Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC2012
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Monday March 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 244 views.
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Date Created: 03/30/15
ALL OF MY NOTES ARE IN BLUE lm 2 Studv Guide NOTE This study guide is meant to refresh your memory about the topics we covered in class and how they relate It is not a promise that every question on the exam will come from a topic listed below Don t ignore the book or any videos or empirical readings we might have had this unit Social In uence change in someone39s cognition attitude or behavior which has it39s origin in another person or group Raven s Socially Dependent Power Bases various ways in which someone uses in uence or why someone will see another in a position of power Reward in uencer can reward target for complying Coercive in uencer can punish target for complying Legitimate target accepts that in uencer has right to give orders Expert in uencer has superior knowledge or ability Informational this is in uence that is based on information or logical arguments Referent target wants to be similar to in uencer Conformity Asch Studies these exhibited Conformity 0 Asch Line Test there was a target line on one card and the participants had to say which line on another card was the same length as the target line The right answer was blatantly obvious All of the participants were actually part of the study except for one and they all gave the wrong answer The actual participant after hearing everyone else say the wrong answer also gave the wrong answer on about 13 of the tests 76 of participants gave the wrong answer on at least one of the tests 0 Alternate form of the Asch Line Test Asch conducted an experiment in which he had everyone but one person give the wrong answer and the numbers dropped from 32 conforming when one did not have an ally to only 6 when one did have an ally Public vs Private Conformity 0 Public Conformity behavior of one person that is consistent with that of the other group members but not privately accepted Example Sarah dislikes the new band The Fray but all of her friends love the band She tells her friends that she loves the band and listens to it when she is with them but does not listen the band in private Therefore she has made her behavior consistent with the group but has NOT privately accepted the behavior 0 Private Conformity the behavior of one person is consistent with that of the other group members when they are with the group and when they are in private Example Molly s group of friends love the new band The Fray and so does Molly She listens to their music with her group and in private Therefore her behavior is consistent with group AND privately Informational Social In uence to be right other s behavior provides useful information to us one possible reason why we conform to others 0 Example One has never been to a funeral before When they walk in they see that everyone has formed a line to go pay their respects to the family members of the deceased This person will now get in line like everyone else does Information provided by others lining up was useful to us Likely to lead to Private Conformity Normative Social Influence to be liked we want to be liked and accepted or not disliked by others another possible reason we conform to others 0 Example Asch Line Test see above 0 Normally paired with Public Conformity When People Conform 0 Group Size as group number increases you are more likely to conform to the unanimous opinion HOWEVER this plateaus at about 45 group member Once it hits this number likelihood of conforming stays constant or even decreases a little 0 Commitment to group we are more likely to conform to the group as the importance of the group to us increases Example you are more likely to conform to our group of best friends high importance versus a club your parents are forcing you to be a part of not important to you 0 Immediacy the closer you are physically to a group the more likely you are to conform Example your student organization meets through email discussions You are less likely to conform to what the other members want in this situation that someone who s student org meets in face to face meetings 0 Unanimity of group we are more likely to conform to a group who ALL have the same singular opinion As soon as one or two more opinions are introduced one becomes less and less likely to conform Alternate form of the Asch Line Test is an example of what happens when the group does NOT all have the same singular opinion see what it is above under Asch Studies 0 Desire for Individuation this makes someone LESS likely to conform we desire to be an individual This varies from person to person it is more important to some people to be unique than others This is consistent across cultures Minority In uence process by which dissenters nonconformists produce change within a group Consistency dissenter must have one solid opinion