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Serve Safe Study Guide

by: Cristina Notetaker

Serve Safe Study Guide Sls 1505

Marketplace > Miami Dade College > College Skills > Sls 1505 > Serve Safe Study Guide
Cristina Notetaker
Miami Dade College

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Notes and study guide for those studying something to do with cooking, these are going to help
College Survival Skills
Marcela Abboud
Study Guide
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cristina Notetaker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sls 1505 at Miami Dade College taught by Marcela Abboud in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see College Survival Skills in College Skills at Miami Dade College.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
+Servsafe Study Guide Populations at Risk: Elderly Infants and Preschool Children Cancer, HIV/AIDS, transplant, chemo Potential Hazards to food: Biological ( Virus, parasites, fungi, bacteria, toxins) a.k.a. pathogens-harmful microscope organisims Chemicals ( Cleaners, lubricants, polishes) must be stored away from food in separate closet. Must be clearly labeled with name and manufactures mixing directions. Physical (hair, nails, staples) also naturally occurring objects ex, bones, pits How food becomes unsafe: 1. Purchasing food from unsafe sources 2. Failing to cook adequately 3. Holding @ incorrect temperatures 4. Contaminated equipment 5. Poor personal hygiene What Pathogens Need To Grow: (Bacteria) Food Acidity Time Temperature Oxygen Moisture Food most likely to become unsafe: Milk Eggs Meat Poultry Fish Shellfish Baked potato Rice Tofu Sprouts Sliced Melon/Tomato Untreated Oil VIRUSES General Info: Viruses- can survive cooler & freezer temp. Growth- Viruses don’t grow in food. But they grow in people’s intestines. Contamination- Viruses can contaminate food & water Transfer- Person to person, person to food, people to surfaces. Through feces!! HEPATITS A Food linked with spread of virus: ready-to-eat food, shellfish from contaminated water. Common Symptoms: Fever General weakness Nausea Abdominal Pain Jaundice Prevention: 1. Keep employees who have been diagnosed out of operation 2. Wash hands NOROVIRUS S/A If outbreak happens with either virus, must contact local regulatory authority. BACTERIA General Info: Must keep food out of danger zone (41°F-135°F) Growth- FATTOM Form- can change form to ensure survival (spores) CONTAMINATION Chemical Contaminants Toxic Metals: Lead- This metal is found in pewter, which can be used to make pitcher and other tableware. Copper- This metal is sometimes found in cookware like pots and pans Zinc- Metal found in galvanized items coated with zinc *Cannot store or prepare acidic food (citrus, tomato sauce) in the aforementioned. ALLERGY Symptoms: Itching mouth, face, scalp Tightening in the throat Wheezing or shortness of breath Hives Swelling of the face, eyes, hands Common Food Allergens Milk/ Dairy Wheat ( Gluten-Free) Eggs Soy Fish/Shellfish Peanuts, Pecans, Walnuts Wait Staff should know ingredients in dishes, be able to describe dishes and there should be not secret ingredients. Wait staff should be able to provide alternative dishes. AVOID CROSS CONTACT!!!! Ex. Frying clams/shrimp and chicken in the same fryer. Each should have its own equipment. Food Handlers Can Contaminate Food- food handlers can spread pathogens by doing the following: 1. Scratching scalp 2. Touching hair 3. Touching nose 4. Touching pimple & infected wound 5. Dirty uniform 6. Spitting in operation Hand washing Technique: 1. Wet hands. Water should be at least 100°F or as hot as you can stand it. 2. Apply soap. 3. Scrub hands for 10-15 seconds. 4. Rinse 5. Dry with paper towel. *Entire process should take about 20 sec. When to wash hands 1. Using bathroom 2. Handling raw meat, poultry, seafood 3. Touching face, hair, nose, body 4. Sneezing, coughing, using tissue 5. Eating, drinking 6. Handling chemicals 7. Taking out garbage 8. Cleaning tables, busing dirty dishes 9. Touching clothing or aprons 10.Handling money 11.Touching anything else that may contaminate money Hand anti-septic after washing. NEVER in place of. HANDCARE- clean, short, unpolished nails. No false fingernails. Wear a band-aid and glove or finger cot to cover wounds. SINGLE USE GLOVES: Multiple sizes should be avaible. Latex free should be offered. Change gloves when: 1. As soon as they become soiled or torn. 2. Before beginning a new task. 3. At least every 4 hours during continual use. 4. After handling raw meat, poultry, seafood 5. Before handling ready to eat food. Work attire Clean uniform, hair picked up or put in a hair restraint, beard guard, NO JEWELRY!!! Only plain band allowed. Eating, Drinking, Smoking and Chewing Gum or Tobacco Do not do the previously mentioned when: 1. Prepping or serving food. 2. Working in prep areas. 