigration In mid2010 Israeli natural increase was 16 73 million In Israel 18 nonJews Mostly Arabs Life expectancy of 72 years Israel has the highest life expectancy of 81 years and Lowest life expectancy of 58 Urban Patterns Increases in urbanization Kuwait and Qatar went form 50 to 98 percent urban from 19502010 Qatar is now 100 urn Saudi Arabia went from m10 to 80 urban Shantytowns are features of incites across the region Boonville39s in Casablanca Gourbivilles in Tunis Oldest and most historically signi cant cities lie in the Fertile Crescent Medinas named after the sacred Muslim city in Saudi Arabia are historic sectors of cities valued for structure and soil fabric Souks commercial areas Populations concentrate in quarts Separate Muslims Jews and Christian City walls only remain in areas where tourism is important Tradition trading and craft industries gave way to manufacturing and service industries Fez Cairo and Constantinople today Istanbul were three important global cities 3 4th 5th largest cities AD 1200 Istanbul and Cairo and the largest incites in the region today Though not the most important Human Rights Gender inequality is a prevalent issue Male attitudes and the law work against women And Muslim culture Local interoperations and practices vary Saudi Arabia boycotted the 1995 World Conference on Women in Beijing because it was quotantiIslamic39 Literacy and education measure Human rights and women39s empowerment In general great discrepancy exists in the region between female Nan male literacy Only 30 of women in Yemen can read while 67 of men do However in the UAE literacy rates were 82 for women and 76 for men Turkey is the only country that has abolished the death penalty 2002 This region otherwise account for 384 of the 527 executions reported worldwide Excludes unprotected executions in Chan Iran has the 2nCI most executions Iran Said Arabia and Sudan allow for execution of minors Sudan Numerous civil wars Arb Muslim north versus black Christian and animistic in the south Famine and misery Drought Sudanese government relies on undisciplined tops and portability groups Human rights abuses have been wide spread Kurds Wanted to have their own nation called Kurdishstan 1984 the Kurds of southeastern Turkey launched a military campaign to free the Kurdish Turks responded with armed force Human rights abuses Changed the military tussle to a political one Turkey had to grant more rights to its citizens in order to join the EU Life for Kurds in Iraq is very uncertain Enjoyed rights under Saddam Hussein However after they joined with Iranian into eh Iran Iraq war of hot e19805 So then Saddam dropped gas on them When Saddam Hussein was ousted in2003 new constitution was rati ed in 2005 And the Kurds received their own regional government Kurds in Iran has suffered less persecution Last armed struggle was in 1979 after the Iranian Revolution Kurdish rights have been increasingly violated in Syria Since the Baathist part took power 1963 The Syrian Arabization program deprives Kurds of Syrian citizenship ownership of their land and since 1992 the right of children to use their Kurdish names when registering for school Israel and Palestine Israel is created by the UN Palestinian areas of Gaza strip and the West Bank became IsraeliOccupied areas after the war of 1967 In the 1930 380 00 Jews ed to Palestine despite the British mandate After WWII a million otherjews opined Pressured built for an independent state Britain could no longer handle the protectorate Handed the issue off to the UN UN Partition Plan Separate Jews and Arabs Arab countries rejected the portion plan Led to war in 1948 Arab attacked Israel Israelis responded an actually grew in territory Got Golan Heights important for water Sinai Peninsula West Bank Ghazi Strip UN wanted to go back to the original territory Israel did not agree Israel wanted to hold on to the land 1994 Oslo Accord Granted limited jurisdiction to the PLO over Gaza and west bank Israeli settlements n this areas were maintain A er1996 Israeli government resisted further development and transfer of lent too Palestinian Hamas increased its terrorist activity So the Israeli military would periodically enter Palestinian territory 2008 was the 60th anniversary of Israel But many still found it dif cult to celebrate because of tensions between Israel and Palestine Still felt threatened Current issues of contention 1 Should territories in 1967 be traded for peaceful ration or kept by Israel 2 How to handle a relationship among nationalism government land and religion be resolved in con ict between Jewish religious and secular interests 3 How can the original melting pot required by national cohesiveness in the face of early enemies Jerusalem Is a real proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950 Most countries do not recognize the capital But maintain that the capital is Tel Aviv Israel took EastJerusalem in the 1967 war And con scated land in the occupation and made Palestinians secondclass citizens Parliament In Israel Parties get small of the votes Lots of coalitions Re ect interests of progressive and conservatives in the Israeli community The con ict has increased political and religious polarization Early leaders tended to be secular with either nationalist or socialist views Ex Ben Groin Labor Party PLO under Yasser Arafat Fata were also secular in the beginning However as the con ict became more sever this changed Beginning in the late 705 Zionist parties increase exerted contour of Israel Their supports were settled in Gaza and West bank So in the 19805 Hamas emerged within the PLO Strong Islamism group Very antiSemitic Seeks to replace Israel with an Islamic state Neither the religious Zionists more Hamas are willing to make any concessions And both group print moderate forced on their respective sides from striking compromises Because Israelis have been in a position of power they have been the ones dictating the separation In 2002 they began building a wall to protect Israeli settlements in the West Bank Palestinians cant39 easily get around the wall But the land for the wall displaced Palestinian civilians Israelis and Palestinians Land in question is located in the Fertile Crescent Emprise of Babylonians Aryans and Persians AD 70 led to the Jewish diaspora As Rome took over and sacked Jerusalem For the next 2000 years the Jewish communist have canted in European North Africa and some Asian countries The became subject to oppression and serration in ghettos The lands in southwestern Asia became Palestine Arabs converted to Islam And Muslims became the dominant population in the area In AD 6005 From the medicine time she Turkish Ottoman Empire 1948 Israel declare independence Egypt Syria Iraq Jordan and Palestine declared war Millions of Arab Palestinians were displaced in temporary camps in Jordan and southern Lebanon Since then Israel has protected against quotterrorist activitiesquot Palestinians alive these actions to be moves to free their people and gain an independent country untied After 1967 there was the return of the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt but Israel retained occupation in Palestinian territories of Gaza and the West Bank Southern Africa
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