COM102 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (WEEK ONE - FOUR)
COM102 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (WEEK ONE - FOUR) COM 102
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kulani Purkey on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 102 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Jenny Farrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Maroon = Study goals COM102 with Prof. Jenny Farrell Pink = Noteworthy sentences/concluding quotations Blue = Prompting questions/thinking statements EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE – SEPTEMBER 25, 2016 Yellow = Key terminology/vocabulary Elite Notetaker: Kulani Purkey CHAPTER ONE - FOUR: EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE At the end of these notes, you should have a good understanding of interpersonal communication, your self, perception and emotions. CHAPTER ONE: INTRO TO INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 1. What is thedifference between “communication” and “communications”? a. Communication (without the “s”) is an exchange of information through speaking, writing or a system of behaviors. b. Communications (with the “s”) describes technologies and systems used to send and receive messages. 2. What are the elements of interpersonal communication? a. There are four elements, these include IPC being dynamic, typically transactional (it can also be linear or interactive), primarilydyadic and impact creating. 3. What are the three different communication models (give examples of each)? a. The linear model only goes one way, the message from the sender goes to the receiver through channels and noise. i. Noise is described as a disruption from the message traveling effectively. 1. Internal noise occurs inside of you – physiological is bodily related (as if one were hungry, hot or tired) and psychological is neural (like stress or thoughts running through your mind). 2. External noisecan occur outside of your control and is happening in context. ii. The linear model accounts for how many messages and how many responses? b. The interactive model is a two-way model which adds field of experience and feedback. i. Feedback refers to what the receiver has to offer in response to the sender. 1. Feedback can be both verbal and non-verbal. 2. Feedback can affect field of experience and does travel through noise. ii. Field of experience considers everything that contributes to you as a communicator. 1. How the sender and receiver react acts as a filter from their field of experience. c. The transactional model is multi-way and a constant exchange of messages between communicators. 4. What are the three criteria of competent interpersonal communication? a. Interpersonal communication competence is the ability to communicate consistently in appropriate, effective and ethical ways. i. Appropriateness is the degree to which your communication matches the expectation of the situation. ii. Effectiveness is used to ask yourself if you are accomplishing what you set out to. iii. Ethics considers what is good, bad, right and wrong. 5. What is the difference between high-self monitors and low-self monitors? a. High-self monitors are sensitive and tend to communicate after modifying their behavior in response to the demands on the situation. b. Low-self monitors are insensitive and tend to communicate whatever is on their mind in whatever way regardless of the situation. 6. What is dyadic communication and meta-communication? a. Dyadic communication refers to communication between two people. b. Meta-communication is communication about communication (you are talking about a conversation that you had). 7. What are the three goals for interpersonal communication? a. Self-presentation goals are when you present yourself in a particular way by how you choose to dress and talk. b. Instrumental goals focus on achieving tasks and getting things done. c. Relationship goals refer to starting, maintaining or ending relationships. 8. What is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs? 9. What are the elements of a social scientific scholarly article? a. A scholarly article contains an abstract which gives a summary of the article, a literature review which states the hypotheses and research questions, methods which includes participants and sampling methods, results, discussion, references and appendices/tables/figures. 10. What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research? a. Qualitative researchfollows an INDUCTIVE process that identifies a problem, gathers data and then develops theories. b. Quantitative research follows a DEDUCTIVE process that identifies a problem, proposes a theory and then tests it. 11. How can you improve online communication competence? a. Match the gravity of the message to the communication medium, avoid assuming that online communication is more efficient, realizing that things you put online are eventually public, understand that messages are permanent and create drafts for review. CHAPTER TWO: SELF 1. What are the three components of self? a. The three components of self are self-awareness, self-concept and self-esteem. i. Self-awareness is the ability to view yourself as a unique person and reflect on thoughts, feelings and behaviors. ii. Self-concept is overall perception of who you are as influenced by beliefs, attitudes and values you have about yourself. iii. Self-esteem is the overall value that we assign to ourselves. 