Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 CJC 360
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meg Mikulski on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJC 360 at Loyola University Chicago taught by Gregg Prestipino in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Substance Use and Crime in Criminal Justice and Criminology at Loyola University Chicago.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
CJC 390: Substance Use and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide I . Terms a. Central Nervous System – brain and the spinal vertebrae that carry information to the brain b. NIDA National Institute on Drug Abuse c. Drug Addiction – a preoccupation with the use of psychoactive substances characterized by neurochemical and molecular changes in the brain d. Pharmacology – study of drug addiction (medicine and biology) e. Neurotransmitter – a chemical released by neurons at a synapse for the purpose of relaying information via receptors f. National Prohibition – period between 1920 and 1933 when alcohol as a beverage was outlawed in the US g. Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) – require medicines to list certain drugs and their amounts, including alcohol and opiates h. Shanghai Conference – conference that positioned that opium was evil and had no medical use; government would suppress the smoking opium at home, increase regulations medically, and prevent the exporting of opium i. Harrison Act (1914) – statue providing control over opium and coca products j. United States v. Behrman, 1922 – the Court ruled that a physician was not entitled to prescribe large doses of proscribed drugs for selfadministration even if the addict was under the physician’s care k. United States v. Jin Fuey Moy, 1916 – the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Dr. Moy who provided maintenance doses of morphine to an addict l. Uniform Drug Act – uniform state narcotic laws that regulate habitforming drugs: coca, opium, and marijuana (marijuana was left to the states) m. Cannabis sativa L. – the hemp plant from which marijuana and hashish are derived n. Benzodiazepines – drugs that relieve anxiety or are prescribed as sedatives; among the most widely prescribed medications, including Valium and Librium o. “Speedball” – combination of cocaine and heroin; administered intravenously p. Endorphins – neurotransmitters produced in the brain that generate cellular and behavioral effects similar to morphine q. Dopamine – a stimulating neurotransmitter present in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, motivation, and feelings of pleasure; its absence results in Parkinson’s disease CJC 390: Substance Use and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide r. Placebo Effect – an inert compound triggering a druglike response s. Tolerance – progressive ability of the body to adapt to the effects of a drug used at regular and frequent intervals, making the drug less effective; higher doses of a drug are required to produce the same effect t. Crosstolerance – tolerance to one substance that carries over to another u. Homeostasis – a state of equilibrium achieved through the selfadjusting characteristics of the body; adapting to changes in the environment v. GABA – main neurotransmitter in the central nervous system w. Blood Alcohol Level – amount of alcohol in the blood: 0.08 or 0.10 is legal standard by intoxication as measured by a breathalyzer test x. WernickeKorsakoff Syndrome – deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1), an essential nutrient required by all tissues, including the brain, suffered by alcoholics y. Rohypnol – a benzodiazepine (sedative) widely prescribed in Europe but no approved for use in the United States. Known to abusers as “roofies” or “rope”, it is often ingested with alcohol or marijuana; associated with cases of “date rape” z. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – a variety of conditions that result from a mother who drinks during pregnancy aa. “China White” – Southeast Asian heroine of high purity ab. Cocaethylene – combination of alcohol and cocaine II . Short Answer a. Drug use can be viewed as a continuum. List and briefly describe the four types of drug use. Nonuser – does not engage in illicit drug use Experimental, Socially Endorsed – use of drugs in religious ceremonies or social functions Recreational – able to maintain patterns of use without losing control Compulsive – life often revolves around obtaining, maintaining, and using b. Regarding the connection of drugs and crime, Paul Goldstein (1985) offers a tripartite model. List and briefly describe the tenets of his model. Pharmacological – offenses that are psychopharmacology induced, that is, the result of a response to the intoxicating effects of a drug Economiccompulsive – crime driven by a need to buy drugs CJC 390: Substance Use and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide Lifestyle – drug use as part of a pattern of criminal behaviors not driven by or the result of drug use c. Most information on drug use in the United States is derived from four indicators. List and briefly describe the methodologies associated with these four sources. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) – primary source of statistical information on the use of illicit drugs in the US. Provides data on incidence, prevalence, and trends of the use of drugs by persons age 12+ living in households. Interviews with people randomly selected from the household population – selfadministered answers. Monitoring the Future (MTF) – annual survey of high school seniors and 8 and 10 graders. Participation is voluntary. Administered in the spring at public and private high schools. Looks at usage, perceived risk, disapproval, and perceived availability. