Exam 1, Introduction to Criminal Justice
Exam 1, Introduction to Criminal Justice CCJ 2020
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Stephenson on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CCJ 2020 at Florida State University taught by Julie Mestre in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Exam 1: Introduction to Criminal Justice Chapter 1: What is Criminal Justice? Key Words: Crime: Act/ conduct that is in violation of the law. Criminology: The studying of people’s behaviors. Moral Authority: The communities’ faith in the law with its legitimacy. What are the three components of the criminal justice system? 1. The Police: They have the authority to arrest people. 2. The Court System: Decide whether a person is guilty or innocent. 3. The Correctional System: Have the power to punish, supervise and imprison. *The Criminal Justice System has an enormous power over citizen’s lives* What are some ways people question moral authority? 1. Protesting 2. Petitions 3. Social Media History That Has Shaped the Criminal Justice System: 1800’s Crime Epidemic First real government. Many immigrants and urbanization in the cities. 1920- 1945 Crime Increase Crime arose in the inner- cities. 1945- 1960 Crime became stable. 1960-1970 Increase in Violent Crime Civil Rights movement. o Television helped people become more aware of the events going on. Prisoners wanted better living conditions. o Communication Due Process and Individual Rights. 1980’s Increase in Drug Crime Cocaine o Higher-income people used cocaine while lower-income people used crack. Crack- users got in trouble more. o Reagan implemented War on Drugs. 1992-1993 Violent Crime Peaked There was a decrease in teenagers and an economy boost. Beating of Rodney King (1992). 1993-2000’s Property crime declines Columbine mass shooting (1999). o Created heavier training for responses in certain situations. 9/11 (2001) o Created a more proactive force instead of reactive. o More work with FBI. The Patriot Act 2012 Increase in Violent Crime Increase in cyber-crime. Inner-city problems. Crime Statistics Relied heavily on. Evaluations take place in schools. Uniform Crime Report and National Incident Based Report System Reports are sent to the FBI to be put into a national report. National Crime Victimization Survey Done by the employees of the Census Bureau. This allows collection of unreported crime. o 160,000 households that represent the entire US population. Self-Report Surveys Telephone Surveys o Used for research purposes. Chapter 2: The Crime Picture Key Words: Murder: An unlawful killing of a person. Rape: Forced sexual intercourse without consent. Robbery: Unlawful taking of property from another person using force that creates fear. Aggravated Assault: Attempt/ threat to harm another human- being. Burglary: Entering into a building to steal. Larceny: Taking of property from another person. Motor Vehicle Theft: Theft of another person’s motor vehicle. Arson: Burning or attempt to burn down property. Part I Offenses Murder, Rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assault, Burglary, Larceny, Motor Vehicle Theft, and Arson (added later). *These were used up until 2004* Part II Offenses Added after the switch of grouping crimes to numbers. NIBRS Takes all crimes into account. Accounts for the whole situation. o Disposition, weapon, crime location, relationship of offender and victim, characteristics and damage. Some differences between UCR and NIBRS: o NIBRS reported rape for both men and women. o Had 22 offenses (Group A) Problems with UCR and NIBRS o Not all crime is reported. o There is a lot of discretion in reporting a crime. NVCS Done by the census bureau. Representative households. o 3 years at a time. Goal is to collect unreported crime. o Shows: City-dwellers are victimized more. African- Americans, men, and lower-income families are victimized more. Murder and theft are the most offenses reported. Problems with NCVS o Victim’s perception is relied on. Types of Crime Crimes Against Women Less likely to be victimized but more likely to get hurt if they are victimized. Date Rape, Incest, Abuse, Stalking, Pornography and Prostitution Crimes Against the Elderly Lowest rates of victimization. Property crime and Domestic/ Institutional abuse. Less likely to be able to protect themselves. Hate Crime Bias/ hate against another race, culture, sex, religion or gender. Increased after 9/11 Mostly vandalism and assault. Corporate and White Collar Crime Increased with economic crisis. Mortgage fraud Organized Crime Gangs o Mafia Gun Crime Causes debates on what gun laws should be like. Drug Crime Continues to rise o Some states recently have changed laws regarding marijuana use. Colorado, California, Oregon, etc. Cybercrime Criminal activity over