3. Working in areas used to clean utensils and equipment. *May drink from a covered container w/straw in prep and dishwashing areas. IF THEN The foodhanlder has a sore throat with a RESTRICT the foodhandler from working fever with or around food. EXCLUDE if they work with a high risk population. The foodhanlder has at least one of EXCLUDE the foodhandler from the these symptoms. operation.  Vomiting Before returning to work, foodhandlers  Diarrhea who vomited or had diarrhea must meet  Jaundice one of these requirements.  Have had no symptoms for at least 24 hours.  Have a written release from a medical practitioner *Food handlers with jaundice must have a written release from a medical practitioner before they can go back to work. The foodhandler has been diagnosed EXCLUDE the foodhanlder from the with a foodborne illness caused by one operation. Notify the local regulatory of these pathogens: authority.  Salmonella Typhi  Shigella spp. Work with the foodhandler’s medical  Shiga toxin-producing E. coli practitioner and/or the local regulatory  Hepatitis A authority to decide when the person can  Norovirus go back to work. Time-Temperature Abuse Most food illness happens because TCS food has been time temperature abused. Populations at Risk: Elderly Infants and Preschool Children Cancer, HIV/AIDS, transplant, chemo Potential Hazards to food: Biological ( Virus, parasites, fungi, bacteria, toxins) a.k.a. pathogens-harmful microscope organisims Chemicals ( Cleaners, lubricants, polishes) must be stored away from food in separate closet. Must be clearly labeled with name and manufactures mixing directions. Physical (hair, nails, staples) also naturally occurring objects ex, bones, pits How food becomes unsafe: 1 Purchasing food from unsafe sources 2 Failing to cook adequately 3 Holding @ incorrect temperatures 4 Contaminated equipment 5 Poor personal hygiene The longer food stays in the temperature danger zone, the more time pathogens have to grow. If food is held in this range for four hours or more, you must throw it out! Avoiding Time-Temperature Abuse Monitoring- Charts and schedules should be made to record temp. Management should make sure that this is occurring. Tools- Make sure that the appropriate thermometers are available. Recording- Record temperatures regularly. Time and Temperature control- Have procedures in place to limit the time food spends in the temperature danger zone. Corrections- Make correction if time-temperature is not being met. Thermometers: Bimetallic thermometer- Use to check temperatures during receiving and cooking. Use to check thick cuts of meat. Immersion probes- Use to check temperatures of liquids; soups, sauces, and frying oil. Penetration probes- Check the internal temperature of food. Especially useful for thin food, such as a burger. Air probes- Check temperature inside cooler and ovens. Infrared (Laser) Thermometers- measure temperatures of food (eggs) and equipment surfaces. Calibrating Thermometer: Ice-point method 32°F Boiling point method 212°F General Guidelines Clean and sanitize after every use to prevent cross contamination. Never use glass thermometers. The Flow of Food: Purchasing, Receiving and Storage PURCHASING: Buy from approved vendors. Meets all applicable local, state and federal laws. DELIVERIES: Arrange deliveris so they arrive one at a time and during off-peak hours. RECEIVING and INSPECTING: Check temperatures of all items and make sure they meet the critieria. See chart. If packaging looks damaged, wet marks, ice crystals, broken eggs, moldy fruit/vegetables…REJECT! Live shellfish- receive with shellstock identification tags. Tags must be kept on file for 90 days. Reject shellfish if they are very muddy, have broken shells or are dead. STORING: Labeling Label all TCS, ready-to-eat food, prepped in house that you have held longer than 24 hours. Label must include name of food and the date by which it should be sold, eaten or thrown out. All prepped in- house for maximum of seven days at 41°F Rotation FIFO Temperatures Keep TCS food at 41°F or lower, or at 135°F or higher. Product Placement Store food f in containers intended for food. *Store food, linens, and single-use items away from walls and at least 6 inches off the floor. Food should be stored in the above order in the refrigerator. Dry Storage:  Keep dry-storage areas cool and dry. To keep foods at its highest quality temp. in the dry storage area should be between 50°F and 70°F.  