meaning they cannot waver on how they feel or change from opinion to opinion 0 Cannot seem rigid or completely not willing to listen to other ideas but then again cannot say they agree with the other person 0 Example yelling at someone you are wrong and I am right I will never listen to your side of this argument will just push people away and they will never listen to you either Confidence must have con dence in their opinion Single Minority vs Double Minority 0 Single Minority differs from the groups view but IS still a member of that group These exert more in uence than a double minority 0 Double Minority differs from the groups views and is NOT a member of that group Arguing in line with Evolving Social Norms if the norms are moving in the direction of the minority opinion such as equal rights the minority has a better chance at in uence Compliance publicly acting in accord with a direct request between equals not an authority figure telling you what to do Ways to increase compliance 0 1 Target is in a positive mood 0 2 You appear to reciprocate if you do something for them they are more likely to do something for you 0 3 You give reasons if you give the target a reason to comply they are more likely to comply Obedience performance of an action in response to a direct order 39 This is a step ABOVE Compliance 39 Usually Relies on Legitimate authority 39 Milgram study used Expert and Legitimate power bases can argue that he used CoerciveReward bases too because of the monetary payment for participating 0 The E ordered the participant to shock what the participant thought was another participant really an actor whenever they answered a question wrong The findings showed that most people would continue on until the end highest shock Be able to explain How to use power bases to exert in uence and based on your goals maintain power seek long term change which might be best to use How normative and informational social in uence relate to public vs private conformity Included above in their explanations 0 Be aware that Normative Social In uence to be liked which is usually paired with Public Conformity can lead to Private Conformity through the Mere Exposure Effect Conditions under which minority in uence can be effective Explained in Minority In uence section Outside Information from Chapter 8 Conformitv Social Impact Theory idea that conforming depends on three variables 0 1 Strength how important to you is the group As strength increases conformity increases 0 2 Immediacy how close is the group to you in space and time during the attempt to in uence you As immediacy increases conformity increases 0 3 Number How many people are in the group As number increases conformity increases until about 45 group members when conformity plateaus 39 Idiosyncrasy Credits the tolerance a person earns over time by conforming to group norms 0 If someone consistently conforms to their group they build up tolerance in that they can occasionally deviate from the group without retribution from the group 39 Two types of cultural norms 0 Injunctive Norms people s perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved by others 0 Descriptive Norms people s perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations regardless of whether the behavior is approved or disapproved by others 0 Example littering is bad injunctive norm but there are situationstimes when people are likely to do it descriptive norm Attitudes and Persuasion Importance of Attitudes Attitude an evaluative judgement about a particular object person or issue Importance 0 They are enduring They can be changed through persuasion but it happens for a reason 0 They are learned We are not born with attitudes we learn them over time 0 Affect Informative Processing attitude you have about something in uences what you pay attention to and what you remember 0 They in uence behavior Three Components of Attitude Formation not all attitudes have all three components but some do Affective how you feel towards it 0 Mere Exposure Theory amp Classical Condition Mere Exposure Theory the more we are exposed to something the more we like it This only applies if you have a neutral feeling towards the situation stimulus initially Classical Conditioning 18010quot ondnmmq J Bulcm Conditioning 4 4 g quot v quot 39 Response Response 39 ll FOOd Salwatuon 8 No Salmmon mwmw 1an Neutral Stlmulue quoto Gamma Stimulus Response Response 3 During Condatvomng 4 4 After Conditioning 4 quot0 a 0 a quotH l l K M u b R me 39 89quot Response Bell Food Solwauon Salvation Unconditional Conditioned Conditioned Response Stimulus Response Cognitive what we know about it 0 Theory of Reasoned Action amp where our beliefs come from Theory of Reasoned Action attitudes equal the sum of our beliefs our evaluation of our beliefs 39 Not thought to be the full picture recent work has expanded the theory Beliefs come from 39 1 Personal experiences 2 Other people parents peers media Behavioral how we have acted toward the attitude object in the past 