the internet. o Stealing classified data, Prostitution, etc. Terrorism Procedures changed with the attacks of 9/11. Chapter 3: The Search of the Causes of Crime Key Words: Theory: A prediction of something to explain an occurrence. Hedonistic Theory: Individuals seek pleasure to avoid pain. Rational Choice Theory: People are rational and able to make conscious decisions. Routine Activities Theory: (3 things) that cause offenders to commit crime. Phrenology: The way the body is built may affect a person’s personality. Atavism: Criminals are less- evolved individuals. Criminaloid: Evolved individuals that commit crime in times of need; it is not in their DNA. Criminal Families: Criminals are born from mentally ill families or poverty. Eugenics Movement: Sterilization Somatypes: Body type positively correlates with aggressiveness. Gender Ratio Problem: Men commit more crime than women. Age- Crime Curve: Young adults commit more crime. Biosocial Theory: Biology interacts with the social environment. Chromosome Theory: Some men have an extra Y chromosome causing them to be more aggressive. Hereditary Theory: Children are more likely to be criminals. Behavioral Conditioning: When children are exposed to criminal acts. They are more likely to participate in criminal acts. Freudian Psychoanalysis: There is something wrong with the personality. ID: human drives Ego: Rationality to fulfill the human drives. Superego: Someone’s conscious Psychopathy: The mind of a criminal is diseased. Trait Theory: The traits psychopaths have are passed down in generations. CBD: Central Business District Social Disorganization: Zone 2 allows people to commit crime but when they leave, they live normal lives. Anomie: Crime is a disparity between goals and the ways to achieve them. Reaction Formation: The forming of secluded delinquent groups because there is no ability to fit in with the normal crowd. Differentiation Association Theory: People learn to commit crime. Restraint Theories: Why people don’t commit crime. Social Control Theory: People have bonds with society. Neutralization and Drift Theory: People drift in and out of crime. Self- Control Theory: People have bonds with society and self- control. Labeling Theory: The criminal justice system is to blame for crime. Life- course Theory: Tries to explain the decline in crime when people reach their mid- twenties. Theory Testing Only for testable situations. It is not straight- forward because of ethical reasons. o Previous events have to be used. o Normal people cannot become delinquents just for the results. Criminological Theories Classical Theories People’s behaviors were not because of God’s intentions; people have responsibility. Caesar Beccaria o Idea of Rationality Had laws written down to state punishments for bad actions. Wanted the laws to restrict a person’s liberty. Jeremy Benthan o Hedonistic Theory Punishments more powerful than the crime itself. How did society respond? o Laws were written down. o Modern Law Enforcement. Neoclassical Theories Rational Choice Theory o People are rational. Routine Activities Theory o Crime occurs because of: There is a suitable target. There is a motivated offender. There is a lack of a guardian. Punishments need to be o Certain o Swift o Severe *Classical and Neoclassical Theories were the foundation to the Criminal Justice System* Biological Theories Criminals were born with bad DNA. Phrenology Atavism o Caesar Lombroso 90% of people who were criminal had bad DNA. Criminaloid Criminal Families o Eugenics Movement Somatotypes Biosocial Theories Gender Ratio Problem Age Crime Curve o 15-24 Biosocial Theory Chromosome Theory o “Supermales” Men in prison are more likely to have an extra Y chromosome. Hereditary Theory: o Studied on twins who were raised apart. o Nature and Nurture. Psychological Theories Predisposition to criminal behavior Behavioral Conditioning o Rewards are seen from crime when young. Money and materials. Freudian Psychoanalysis o There is something wrong with the personality. ID Ego Superego Crime comes from superego. Psychopathy o No empathy for the crime committed. Jeffery Dahmer Charles Manson o Malnourished nervous system o Early on bad behavior. Trait Theory *These theories helped the psychological profiling rise* Sociological Theories Criminal behavior is because of society Chicago School o John Rockefeller wanted to know why most of his workers came from the slums so he invested money into the schools of Chicago to study the environment. Zone Map Zone 1: CBD Zone 2: Where crime occurred. o No matter who lived in the slums, there was always crime. Poor infrastructure Social Disorganization Anomie o The American Dream People have the same goal but not the same opportunities to get there. Robert Merton o Studied how Germany had