Store dry food away from walls and at least 6 inches off the floor.  Dry storage should be ventilated. The Flow of Food: Preparation Preparation-Cross contamination and time-temperature abuse can happen easily during this step in the flow of food. Food must be thawed correctly and handled properly. General Preparation Practices: This is basic guidelines that should be followed not matter what food you are preparing. Equipment: Make sure workstations, cutting boards, and utensils are clean and sanitized. Quantity: Remove from the cooler only as much as you need. Storage: Return prepped food to the cooler, or cook it as quickly as possible. Thawing: Freezing does not kill pathogens. Never thaw (defrost) at room temperature. Refrigeration: Thaw food in a cooler, at at temperature of 41°F or lower. Running Water: Submerge food under running water at 70°F or lower. Make sure the water is potable-safe to drink. Microwave: Thaw food in a microwave oven if it will be cooked just after thawing. Cooking: Thaw food as part of the cooking process. Fruits and Vegetables: Make sure fruits and vegetables do NOT touch surfaces exposed to raw meat or poultry. Wash fruit and vegetables before cutting. Pay attention to leafy greens. Batter and Breading: Prep batter in small batches. Store what you don’t need at 41°F. Discard: Throw any unused batter or breading away. Allergens: Don’t use the same batter for different types of food. Eggs and Egg Mixtures Pooled Eggs-cook the eggs promptly after cracking or store them at 41°F or lower. Wash and sanitize the containers used to hold them before making a new batch. Pasteurized Egg Consider using pasteurized shell eggs or egg products when preparing egg dishes that need little or no cooking. High Risk Populations Use pasteurized egg or egg products. Salads Containing TCS Food Because these salads (chicken, tuna, egg, pasta, and potato) are not cooked after preparation extra care must be taken during preparation. Make sure items are cooked correctly and handled the right way and cooled correctly. Throw out leftover food held at 41 or lower after 7 days. Fresh Food Packaged On Sight Fresh juice packaged on sight must be pasteurized. Ice Consumption: make ice from water that is safe to drink. Cooling food: never use ice as an ingredient if it was used to keep food cold Container and scoops: never use glass to scoop ice or touch ice with hands. Never hold or carry ice in containers that have carried raw meat. Always use a clean sanitized scoop or container to retrieve ice. Preparation Practices That Require a Variance  Smoking food as a way to preserve it  Using food additives to preserve or alter food  Curing food  Custom processing animals (deer, elk, hog)  Packaging food using a reduced oxygen packing method  Sprouting seeds or beans  Offering live moll scan shell fish from a displaced tank Cooking Food Pick a thermometer that is the right size for the food. Check the temperature in the thickest part of the food. Cooking Times See Chart Cooling Food Cool TCS food from 135F to 41 F or lower within 6 hours. First cool foods from 135F to 70F within 2 hours then cool it to 41F or lower. Methods for Cooling Foods  Ice water bath  Ice paddle  Blast chiller or tumble chiller  Reducing batch size Reheating Food From start to finish you must reheat food to an internal temperature of 165F within 2 hours. It must stay at this temperature for at least 15 seconds. The flow of food: Service Holding Food See Chart Never use hot holding equipment to reheat food unless it is built to do so. Cover food and install sneeze guards to protect food from contaminants. Holding Food without Temperature Control  Hold cold food at 41F or lower before removing it from the refrigerator.  Label the food with the time you removed it from the refrigerator and with a discard time. The time must be 6 hours from the time you removed it.  The food cannot exceed 70F while being served. If this happens it must be thrown out.  Sell, serve, or throw out food within 6 hours.  Hold hot food at 135F or higher before removing it from temperature control (stove or oven).  Label the food with the time you must throw it out. Discard time is 4 hours after.  