0 Bem SelfPerception Theory amp Operant Conditioning Bem SelfPerception Theory we review our behavior toward that attitude object and infer our attitude from that behavior 39 Only likely for attitudes that are wealdnot well thought out Operant Conditioning learning theory that is based on principles of reinforcement and punishment Attitude Measurement Selfreport bogus pipeline Physiological Unobtrusive 0 SelfReport most common paper and pencil measurements participants report their own attitudes Bogus Pipeline method of using selfreport that reduces the number of false reporting need to debrief after this 0 Physiological looks for increases in the sympathetic nervous system heart rate blood pressure known as arousal 0 Unobtrusive measure attitudes by using methodology that leaves participants unaware that their attitudes were being investigated least common Pros of SelfReport fairly objective because you are asking them cheap easy Cons of Self Report might just write what they think is the right answer do people even know their attitude will they be honest Pros of Physiological people cannot really control these responses more objective measure of how intense it is Cons of Physiological don t know whether the response is negative or positive Pros of Unobtrusive very objective nice to do if possible does not require debrie ng Cons of Unobtrusive more for a group vs an individual most challenging to do Behavior gt Attitudes Bem SelfPerception Theory we review our behavior toward that attitude object and infer our attitude from that behavior Cognitive Dissonance Theory amp ways to reduce dissonance 0 Cognitive Dissonance Theory dissonance is the unpleasant state that arises when we have two attitudes or an attitude and a behavior that are inconsistent with each other Must have FREELY chosen to engage in the behavior Important that there is not signi cant external justification 0 Reducing Dissonance Direct Reduction 39 Change attitudebehavior acquire information that supports the attitude trivialize inconsistency Indirect Reduction Engage in selfaffirmation making self feel better about something by remembering all the good things about yourself that are unrelated to the behavior attitude Attitudes gt Behavior When When aggregation of behaviors is used 0 Aggregation an attitude predicts a general class of behaviors much better than any individual behavior Attitudes based on experience 0 Experience attitudes based on experience are better predictors of behavior When you have a direct experience with an attitude object your behavior is more predictable High self monitors aware of impressions they make exible in different situations 0 More likely to change behavior in all situations High self awareness conditions 0 High SelfAwareness directing attention inward toward oneself as opposed to outward toward the environment Can be a trait andor a state Theory of Planned Behavior when perceived behavioral control and subjective norms match attitude Attitudes gt Behavior How Attitude Accessibility Fazio highly accessible attitudes have stronger effects on behavior 0 With recentfrequent expression 0 Attitudes of low selfmonitors tend to be very accessible so they use them often Persuasion Hovland amp the Yale Group 0 First real set of research on persuasion and whywhen it works 0 Who says What to Whom Who Communicator 39 Likable vs unlikable attractive vs unattractive What Communication message 39 Fluffy message vs serious message Whom Audience whose attitude is being targeted 39 Female vs male audience good vs bad mood Cognitive Response Theory attempts to answer why a persuasive attempt is successful 0 What internal communication are you having with yourself when listening to a persuasive message Elaboration Likelihood Model Petty amp Cacciopo ELM suggests two ways to process a message 0 Central vs Peripheral Routes 0 Central carefully process message and counter argue if possible We do not do this often When we use this under low cognitive load personally relevant not distracted 0 Peripheral don t carefully process message and rely on other superficial cues instead When we use this under high cognitive load very busy time pressure distracted not personally relevant not a big decision Resisting Attitude Change 0 Reactance negative reaction to a perceived threat to personal freedom Example when someone tells you not to do something you want to do it more 0 Forewarning advance knowledge that you are about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion O Selective Avoidance tendency to direct attention away from attitude challenging information o Inoculation little attacks against one s attitudes gets them ready for full blown attempts to change their attitudes Be Able to EXplain How our attitudes might form That attitude components don t always match How attitudes and behaviors can in uence each other How the ELM model explained the problems the Yale Group was having In notes but not included here 39 Inoculation 0 Support Defense additional arguments to