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Intro to Cult. Anth.: Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Braig Duck

Intro to Cult. Anth.: Exam 1 Study Guide Anth 1030

Marketplace > Ohio University > ANTH > Anth 1030 > Intro to Cult Anth Exam 1 Study Guide
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These notes encompass the most important in-class information for the exams.
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Amr Al-Azm
Study Guide
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Braig Duck on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 1030 at Ohio University taught by Amr Al-Azm in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in ANTH at Ohio University.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Cultural Anthropology Study Guide Let it be known that I know nothing of what will be on the exam. This study guide will encompass the key details we have learned in class. Five Features of Anthropology 1. Global in Scope 2. Bottom Up Approach 3. Ethnography 4. Structures of Power 5. Human Connectivity Four Fields of Anthropology 1. Cultural Anthropology – Present day people, culture defined as transmitted, learned behavior 2. Archaeology – Studies past human societies 3. Linguistic Anthropology – Studies the construction and use of language by human societies, language a set of written or spoken symbols, subfields Descriptive, Historic, Sociolinguistics 4. Physical Anthropology – physical or biological, evolution/primate behavior “Time Space Compression” – used to refer to changes in transfer of information, Earth is getting easier to communicate and move across “Flexible Accumulation” – ability of people to be flexible in how they get profit (Use other countries for cheaper labor, materials) “Uneven Development” – uneven distribution of health, wealth, etc Biological adaptations – skin color, eye form, etc Cultural adaptations – technology, language, etc Enculturation – the process by which humans encounter, learn, and produce culture. Four elements - Norms – normal behavior, cultural change can arise from breaking norms - Values - fundamental belief about what is good and bad - Symbols – complex systems of symbols and actions - Language – Means of communication, verbal or nonverbal Thomas Khun: Scientific thought is the result of a series of revelations, also known as “Paradigm Changes”. Paradigm: Sum of the scientific view of what the object of research should be and how scientific problems should be approached. Changes based on a cultures perception of the world around it. Can be influenced by stigmas like racism, classism, etc Paradigm I – Evolution - 19 century school of cultural anthropology believed that all cultures had to go through the same series of progressions, and that cultures that did not adhere strictly to these progressions were classified as lower civilizations - from Savagery to Barbarism to Civilization Paradigm II – American Historical Particularism - Biases were not tested, i.e., “Blacks are more stupid than whites”; a refusal to test said theory - Early 20 Century paradigm change - Professionalization of Anthropology - Represents a reaction against the single linear form of evolution discussed earlier (Savagery, Barbarity, Civility) - Division forms between American and British anthropology - Franz Boas leads reaction against the paradigm based on “Cultural Natural Selection” Paradigm III – Structural Functionalism - Structural Functionalism also came as a reaction to the idea of cultural evolutionism th - Developed in the early 20 century by the British, in competition against the American School of Anthropology - Explores how different structures function within a culture - Includes Kinship and Marital Structures, Political structures, and Religious Structures (NOTE: All power based structures received major focus, English wanted to know where power was held in societies; felt this information would be incredibly useful for colonization) Structural Functionalism - A process by which societies are broken down and studied piece by piece Paradigm IV: Culture and Meaning - By the 50’s, the Structural-Functualism paradigm is making way for modifications - A shift to a more process-oriented, dynamic form of analysis - Clifford Geertz (1926-2006) studies SYMBOLIC ANTHROPOLOGY - Material Power: Political, Economic, Material - Exerted through coercion or brute force (laws, punishments) - Hegemony is a shared power amongst people, through consent and agreement (“we all agree murder is wrong. We shouldn’t do this.”) - Hegemony influences a culture through ideas rather than direct force - Cosmopolitanism: an increase in the awareness of belonging to a global community - Fieldwork shapes the researcher; you may begin to believe what your subjects believe - This shaping, known as “Culture Shock” can bias anthropologists - “Salvage ethnography”; studying the natives as much as possible before they were gone Bronislaw Malinowski - “Father of Fieldwork” EE Evans Pitchard - British Social Anthropologist (Structural Functionalism) Margret Meade - Studied the development of adolescent teenage girls - HER BIAS AFFECTED HER STUDY – SHE GOT TOO INVOLVED - She went out of her way to find a society that worked with her bias toward removing sexual restrictions - Margaret offered prizes to people who told her what she wanted, so they made up the stories "Thick description" - detailed conclusion "which affords deeper insight into the underlying meaning of words and actions"; advocated by Clifford Geertz Quantitative (Numbers); Qualitative (cannot be counted; histories, stories) - Any information gathered must be analyzed and prepared before publication - The data must also be used in cross-cultural comparisons (compare to other cultures) - This comparative process is called ethnology (NOT ethnography) (IMPORTANT!!! ON TEST!!) Ethnography is a DESCRIPTION of a people; Whereas Ethnology is a COMPARISON of two groups “Polyvocality”, meaning the research will be comprised of several voices/speakers instead of one. - THREE TOPICS DO NO HARM OBTAIN INFORMED CONSENT ENSURE ANONIMITY Communication - Communication is universal amongst all living things - Includes autonomic (automatic, unwilling) responses to stimuli (I.e.) Blushing, raised body hair, etc. - Intentional Behaviors (I.e) Gestures, facial expressions, vocalizations “The fear grin” in primates indicates fear or anxiety Staring is provocative, showing teeth is a threat amongst most mammals - Displays – complicated and elaborate mixtures and combinations of behaviours (I.e) Mounting for dominance, Mating rituals, etc. Displays emotional status - Many of these behaviors are learned - Non-human animals use a “closed system” of communication, where vocalizations do not target specific stimuli, i.e, shout and scream any time you are scared, but no description of what you are scared of Chimpanzee and Gorilla Communication Research - Washoe: ASL Sign Language Acquired 132 signs Asked for goods and services Asked questions about world around her - Loulis – Imitated Washoe Washoe taught Loulis signs Sara’s use of symbols implied symbolic thought - Chantek – 2 yr old 150 signs Invented signs and recombined them Chantek seemed to understand his signs were representations of items, actions and people Broca’s area of brain creates speech Wernickes area of brain understanding speech At this point, Week 4 notes have NOT been included. My week 4 notes will be posted soon, and their information will be added to this document.


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