SOC 310 study guide exam 1
SOC 310 study guide exam 1 SOC 310
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Chandler on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 310 at Brigham Young University taught by Knapp, Stanley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Social Inquiry in Sociology at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
SOC 310 Study guide: all material covered through September 26th Ontology: The study of what is. Being. Epistomology: What counts as knowledge? How do you know? Evaluation of Trigg Plato reading Plato was concerned about relativism. If you leave everybody to do what they think is right, disasters may occur. o Hitler though he was right… Skepticism: prove to me or show me that your way is right o Socrates failed at this and was accused of corrupting and was burned Sophists. This is all hugely problematic for Plato! It leads to a life of struggle between powers. We must remove those contentions. Pre-modern Form Atemporal Transcendent/metaphysical Immaterial Modern No possibility of transcendent, but must all be physis (matter), nomos (cultural), temporal, substantial. People don’t just act out of self-interest. They do it out of the belief that their way is correct. How will you adjudicate cultural difference? Gain access to knowledge of what really is-it will be atemporal, fixed, unchanging. Atemporal is more than temporal: real knowledge is grounded in the atemporal and that which does not change. Reason needs to govern all things-it is reason that gains access to the forms and transcendent and atemporal Platonic view of God-he wouldn’t have a body, passions, etc. because that would move him to the material and substance category. Human civilization is good at getting people to do what they normally wouldn’t do. Determined event Pushed into Necessity o Example: blinking Uncontrollable Materialistic causality Less meaning Action Choice Possibility o Example: winking Controllable Meaning Individualistic Thomas Hobbes: humans are atomistic Atomism is ontological o It is what it is independent of anything outside of it. Context: culture, power, etc. Rational Think through it: reflexivity Instrumental: managing time Value: “Do what is right, let the consequence follow” Nonrational Habitual/routine Affective Modernistic project: how we reach conclusions and solutions in the modern, not premodern world 1. Nature, not divine. Historical and social. 2. Therefore, we can rationally reconstruct it 3. Science becomes the means of how stuff works and how we can rationally reconstruct things 4. Progress, freedom from oppression 5. Mastery and control Professor Knapp pointed out that this mostly started to happen around the time of the Protestant reformation/enlightenment era of the 1600s. However, it is still continuing today and one of the greatest continual debates is how modernistic are we? EXAMPLE: The human body is now a modernistic project. Disease is no longer viewed as a punishment from God, but a scientific project to be mastered o Gender o The family proclamation: “marriage is ordained of God” and we were all created male and female by God. o Modernistic approach: marriage is a social construction/institution so we have every right to reconstruct and redefine it, as well as gender. (transgender, what really defines gender: biology or other factors?, etc.) There are post-modernists who believe that we cannot completely eliminate the top right of the post-modern/modern diagram. Instead, we should put a question mark there because we just don’t know. There is also no real way to describe someone who has a balanced view of both, such as the LDS Saints. Positivism: The March of Science reading Natural law o You can’t drink until you’re 21 because it’s better for your body this way Positive law o You can’t drink until you’re 21 because the law says so Natural religion o The Bible and other forms of scripture are the word of God Positive religion o The Bible is the word of God and that’s it. Mormons cannot be Christian because they seek to add to the Bible Positive science o Grounds all of its claims in the given: data. Positivism (non-katian) Takes knowledge out of what is given: data (positive science) Objectivism o Ontology: realism vs. Idealism o Epistemology SO Can empiricism sustain this? Idealism=there is no objectivist reality. There is only what the human mind projects. Epistemology o Objectivism and epistemology assumes realism o The challenge is that we have a thing and want to represent it in the word and language we use: then we have real knowledge and truth when our claims represent the thing as it is. If you don’t have a true knowledge of it, then you have a subject imposing its views o SO instead of SO Method is the means by which we keep subjectivity in check. It leads to truth Empiricism enables the object to reveal itself as it is o EXAMPLE: umpire who calls them as they are is an objectivist. Nonpositivist (katian) SO constructionism All of our knowledge is constructed Phenomena: the thing as it appears Naumena: the thing itself Who we are is intimately involved in the construction of our experience You can experience “rose-coloredness” because your mind is capable of it It can only come to us in a way that we can conceptualize it. o EXAMPLE: umpire/referee. It is not a fumble, strike, touchdown, etc. until somebody calls it o Nothing has meaning until we assign it a meaning through experience Theory-laden Truth creates the method. It only works if we already believe the world is a certain way o EXAMPLE: A barometer already assumes that air pressure exists in order to measure it It is through our involvement in the world that makes it what it is. Things come into being when we identify it and participate in it (constructionism). Decartes: I think, therefore I am Skepticism: Don’t trust anything! Doubt everything! Question everything! Positivism is grounded in skepticism. If we waited to do anything until science proved it to us, we would live in a very interesting world. Some believe that if it is not measurable, it does not exist. If you are going to be skeptical about everything, but look for data to affirm, how are you going to overcome that skepticism? The answer is methodtruth. Method is a rational procedure. Nonpositivists don’t think methods are bad. What they argue against is “what does the method do?” Positivists say that methods produce theory-less truths that are therefore 100% true. The goal is to eliminate theory, because theory creates doubt. The way we think about the world informs the methods that we use. David Hume X Y X causes Y to move. What does our observation actually tell us? He says that empirically, we cannot show anything beyond those observations. There is no causality. You take things as facts because there are no theoretical disputes. Everybody accepts it as the truth. Popper Wants to save positivism Observing swan colors so far, all observed swans are white. Can you make the conclusion that all swans are therefore white? Can you be certain? Skepticism. How many observations would you need then to ensure this? The only way you could be certain is if someone can see it from the outside.
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