support your attitude 0 Inoculation Defense increases effectiveness at counter arguing persuasion attempts State temporary conditicn in uenced the situation Trait stable dispositignal characteristic Individual Diffelfence Variable aspects 0f one as personalig different form others that make them Prosocial Behavior Altruistic vs Prosocial behavior De nitionexample of each 39 Altruistic Behavior an act performed voluntarily to help someone else with no expectation of receiving a reward in any form 0 Example stopping at a car accident to make sure the passengers are okay 39 Prosocial Behavior any act that helps or is designed to help others regardless of the helper s motives 0 Example community service Latane and Darley s 4 Steps to Decision to help 1 Help needed realizing something is wrong and deciding help is required 0 Evaluation Apprehension we do not want to look silly 0 Pluralistic Ignorance tendency to assume a situation is not an emergency if we look around and see no one else is acting 2 Responsibility is it your responsibility to help or not 0 Bystander Effect when other people are around any individual is less likely to help 0 Diffusion of Responsibility each bystander s sense of responsibility to help decreases as the number of witnesses increases 3 Knowledge knowing how to help 4 Costs vs Bene ts 0 Social Exchange Theory people try to maximize rewards and minimize costs Weigh costs are rewards in your head before you help someone Whom do we help Attractive more likely to help if the victim is attractive Similar if the victim is similar to you you are more likely to help them 0 Animals do this too Sympathy if you feel sympathy for someone you are more likely to help 0 Blaming victim we assign responsibility to the victim and that way can blame them instead of sympathizing with them Defense mechanism if you nd a way to blame the victim you will feel safer o Belief in a Just World defensive attribution suggesting that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people suggests we live in a just world Theories of Prosocial Behavior Empathy Altruism Hypothesis we empathize and therefore we help Negative state relief Model helping occurs to relieve negative feelings Empathetic Joy Hypothesis this suggests we feel joy when we see others needs being met Genetic Determinism Model we help those who are genetically similar to us How to increase helping 39 Reduce Ambiguity make it clear help is needed Foster a helpful selfconcept in others teach children to think of themselves as helping kind of person Promote identi cation with those who need help similarity breeds empathy and willingness to help Teach norms that support helping behavior model and reinforce helpful behavior Focus Responsibility opposite of diffusion of responsibility Be able to explain How a strong belief in a just world would decrease helping o If you feel that bad things happen to bad people you will be less likely to help the victim because they probably deserve it Various reasons someone might not help another Aggressive Behavior Types of Aggression Prosocial aggressive act dictated by social norms O Socially accepted 0 Example police of cer killing a terrorist Antisocial an aggressive act that clearly violates social norms 0 Example murdering an innocent family raping armed robbery etc Sanctioned aggressive acts not required by social norms but that still fall within the bounds of these norms 0 Example killing someone who has broken into your house SelfDefense Instrumental aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain Hostile aggression that stems from feelings of anger aimed at in icting paininjury Theories of Aggression Instinct aggression is an innate tendency essential part of human nature to aggress Negative Affect exposure to aversive events leads to negative affect and that these negative emotions trigger either ght or ight 0 Aversive Event gt Negative Affect gt Fight aggress OR Flight walk away 0 Excitation Transfer residual arousal adds to our affect when we are subsequently angered Example Everything in your day has gone wrong since the moment you woke up Now you are at your soccer game after school and some kid on the other says something rude about your team to his teammates and you turn around and punch him in the face This event would not have otherwise caused you to do this if your day had not been horrible so far In other words your arousal from all the bad things going on had not dissipated but instead it built up to this point Drive external conditions produce an aggressive drive which leads to aggressive behavior 0 FrustrationAggression Hypothesis the theory that says frustration anything that blocks your goals is what produces aggression Original and Revised 39 Original ALL frustration leads to aggression Revised frustration can be an aversive event and can contribute to negative affect 0 Common causes of frustration Unexpected 39 Example you have a ight and decide to leave four hours early but still hit too much traf c to get there on