Sell serve or throw out after 4 hours. Serving Food Bare hand contact with food: Handle ready to eat food with tongs, deli sheets, or gloves. Clean and sanitized utensils: Use separate utensils for each food item. If utensils are used continuously clean and sanitize them at least every 4 hours. Serving Utensils: Store serving utensils in food with handle extended above the rim (Ladle for salad dressing). Spoons or scoops used to serve ice cream or mash potato can be stored under running water that is at least 135F. Serving Staff:  Do not touch contact area of dishes or glasswear  Do not stack glasses when carrying them  Do not hold flatware by food-contact surfaces.  Never scoop ice with bare hands or glass Sneeze Guards- Protect food on display with sneeze guards should be 14 inches above the food counter and should extend 7 inches beyond the food Labels- Label containers located on self-service areas. Place the name of the food, such as types of salad dressing, on ladle handles. Temperature- Keep hot food hot, 135°F (57°C) or higher. Keep cold food cold, 41°F (5°C) or lower. Raw and ready to eat food – Keep raw meat, fish, and poultry separate from ready to eat food self service areas Refills- Do not let customers refill dirty plates or use dirty utensils at self-service areas. Pathogens such as Norovirus can easily be transferred by reused plates and utensils. Assign a staff member to hand out clean plates for return visits. Post signs with polite tips about self service etiquette. Ice- Ice used to keep food or beverages cold should NEVER be used as an ingredient. Off Site Service Food containers: Pack food in insulated food containers that can keep food at 135°F or higher, or 41°F or lower. Use only food-grade containers. They should be designed so food cannot mix, leak, or spill. At the service site, use appropriate containers or equipment to hold food at the right temperature. Delivery vehicles: Clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly. Internal temperatures: Check internal food temperatures. If containers or delivery vehicles are not holding food at the right temperature, reevaluate the length of the delivery route or the efficiency of the equipment being used. Labels: label food with a use-by date and time, and reheating and service instructions for staff at off-site locations. Utilities: Make sure the service site has the right utilities. Safe water for cooking, dishwashing, and handwashing. Garbage containers stored away from food-prep, storage, and serving areas Storage: Store raw meat, seafood, and poultry and ready-to-eat items separately. Food Safety Management Systems Active Managerial Control Active managerial control is one way to manage food safety risks in your operation. This approach focuses on controlling the 5 most common risk factors that cause foodborne illness, as identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Purchasing food from unsafe sources  Failing to cook food adequately  Holding food at incorrect temperatures  Using contaminated equipment  Practicing poor personal hygiene Ways to prevent such risks as suggested by the FDA Food Code: Demonstration of Knowledge: As a manager, you must be able to show that you know what to do to keep food safe. Staff health controls: Staff health controls are policies and procedures that you put into place to make sure your employees are practicing personal hygiene. Controlling hands as a vehicle of contamination: These controls help prevent cross- contamination from hands to food. Time and temperature parameters for controlling pathogens: You must keep food out of the temperature danger zone. Consumer advisory: These are notices that you must provide to your customers about the risks of raw or undercooked food. HACCP An effective HACCP system must be based on a written plan. This plan must be specific to each facility’s menu, customers, equipment, processes, and operations. Seven HACCP Principle  Conduct a hazard analysis  Determine critical control points (CCPs)  Establish critical limits  Establish monitoring procedures  Identify corrective actions  Verify that the system works  Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation When a HACCP Plan is Required  Smoking food as a method to preserve it (but not to enhance flavor)  Using food additives or adding components such as vinegar to preserve or alter it so it no longer requires time and temperature control for safety  Curing food  Custom-processing animals (this may include dressing deer in the operation for personal use)  Packaging food using reduced-oxygen packaging (ROP) methods  Treat (eg: pasteurize) juice on-site, and package it for later sale  Sprouting seeds or beans  