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) – a largescale data collection system designed as an early warning indicator of the nation’s drug use problem. Data collected from nonrandom sample of hospitals in about 20 metro areas. Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) – collects data about arrestee drug use form a probability sample of arrestees booked at facilities at ten sites (ADAM II). Conducts interviews and take urine tests. d. List at least four factors associated with the substantial increase in the number of people using the opiates between the Civil War and 1914. The spread of opium smoking from Chinese immigrants into the wider community An increase in morphine addiction as a result of its indiscriminate use to treat battlefield casualties during the Civil War The widespread administration of morphine by hypodermic syringe The widespread use of opium derivatives by the US patent medicine industry Beginning in 1898, the marketing of heroine as a safe, powerful, and nonaddictive substitute for the opium derivatives morphine and codeine CJC 390: Substance Use and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide e. Steven Belenko (1933) reports that drug scares have four common elements. Briefly discuss these four elements. The scope of the problem is never as great as originally portrayed in the media Despite the media portrayals, compulsive use and addiction are not inevitable consequences of the drug The violent behavior associated with the use of the drug is not as common as initially believed, nor is it necessarily caused by the drug The popularity of the particular drug waxes and wanes over time, and the prevalence rates do not continue to increase f. List and briefly describe the four principles of the effects of psychoactive drugs. Amount taken User’s past drug experience Manner in which the drug is ingested (swallowed, inhaled, injected) Circumstances under which the drug is taken (the place, the user’s psychological and emotional stability, the presences of other people, the simultaneous use of alcohol or other drugs) g. Name and describe the four neurological effects of mixing drugs. Additive – two drugs that have similar actions are ingested, and the effect is cumulative: 1 + 1 = 2 Synergistic – two drugs that have similar actions are ingested, but the effects of their join action is more than cumulative: 1 + 1 = 3 Potentiating – two drugs have different actions, but when they are taken together, one enhances the effects of the other: 1 + 1 = 4 Antagonistic – two or more drugs are taken together, and one counteracts the effects of the other(s): 1 + 1 = 0 h. Drugs enter the bloodstream in one of three ways, and the routes of administration govern how fast the substance will enter the brain, with the associated psychoactive response. List and briefly discuss these routes, and the associated impact of the substance. CJC 390: Substance Use and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide Oral ingestion – the substance is swallowed and enters the bloodstream through the gastrointestinal tract, the slowest route of administration Inhalation – the substance is sniffed and rapidly reaches the bloodstream through mucous membranes of the nose or sinus cavities, or it is smoked and quickly absorbed through the linings of the lungs, which are surrounded by capillaries Injection – the substance is injected into a vein (intravenous), and the entire drug enters the bloodstream. Some is carried directly to the brain, producing an effect within seconds. Injecting a drug under the skin (subcutaneous) increases the time required for the substance to enter the bloodstream and thus produces a delay and reduced effect i. Regarding the use of heroin, the user can experience four different effects from ingesting the drug. List and briefly distinguish these effects. The Rush – euphoria that lasts about 10 seconds after injection; reinforces reward properties in the brain (food and sex) The High – the feeling of general wellbeing; can last for several hours The Nod – a state of unawareness to one’s surroundings, an escape from reality; ranges from slight dropping of the eyelids and jaw to complete unconsciousness Being Straight – their bodies are homeostatic; not suffering the onset of withdrawal symptoms but not necessarily experiencing a high or the nod j. Compare and contrast the relative effects of morphine and heroin, and how the DEA schedules these drugs. Morphine – Schedule II – euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea – lasts 36 hours; oral, smoked, injected Heroin – Schedule I – euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, dilated pupils, nausea – lasts 36 hours; injected, sniffed, smoked k. There are three major classes of alcoholic beverage. List and briefly distinguish these three classes. Beer – produced by the fermentation of barley malt or other grains, flavored with hops or other aromatic bitters, generally contains 5% alcohol CJC 390: Substance Use and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide Wine – obtained from the fermentation of the juice of grapes (and sometimes other fruits), generally contains 614% alcohol Liquor – produced by fermentation of corn, malt, other grains, molasses, or potatoes reaches about 15%, contains at least 25% alcohol l. Differentiate the use/effects of cocaine, considering method of administration and the type of cocaine preparation: powder, crack, freebase. Powder – snorted