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NIU / Engineering / COMS 223 / What other words are used to describe probability?

# What other words are used to describe probability? Description

##### Description: These notes cover probability
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Don't forget about the age old question of What are the wrist and hand bones?

Chapter 4: Probability

Probability

• Likelihood
• Chances
• Odds

Don't forget about the age old question of cj202

Properties

1. Probabilities are always between 0 and 1
2. Events
• way of dividing a data set
• Subset of the entire data set

EX. Flipping a coin We also discuss several other topics like the nonprofit, nonpartisan character counts organization has worked with various group of educators and community leaders to establish a set of:

Event B Tails

If you want to learn more check out earth and marine b206

Event A odd #

Event B even #

Event C. 6 If you want to learn more check out pers 201 textbook notes

Event D 1-3

Event : 4-6

Event c is considered a subset of events B&E.

1. The sum of all probabilities needs to add las up to one. sou

EX. Die example

6 possible outcomes (1, 2, 3,4,5,6)

⅙  chance for each outcome

P(1) Probability of rolling a 1

P(1) + P(2) + P(3) + P(4) + P(5) + P(6) = 6

⅙         ⅙         ⅙         ⅙         ⅙         ⅙

*Combinations: How many ways can 1 Choose n out of N items? (or x out of n)

↓

*Without replacement

or        ← less confusing

ex. How many ways can 1 choose 3  out of 10 applicants

= 1

120 ways

If the calculator does not have a factorial button or if n is really large.

1. cancel or simplify

= 120 ways

Ex 2.        n=120, 1 want to choose 5

Ways to assign probabilities

1. Classical method Equally likely outcomes

Ex: Flipping a coin, rolling a die

1. Relative Frequency Method **
2. subjective Method  DO NOT USE IN CLASS!

Ex: Scholarships : The probability that someone receives an athletic scholarship is 18%. The odds that they receive this scholarship and a scholarship based on merit (grades) Is 11%. The chances they receive an athletic scholarship or a merit scholarship IS 30%.

A = Athletic M= Merit Both OR

Probability concepts:

1. Complements

Complement of event A is

" NOT"        written as  or A!.

“Don't”

Ex. What is the probability that you don't receive an athletic scholarship?

These colors have different meanings!

Union :

A, B, or Both                                                 .        .70

Ex: A,M, Both

Intersection:

Both A&B

Ex. Both A&M

Equation:

Q: What is the probability of receiving a merit scholarship?

P(M)=.23

1. Union

Union:P(AuB)

“Not”

“don’t”

EX1: I can receive the athletic Scholarship, Merit scholarship or both

union P(AUM) P(AUM) = ,30

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