2. Define and know examples of culture.. a. Culture is a collected sense of self established by a group. i. It is based off of religion, language, values, food, gender, sexual orientation and ethnicity. ii. We can belong to multiple cultures. 3. What is the self-discrepancy theory? a. The self-discrepancy theory is the way we think of self with your level of self-esteem. i. The ideal self is what you want to be; whereas, the ought self is the person other people want you to be. 4. What is social comparison, the looking-glass self and self-fulfilling prophecies? a. Social comparison is comparing yourself to someone else (everyone does this). b. The concept of the looking glass self offers insight, not only into our thinking, but also to how we form our identity based on how others see us. c. The self-fulfilling prophecydenotes that predictions about something lead us to behave in a particular way to make whatever you want come true. 5. What attachment styles are typically influenced by family? a. The level of attachment anxiety, or how much you fear rejection, and the level of attachment avoidance, or how much you avoid relationships, are the two styles of attachment typically influenced by family. 6. Define face, mask, losing face, face threatening acts, and saving face. a. Face is the public self we present to others. b. Mask is a public self designed to conceal your private self. c. Losing face is when the way someone used to see you has changed. d. Face threatening acts tend to happen when information arises or things happen that make us lose face. e. Saving face is typically done in efforts to recover from the incident that happened so they see you how the used to. 7. What is facework and the types of face? a. Facework is behaviors we exhibit to create and maintain a positive perception of ourselves. For example, you put effort in to your physical appearance and are more socially aware of yourself when you choose to do this. i. The fellowship face is seen when interacting withfriends and what you choose to highlight. ii. The competence face is used more-so in a business setting (if you’re skilled in an expertise). iii. The autonomy face is independent and self-reliant. 1. For example, you don’t want to seem like you don’t have yourself together because I care about my autonomous face. 8. What are the five ways to improve your online self-presentation, including warranting value? a. Project a positive online image, make wise choices in the words and images you use, be wary of information that contradicts your self-image, routinely conduct Web searches on yourself and keep the interview test in mind. 9. What is self-disclosure and its relation to the interpersonal process model of intimacy? a. Self-disclosure is when you reveal private information about yourself to other people i. This relates to the interpersonal process model of intimacy in that it resembles psychological closeness or a feeling of closeness with people. 10. What is the Social Penetration Theory? a. The Social Penetration Theory says we reveal ourselves in layers, kind of like an onion. 11. What is the Johari window? a. The Johari window shows some aspects of self areopen to sharewith others and some remain hidden. CHAPTER THREE: PERCEPTION 1. What are the three steps of perception? a. Perception is a process of selecting, organizing and interpreting information from our sense, guiding our communication desires. 2. What is salience and what types of things have salience? a. Salience is the quality that something has that you’re going to focus on. i. Something that is salient isvisually and audibly stimulating, causing you to feel and experience certain emotion and can lead us to view certain goals as important or deviating from our expectations. 3. What is schemata and punctuation? a. Schemata is the way we understand and define concepts based on past experiences or previous knowledge. b. Punctuation is organizing information into achronological sequence that matches how YOU experience events. 4. Define the following: internal and external attributes, the fundamental attribution error, actor-observer effect, self-serving bias and when to use these for yourself or others. a. Internal attributes are suspect to be part of one’s character or personality. i. Examples of this include lazy, apathetic, or unmotivated. b. External attributes are considered out of our hands or situational factors. i. Examples of this include traffic, weather, being busy or pre-occupied and etc. c. The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to attribute other’s behaviors to internal causes when it may be caused by external attributions. d. The actor-observer effect is the tendency to attribute externalfactors to our own behavior – causing us to make excuses. (I did poorly on an exam because the person next to me was distracting rather than stating you were not prepared) e. The self-serving bias is the tendency to attribute internal factors to our own behaviors (usually reflecting something on a positive note). (I did well on a quiz..that happened to be an open book quiz) 5. What is the uncertainty reduction theory and the difference between passive strategies, active strategies and interactive strategies to reduce uncertainty? a. The uncertainty reduction theory is the idea that when we meet people, we have goals of reducing our uncertainty of them in hopes to later predict him/her. i. Passive strategies include watching/observing someone or looking them up on the internet. ii. Active strategies would be asking others about the person or collection other peoples’ thoughts through the