time Illegitimate no explanation has been given for something causing you more workfrustration 39 Example your boss says that you need to nish ten reports instead of your usual two but gives no reason for this hassle You are likely to be frustrated by this Suitable Target 39 Example it is less appropriate to aggress towards your boss than to your brother Social Learning Theory we learn aggressive behavior by observing behavior in others or being reinforced o Reinforcement behaviors that are rewarded continue 0 Modeling Bandura amp Boba Dolls Modeling learning vicariously by observing others shown by Bandura Boba Doll Studies Bandura Boba Doll Studies a child watched an adult knock around a Bobo doll and was then sent in to the room with the Bobo doll alone Those children who watched the adult be violent with the Bobo doll were more likely to imitate the acts they saw Gender amp Aggression 39 Men are more likely to physically aggression Women are more likely to be relationally aggressive Relational aggression that harms another person through the manipulation of relationships usually covert acts like gossiping or spreading false rumors Overt aggression that physically harms another person or has the intent to physically harm another doublecheck this de nition with Professor Duval The only main difference between men and women in aggression is in domestic violence 84 of domestic violence victims are women Culture amp Aggression Individualistic vs Collectivist o Individualistic societies historically have shown to be more likely to engage in wars where as Collectivist societies are much less likely to engage in aggression However collectivist societies will engage if they are threatened attacked rst See page 332 in textbook for the section regarding this topic Differences in Aggression Across Cultures Culture of Honor a culture that places an emphasis on aggressiveness and vigilance due to being a herding community 0 School shootings are higher in these states 0 Domestic violence occurs more in these states 0 Southern states are usually culture of honor states Alcohol amp O The Middle East is a culture of honor state Aggression Deindividuation opposite of selfawareness you are less aware of your own personal beliefs Reduced Inhibitions it is easy to forget that aggression is not supposed to be acted upon when drinking Dif culty in perceiving intent alcohol can diminish our ability to determine why someone acted a certain way 0 Example Someone stomps on your foot at the bar and you turn around and punish them You do not realize it was probably an accident because the bar is crowded which is the difficulty in perceiving intent IMPORTANT alcohol does not immediately increase aggression and it does not mean one cannot avoid being aggressive while drinking 0 Most common to occur if their is social pressure to respond to something aggressive Sexual Aggression Sexual Aggression some kind of unwanted sexual attention from one person to another Pornography erotica amp longitudinal evidence of relation 0 Pornography abusive degrading portrayal of others usually women but can be of men Perpetuates the Rape Myth see definition below under things from class 0 Erotica sexually explicit materials that generate pleasant emotionsarousal in both men and women Affective Increased Arousal Behavior Violent video games less passive role might mean larger impact Preventing Aggressive Behavior Social Modeling reduce exposure to violence 0 Reduce exposure to violence Social Skills Training external factors to situations in which aggression is in play Appropriate punishment very hard to do but there are four factors that need to be met to do this 0 1 Immediate right after the act occurred 0 2 Strong just the right strength not too harshtoo easy 0 3 Consistent punishment happens every time 0 4 Provides an alternative response to how the person acted the first time Diffuse frustration with apologies apologizing to the individual can decrease levels of frustration Teaching empathy teach young children how to see situations from another s point of view Be able to explain 39 How the media has reacted to reports of media violenceaggressive behavior relationship Research each side might point to in order to demonstrate that there ISIS NOT evidence of a relationship between exposure to media violence and aggressive behavior Things from ClassChapter 12 not included here that may be important 39 Hostile Attribution Bias when one does not even consider that something bad happened on accident and not because someone is just being meanunfair Jealousy 0 Over half the murders in the US are of a romantic partner to another 0 This pattern is not limited to heterosexual relationships Sexual Scripts the way we understand what a normal sexual experience is 0 Double standards of these can also perpetuate keep alive the rape myth Rape Myth deep down women nd forcible sex enjoyable and exciting 0 Men show to be more accepting of this than women
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