Offering live, molluscan shellfish from a display tank Creating a Crisis Management Team  Senior management (President/ CEO)  Risk management (quality assurance, legal)  Public relations  Operations  Finance  Marketing  Human resources Sanitary Facilities and Equipment Material Selection for Interior Surfaces When choosing flooring, wall and ceiling materials, and doors, the most important factor is how easy the surfaces are to clean and maintain. They should be damaged and worn. Floors: Flooring must be smooth, nonabsorbent, easy to clean, and durable. It should be used in the following areas:  Food prep  Food storage  Dishwashing  Walk-in coolers  Dressing and locker rooms  Restrooms Floors should have a coving. Coving is a curved, sealed edge between a floor and a wall. It gets rid of sharp corners or gaps that are hard to clean Coving should be glued tightly to the wall to get rid of hiding places for insects. This also protects the wall from moisture. Walls, Ceilings, and Doors The materials for your facility’s walls, ceilings, and doors must be smooth, nonabsorbent, durable, and easy to clean. Light colors are recommended for walls and ceilings. Walls should also be able to withstand repeated washing. Equipment Selection Food-contact surfaces:  Safe for contact with food.  Nonabsorbent, smooth and corrosion proof  Easy to clean  Durable  Can’t chip, scratch Nonfood-contact surfaces Nonabsorbent Easy to clean Installing and maintaining equipment  Floor-mounted equipment at least 6 inches  Tabletop equipment at least 4 inches  Seal any gaps Handwashing Stations 1. Hot and Cold running water 2. Soap 3. Disposable paper towels 4. Garbage container 5. Signage- telling employees to wash hands Utilities Cross-connection: A physical link between safe water and dirty water, which can come from drains, sewers, or other waste water sources. Backflow prevention: To prevent a blackflow is to avoid a cross connection. Do not attach a hose to a faucet unless a blackflow prevention device such as the vacuum breaker. Sewer Sewage and wastewater are contaminated with pathogens, dirt, and chemicals. If sewage back-up in your operation, close the affected area right away. Maintaining Facility  Clean operation on a regular basis  Make sure everything works properly  Control pests  No leaks, o holes, crack  Maintain the outside Cleaning and sanitizing How and when to clean and sanitize 1. Clean the surface 2. Rinse the surface 3. Sanitize 4. Allow the surface to air-dry When to sanitize  After they are sued  Before foodhandlers start working with different types of food  Any time foodhandlers are interrupted  After four hours if items are in constant use Dishwashing Machine Washing: Use high pressure hot water to clean and sanitize. The final sanitizing rinse should be at least 180°F. How to Clean and Sanitize in a Three-Compartment Sink: 1. Rinse, scrape, or soak items before washing them. 2. Clean items in the first sink. Wash them in a detergent solution at least 110°F (43°C). Use a brush, cloth, or nylon scrub pad to loosen dirt. Change the detergent solution when the suds are gone or the water is dirty. 3. Rinse items in the second sink. Spray them with water or dip them in it. Make sure you remove all traces if food and detergent. If dipping the items, change the rinse water when it becomes dirty or full of suds. 4. Sanitize items in the third sink. Soak them in hot water or a sanitizer solution. 5. Air-dry items. Place items upside down so they will drain. Storing Tableware and Equipment: Glassware and flatware: Store glasses and cups upside down on a clean and sanitized shelf or rack store flatware and utensils with handles up. Staff may pick up items without touching the food-contact surfaces. Integrating Pest Management (IPM): Best way to deal with rodents, insects, birds, and other pests is to have an IPM program. Two parts of IPM program: First is to use prevention measures (keeps pests from entering operation).  Don’t wait until you find pests in your operation  If you see pests they may already be present in large numbers and can be very difficult to eliminate. Second is to use control measures (eliminate any pests that get inside).  You must work with a licensed pest control operator (PCO) in order to have a successful IPM program. The Three Basic Rules for an IPM program: 1. Deny pests access to the operation. 2. Deny pests food, water, and a hiding or nesting place. 3. Work with a licensed PCO to eliminate pests that do enter the operation.


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