internet (Yelp or RateMyProfessor). iii. Interactive strategies are when you actually go up to the person and directly talk to them. 6. What is stereotyping? a. Stereotyping is comparing positive and negative things about someone to calculate overall impressions of them. 7. How does gender/sex affect perception (such as brain difference and talking about problems)? a. Men tend to have better time and speed perception and are able to easily rotate 3D figures mentally. Masculine communication focuses on looking forsolutions and offering advice. b. Women tend to be more skilled in spatial relationships and identifying emotions and language skills. Feminine communication focuses on offering emotional support. **Only 1% of communication differences are, in fact, influenced by sex. 8. What are internal impressions, gestalts, positivity bias, the negativity effect, the halo effect, the horn effect and algebraic impressions? a. Internal impressionsare mental pictures of who people are and how we feel about them. i. They exert a profound impact on our communication choices. b. Gestalts are general and global impressions,either positive or negative, formed quickly and easily. c. The positivity bias is when you have MORE positive gestalts than negative with someone. d. The negativity effect puts an emphasis on negative information you learn about that person or thing. e. The halo effect states that we positively interpret people with whom we have positive gestalts. f. The horn effect states the opposite; we negatively interpret people with whom we have negative gestalts. 9. What are the Big Five personality traits? a. OCEAN. i. O = Openness or the ability to be open minded ii. C = Conscientiousness or being goal oriented and organizationally structured with lists/tasks iii. E = Extraversion or liking to be around people iv. A = Agreeableness or the ability to cooperative and easy going with others v. N = Neuroticism or thinking negative thoughts about yourself CHAPTER FOUR: EMOTIONS 1. What is emotion and key features of them? a. Emotion is an intense reaction that controls and interprets how we respond to an event; it is easily seen on one’s physical bodyby expression or reactions. i. Emotions are triggered by outside events, involve physiological arousal, require awareness/labeling, are governed by preexisting norms and are reflected in verbal and nonverbal displays such as voice, facial expression, gesture or posture. 2. What is emotion-sharing and emotional contagion? a. Emotion-sharing is telling or talking about an emotional experience with someone else; this is an example of self-disclosure. b. Emotional contagion is an infectious spreading of emotions from one person to another. 3. What is the difference between a primary and blended emotion? a. Primary emotions involve unique and consistent behavioral displays with high intensity counterparts. b. A combination of primary emotions results in blended emotions. 4. What are the six primary emotions? a. Surprise (or amazement), joy (or ecstasy), disgust (or loathing), anger(or rage), fear (or terror) and sadness (or grief). 5. What is passion? What is anger? a. Passion is a blended emotioncombining surprise, joy and other positive emotions. i. Passion is fleeting and fades over time. b. Anger is a primary emotion and often leads to suppression or venting. i. The most effective strategies for reducing anger include encounter avoidance, encounter structuring, reappraisal and the Jefferson strategy. 6. What makes up jealousy? a. Jealousy is a mix of anger, fear and sadness. i. Anger that someone is intruding on a relationship, fear of the other person winning over you and sadness you’ll feel once the realization of losing that relationship hits. 7. What are Ekman and Friesen’s unwritten codes that govern the ways in which people manage and express their emotions? a. The five principle display rules are intensification, de-intensification, simulation, inhibition and masking. i. Intensification is the act of exaggerating an emotional experience. ii. De-intensification is the act of downplaying an emotional experience. iii. Simulation is acting emotional when you really are not. iv. Inhibition is acting emotionless when you are experiencing emotions. v. Masking is hiding the emotion from another **We tend to worry and care about these display rules because we are concerned about what others will think!!! 8. What are the different strategies of emotion management? (consider before and after feeling the emotions) a. Suppression is inhibiting thoughts, arousals or outward displays of emotion. i. You tend to suppress because you don’t want others to know that you have that emotion. This is the most common response to unwanted emotions. b. Venting is allowing emotions to dominate us by explosively expressing them. **THIS HAPPENS AFTER YOU EXPERIENCE THE EMOTION!!! c. Encounter avoidance is staying away from those who make you feel unwanted emotion. d. Encounter structuringis avoiding topics in conversation or choosing to only discuss certain things. e. Attention focus is only paying attention to certain things that you know will NOT trigger unwanted emotions. f. Deactivation is desensitizing yourself to emotions. g. Reappraisal is actively changing how you think about something so that the emotional impact is changed. **THIS HAPPENS BEFORE YOU EXPERIENCE EMOTIONS!!! 9. What are the stages of grief? a. The stages of grief includedenial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance.
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