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SOC 300 exam 1 study guide

by: Madison Chandler

SOC 300 exam 1 study guide SOC 300

Marketplace > Brigham Young University > Sociology > SOC 300 > SOC 300 exam 1 study guide
Madison Chandler

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About this Document

I have outlined all of the main concepts from class and included explanations of each, examples of each, and how they apply to methods!
Methods of Research in Sociology
Michael Cope
Study Guide
sociology, methods
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Chandler on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 300 at Brigham Young University taught by Michael Cope in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Methods of Research in Sociology in Sociology at Brigham Young University.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Main points from class (based on Michael’s review slides at the beginning of each class) Be sure to review the experimental design handout and Standard Deviation slides.  Perspective o The wizard of oz and emerald spectacles  The lenses through which we look define how we view society, what we see, and what we remember about what we see.  How does a society’s culture affect perception and retention? How we see something will result in what we remember o Oden and the king of trolls story  Delicious tension o Methods help us sort through the tensions that we face as sociologists  Where do we find research o Pretty much everywhere! Churches, schools, journals, etc.  What is truth o Two premises  Reality: That which is real (is, was, always will be)  Knowledge of what is, was, and always will be  Therefore, truth is the knowledge of reality  Defining reality o Reality (what is)theory (how we look)perception (what we see)retention: (what we remember). o Coherence and correspondence  Correspondence is independent of what others think. What you perceive is what is there.  Coherence is dependent on what you as well as other perceive. This occurs when all agree.  EXAMPLE: I see a dress, the dress is blue: coherence. Molly sees a dress and thinks it is gold. There is no coherence here. If Molly also thought the dress was blue, there would be coherence.  Naturalism vs. theism o Naturalism: only the natural matters. As such, our studies should be focused on natural events exclusively and explanations should not depend on theistic principles.  Note: Does not necessarily exclude the existence of god(s). ‘ o Theism: presumes that all events involve God and any explanation that does not include God is incorrect  Note: does not exclude the importance of natural matter  Material and nonmaterial culture o Material are the tangible substances o Nonmaterial are things such as attitudes, beliefs, norms, behaviors, etc. o What is a family?  Knowledge as accomplice o There are problems in society created by science, but this knowledge is a good thing and a bad thing that accomplices damnation o There are 4 types of truths (see the following). Knowledge as accomplice describes how “science” uses the empirical and logical truths to explain things and discredits the emotional and traditional truths. Thus, empiricism and logic are accomplices to one another in excluding all truth.  Methodological agnosticism o We neither include nor disclude any truth (for example, emotional or traditional [religious] truths) in explaining behavior and phenomena until it can be proven as discredited and unimportant.  EXAMPLE: does religion play a part in a particular individual’s behavior? It cannot be included until the person says religion influences their behavior, and cannot be discluded until the individual says it does not influence their behavior.  Methodological atheism o Rule out all possibilities of the divine when explaining behavior and phenomena  Truths o The truths you feel: Emotional truths  Personal experience  Errors that occur  Limited perspective  Overgeneralization  Selective or inaccurate observation o When you look for evidence that confirms what you already believe and that would not support anything besides what you believe  Illogical reasoning o Prematurely jump to conclusions based on faulty assumptions  Resistance to change o When you think you have all the answers and don’t need to listen or seek further o Truths you are told: method of tradition  Authority  Stories  “The earth is flat” example in class o Truth of reason: logical/philosophical truths  Induction  I see a black duck, I see a black duck, I see a black duck, therefore all ducks are black  Qualitative: “My experience has shown me this…”  Deduction  All ducks are black, I see a duck, it is black  Quantitative o Truth perceived through senses: empirical truths  Scientific method  Truth=observation and error o Correcting possible errors  Overgeneralization  Scientific method correction: systematic sampling procedures generalizes to known population  Selective/inaccurate observation  Scientific method correction: systematic sampling  Illogical reasoning  Scientific method correction: Theory  Resistance to change  Scientific method correction: evidence trumps tradition and authority  Different kinds of research o Exploratory: seeking information o Descriptive: describing social phenomena o Explanatory: identifying and testing causes and effects o Evaluation: determining impact of social programs  What is science? o Objective: unbiased, detached o Systematic: methodological, regular procedure o Deterministic  Norms of the scientific community o Universalism: research is to be judged only on basis of scientific merit o Organized skepticism: scientists should challenge and question all evidence and subject each study to intense scrutiny o Disinterestedness: scientists must be neutral o Communalism: scientific knowledge must be shared with others o Honesty: scientists demand honest in all research  Potential problems conducting research o Observation  Heisenberg principle/Hawthorne effect (you will not need to distinguish between the two for the test).  The act of observing something changes it. People change their behavior when they know they are being watched o Experiments on people  WWII and Nuremburg trials  Nuremberg code: consent of human subject is essential  Milgram experiment: shocking people and obeying authority  Zimbardo prison stimulation: Stanford guards and prisoners  Deception and Tuskegee experiment: 50 black men with syphilis left untreated  Tearoom trade: observing impersonal sex and stalking without consent  Ethics and the Belmont report o Respect the person  Dignity and autonomy  Special protection of those with diminished autonomy  Informed consent o Benevolence  Do not harm  Maximize the benefits and minimize the harms o Justice  Benefits and burdens are fairly distributed  Don’t focus on one group or population  4 ways researchers protect participants o Avoid harming  Milgram experiment  Tuskegee o Obtain informed consent  Tearoom trade o Avoid deception, except in limited circumstances  Tearoom trade  You must debrief afterwards if deception is necessary o Maintain privacy and confidentiality  Randomized sample and matched assignment o Randomized is just that: random sample pulled from a population o Matched assignment: Experiment groups match a certain criteria  Problems with matching:  People do not all share the same characteristics and therefore there will not be a perfect match. You need to filter which characteristics you want to match on.  Even if you try and categorize people as being the “same” they are still going to be different, so that brings up the question of which control/determinants you are going to use  3 kinds of validity o Internal or causal  True experiments good at internal, but not external  Quasi more external, not internal o External or generalizability  Nonexperimental, such as survey research being less internal o Measurement  Important to all research  Reciprocal vs. symmetrical relationships o Reciprocal: people feel there is a balance: perception o Symmetrical: X and Y are the same: reality


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