less crime but it’s people were born into more of a class system. Reaction Formation o Low-income boys in a middle- class school in Chicago. They couldn’t keep up with the expectations of the school and formed a clique and became delinquents. Social Process Theories Interactions between society and individuals. Differentiation Association Theory o Edwin Sutherland Restraint Theories Social Control Theories o People have bonds and ties to the community. Travis Hirischi Emotional Ties Commitment o Family and School Involvement Belief in laws Techniques in Neutralization and Drift Theory o Gresham Sykes and David Matza o Excuse for crime Applies to mostly teenagers Self- Control Theory o Michael Golfredson and Travis Hirischi People have bonds but also self- control Learnt young o From parents Stable for the rest of life Labeling Theory o Opposite of deterrence and Classical School o Frank Tannenbaum “Dramatizing of Evil” The Criminal Justice System makes people do more crime because they’re labeling them. o Effects of labeling People end up acting the way they're labeled Peer Associations: Association with worse criminals. Blocked Opportunities: Opportunities deplete. o Edwin Lemert Labeling can only explain the second act of deviance not the first Internalization of the label. Social Development and Life Course Theory Terrie Moffet o Most teens will engage in some sort of criminal at and will grow out of it. Stable bad behavior is not normal. Robert Sampson and John Laub o Life Course Theory Turning points Graduation, Marriage, Kids, etc. Chapter 5: History and Development of Policing Key Words: Bobbies: First police officers. Prohibition: Alcohol became illegal. First Policing in England Unorganized “Hue and Cry” o Dependent on neighbor’s response. Bobbies o Robert Peal Permission from Parliament. o Duties: Prevent crime Quick response to criminal activities Early American Policing Bobbies o Unorganized Adopted “ hue and cry” o Took matters into their own hands 1920’s Prohibition o Police spent more time on stopping alcohol consumption and not stopping more serious crime. Wickersham Commission o Addressed that stopping alcohol consumption was unenforceable. 1960’s and 1970’s Rights were given to those arrested o Miranda Rights o Due Process o Search Warrants Law Enforcement Assistance Administration o President Johnson More technology and education in police departments Higher degrees Evidence Based Policing What policing is like today Complexity o Federal, State, Local and Private Chapter 6: Purpose and Organization of Policing The Duties of a Police Officer Enforcing of the law Preventing crimes Predicting where crime is going to occur Keeping peace between the police and society o Broken Windows Model Higher crime rates in more disorganized areas. Providing services for citizens How Police Are Able to Carry Out Tasks Preventive Control o Stopping crime before it happens. Routine Incident Response o Not major violations. Emergency Response o Major accidents o Crime has just occurred/ is happening Crime Investigation o Detectives o Securing of the crime scene. First hour is highly important. Solving problems in high crime areas. Support Services o “Behind the scenes” Collection of data Organization and Structure of Police Department Line Organization o Sworn officers Staff Operations *Each officer has a direct supervisor* Styles of Policing Political Era (1840- 1930) Corruption Reform Era (1930- 1970) Wickersham Commission Tough approach on bad crimes. Community Policing Era (1970- present) Community is not feeling as protected. Police are trying to get more involved. o Education New Era (present) Change in operation after 9/11. o More contact with the FBI. Intelligence lead operations. o Terrorism Styles in Solving Problems Watchmen Style Watching out for potential problems. Legalistic Style Enforcement of the law. No attention to less serious crime. Service Style Providing services o Church trafficking, football games, etc. Police- Community Relations Strategic ways in trying to create positive interactions *Police choose which strategies they want to follow* Chapter 7: The Legal Aspects of Policing Key Words: Oppressive: Rights being held down by a higher power. Coercion: Getting a suspect being questioned to confess illegally. Double Jeopardy: Being charged twice for the same crime. Abusing of Power by the Police Constitution and Bill of Rights protect against an overly oppressive government. New laws cause procedures in the police departments to change frequently. o Much more restricted today. Individual Rights US Constitution o Provides checks and balances o If rights are violated and the individual can prove it, it can reach the Supreme Court. Responses to winning cases: Record is wiped clean Settlement Evidence is thrown