through the nose, sometimes intravenous, sometimes through genitals; causes blood vessels to constrict in the nose, delay in the absorption; intravenous is more efficient and produces a powerful rush Crack – sold in “rocks” ($510), typically smoked in a glass pipe; effects happen in about 5 seconds and gives intense gratification, provides an ultimate high then an ultimate low Freebase – cocaine hydrochloride vaporized at 98 degrees Celsius m. The contemporary (past two decades or so) heroin market has moved well past the urban roots post World War II through the 1980’s. Sources of the drug vary, but can be grouped into three broad categories. Describe these three sources. Local suburban youngsters – find connections in the innercity and bring it back to their homes Lowlevel urban dealers – recognize the suburbs are less competitive areas Mexican drug cartels – dispatch small cells: orders over burner cell phones to set a rendezvous point to deliver the drugs; the cells are often illegal immigrants n. Compare and contrast the effects/medical uses for the barbiturates, and the tranquilizer/sedative drug categories. Effects – slurred speech, disorientation, drunken behavior without odor of alcohol. Inhibit seizure activity and can induce unconsciousness in the form of sleep or surgical anesthesia. Small doses may relieve anxiety; larger doses will usually induce sleep CJC 390: Substance Use and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide Medical Uses – primarily used as sedatives for treatment of insomnia and anticonvulsants to help prevent or mitigate epileptic seizures, used as anesthetics for minor surgery o. Compare and contrast drug agonists and antagonists. Agonists – a synthetic substance that has a chemical makeup similar to that of another and stimulates receptor sites Antagonists – two or more drugs that are taken together, and one counteracts the effects of the other(s) p. Cocaine binds to specific receptor sites on brain membranes and triggers the release of three neurotransmitters, name them. Dopamine Serotonin Norepinephrine III . Essays a. Psychopharmacology is an examination of how psychoactive drugs affect the central nervous system. Discuss the operations of the central nervous system and how drugs affect the system. Be specific with regard to the internal structures involved with electrical and chemical processes impacted by psychoactive substance ingestion. b. Discuss the Biological Theories of Drug Use and Drug Abuse, compare these assumptions to the Disease Model. Biological Theories Not much is known about how drugs actually affect the nervous system of a person The same substance can have different effects on someone due to the social context of taking the drug The user’s expectation also can influence a drug’s effects Substances are not automatically pleasurable Drug effects are strongly influenced by the amount taken, how much has been taken before, what the user wants and expects to CJC 390: Substance Use and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide happen, the surroundings in which it is taken, and the reactions of other people Genetics is a major factor in vulnerability to drug use Disease Model Emphasizes the involuntary nature of drug use based on lab experiments The drugdependent person is a victim and using drugs to self medicate Treatment options: methadone maintenance or total abstinence (AA) Environment and social factors determine whether an individual will begin using drugs c. While the use of opium may be traced back to the stone age, concerns over the use and effects of this substance, and its derivatives, did not emerge until the early nineteenth century. Discuss the prevalence of the opiates from the nineteenth century, to approximately 1914. Explain how the laws and efforts to control opiate use, which emerged in the early 1900’s, effect the user population subsequent to 1914. d. Describe the effects of cocaine on the user. Outline the effects of various forms of cocaine and cocaine combinations (method of administration), and the reasons some users seek to use cocaine with other psychoactive substances. Cocaine Typically snorted through the nostrils in powder form. Sometimes intravenous or through the genitals Inhaled: peak 1520 minutes and disappear in 6090 minutes Intravenous: euphoria in 35 minutes and wanes in 3040 minutes Causes blood vessels to constrict in the nose which cause a delay in absorption. Intravenous is the most effective and quickest way to get 100% of the drug Coca Paste and Cocaine Combinations Coca paste: typically smoked with tobacco or marijuana CJC 390: Substance Use and Crime Exam 1 Study Guide a. Popular among lowincome groups because it requires less processing than cocaine b. Results from an error in the watersulfuric acid ratio c. Traces of dangerous chemicals including kerosene, sulfuric acid, leaded gasoline, and potassium permanganate “speedballing” a. Cocaine and heroin intravenous b. Heroin enhances the subjective effects of cocaine – intensifying and prolonging effects c. Users show very rapid psychological and physiological deterioration d. Shortlived effects, but high fatality rate Cocaine and alcohol a. Increases euphoric effects Crack $510 rock smoked in a glass pipe Inhaled directly in the lungs, bypassing much of the circulatory system: effect in about 5 seconds because it crosses the bloodbrain barrier in a few seconds Provides instant high and intense gratification Ultimate high and then ultimate low Freebase Cocaine hydrochloride – smoked in vapor form Cooked in a mix of sodium bicarbonate and water
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