out Releasing from prison Landmark cases can change the police procedures. Warren Court vs. Berger Court Warren Court Put policies on what police could and couldn’t do. Emphasis on individual rights. More liberal Exclusionary Rule- Weeks vs US (1914) Need for search warrants. o Evidence gathered illegally cannot be used. Fruit of the Poisonous Tree- Silverthorne Lumber Co. vs. US Evidence from illegal seizure cannot be used. Exclusionary Rule Applied to States – Mapp. Vs. Ohio Prior to this rule, illegally gathered evidence was still being used. Berger Court Did what was best for the “greater- good” Still held today More conservative Plain View- Harris vs. US Objects in plain view can be seized. Immediate Control- Chimel vs. California If under arrest, the police can search the immediate area of an individual. Reasonable Good Faith- US. Vs Leon If any evidence is taken in “good faith” it is immiscible. Amendments th 4 Amendment Protects against unreasonable searches and seizures. Protection against arrest without probable cause. 5 Amendment Right to Due Process Protection against double jeopardy. Right to grand jury. th 6 Amendment Right to due process. Right to a speedy and fair trial. 14 Amendment Right to due process. Laws abide to all born and naturalized citizens. Searches Without a Warrant Immediately After Arrest Immediate area and person are searched. o For officer safety. Stop and Frisk o When a police officer believes a crime will/ has happened. Reasonably suspicious Emergency Situations o Unconscious o Person matches description of suspect o Blood on clothing Vehicle Searches o (Constitution does not protect against unreasonable searches) o Reasons for stopping cars: Roadblocks and Checkpoints Looking for someone on the suspicion list. How Police Departments are Able to Gather Intelligence 1. Informant is able to establish probable cause. a. Clear information is used. b. Reasonable belief information is true. 2. Interrogation a. No coercion b. Right to an attorney c. Read the Miranda Rights Miranda Rights 1. The right to remain silent. 2. Anything said will be used against you. 3. The right to an attorney. 4. If you cannot afford an attorney one will be appointed to you. Chapter 8: Issues and Challenges of Policing Key Words: Corrupt: Dishonesty for personal gain. Professionalism: How to act professional in certain situations. Consent Decree: Mutual agreement something needs to be done in a certain situation. Excessive Force: Greater/ more frequent force than what is necessary. Deadly Force: Using force that ends up being lethal. Fleeing Felon Rule: Police are allowed to shoot at fleeing felons. Objective Reasonableness: Determining if deadly force was used reasonably. Federal Pathogen Act: Training in police departments on how to prevent the spread of disease. The Subculture of the Police Rookies learn most of their knowledge from veteran police officers. o They become streetwise. The Personality of the Police Family orientated Honor o They serve and protect See humanity at its worst Corruption Started with Prohibition era Temptations always come their way o Bribes from criminals to be let go. Knapp Commission o Investigated officers for corruption in NY o 2 Kinds of Corrupt Officers: o Grasseaters o Minor Corruption o Frequent o Police officers do not go out seeking bribes. o Meateaters o Small number of police. o Police look for bribes. *Money causes most police corruption* Integrity Socialization in society o Training o Drug tests Professionalism o Press conferences o College degree Dangers of Policing Injury Heart Attack Gunfire Automobile Accidents Drowning Disease Suspects spit and throw feces Getting cut Federal Pathogen Act (1991) o Annual courses Stress/ Fatigue Police Use of Force Rodney King (1990) o Excessive force City Council of New Orleans (2013) o Consent decree Clean-up of the city Excessive Force Not reasonable Not very common o Women officers are less likely to use force. Deadly Force Fleeing Felon Rule o Made unconstitutional in 1985 Objective Reasonableness o 1989 o Without 20/20 hindsight Total Danger o 1995 o Guide book on when deadly force can be used Lethal Weapons Goal is to just immobilize the suspect. o Stun guns, nets, pepper spray, pellet guns, Taser, etc. Racial Profiling Based on: o Gender, race, ethnicity, religion, etc Physical appearance not behavior Was first used to capture drug dealers. o DEA Spoke Spanish, certain cities, short stay, paid ticket with cash, and 18-35 years old. Behavioral Profiling Behaviors are taken into account. Racially Biased Policing Some states can allow or not allow used of racial profiling. Police can be held accountable for using deadly force. o They pay into an insurance fund in case they are sued.
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