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Exam 1 study guide

by: Hayoung Lee

Exam 1 study guide PSY 3300

Hayoung Lee
Texas State
GPA 3.9

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Lifespan development
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayoung Lee on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 3300 at Texas State University taught by Meeks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Lifespan development in Psychology at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW 1. What is the science of human development? o How and why for development, we include all kinds of people, observing change  over time o Refers to biological and psychosocial development of the human being throughout  the lifespan.  o It consists of the development from infancy, childhood, and adolescence to  adulthood o The focus on all kinds of people, young and old o Multi­contextual and multi­directional and how it changes over a lifespan 2. Understand the crucial elements of human development. o Critical period: when certain things must occur in order for development to be normal (early fetal development) o Sensitive period: certain types of development happen most easily; child is most  sensitive to certain stimuli and the child easily learns  3. People who are born within a few years of each other are referred to as what? o Cohorts (multicontextual?) 4. When discussing hereditary, what is DNA? o Molecules which hold our hereditary information 5. The actual expression of genetic traits, such as brown eyes, is known as a what? o Phenotype  6. Nine weeks after conception until birth marks the duration of which period in pregnancy? o Fetal period 7. The focus on all kinds of people, young and old, is a crucial element in what particular  science? o The science of human development 8. Know the difference between nature and nurture. o Nature: referring to innate qualities o Nurture: referred to individual’s person experiences 9. What famous psychologist was most interested in how children think? o Piaget (cognitive theory)  10. Know another name for Down Syndrome. o Trisomy – 21  11. What type of research is occurring when each of the groups being studied are of a different  age? o Cross­Sectional Method  12. Be able to identify an example of separation anxiety. o Fear that someone (caregiver) isn’t going to return or that something terrible will  happen to a loved one 13. Be able to distinguish between the different Freudian stages of development. o Oral: (birth to 1 year) – oral stimulation LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW o Anal: (1­3 years) – pleasure shifts to being able to control bowel and bladder o Phallic: (3­6 years) – parts their body has, curious to compare o Latency: (6­puberty) – sexual interests and urges go dormant o Genital: (puberty­rest of life) – figuring out how to get their sexual needs met in an  appropriate adult way 14. Know the two types of adaption according to Piaget. o Assimilation: making things fit into your own framework o  Accommodation: old ideas are restructured to include or accommodate new  information 15. When does the process of accommodation occur and how is it defined?  o Making categories for new information  o Making room for new information and adjusting our old way of thinking o Process occurs when you experience new ideas/things and they don’t fit in your  framework 16. Heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflex are all characteristics of what  evaluation? o APGAR – Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration 17. Know Erikson’s stages of development, what are the corresponding ages for each of the  stages? o Trust vs. Distrust: (0­1 years) – involving what and what not to trust o Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt: (1­3 years) – involving doing things on their own o Initiative vs. Guilt: (3­6 years) – involving being able to utilize choices o Industry vs. inferiority: (6­12 years) – involving productivity  o Identity vs. Confusion: (12­early 20s) – figuring out where you are in life, how you  belong o Intimacy vs. Isolation: (20s­40s) – involving emotional intimacy, marriage o Generativity vs. Stagnation: (midlife­40s) – evaluating life they led so far, determining worth and good to the world o Integrity vs. Despair: (end of life) – life review of value and meaning, whether they  made good decisions 18. The ability of human traits to be molded during development is called what? o Plasticity 19. Searching for a toy that has fallen out of sight is an example of what principle? o Object permanence  20. Understand the difference between positive and negative correlation. o Positive correlation: go the same direction, whether it is up or down o Negative correlation: go in opposite directions 21. What allows researchers to determine a cause­and­effect relationship? o Experiment (research?) 22. When is parents’ informed consent necessary in a research setting? o When involving a minor (under 18 years old)  23. Be able to identify an example of longitudinal research. o Longitudinal method: follow one group over time LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW  When test is done over different ages of same subject’s life 24. Which theory/approach focuses on observable behavior? o Behaviorism  25. Which psychologist advocated for an ecological­systems approach to understand levels of  human development? o Bronfenbrenner 26. Research on what syndrome has shown that babies should be put to sleep on their backs?  o SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)  27. When a child is willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver this is  a sign of what? o Secure attachment 28. What provides antibodies to fight diseases for babies? o Breast milk  29. The fetal period is which period of gestation? o 8­12 weeks o What happens: sex organs begin to take shape (male chromosome determines), at  the end of 12 weeks, fetus has all body part, weighs about 3 ounces and 3­inches  long 30. Be able to recognize an example of social referencing. o The tendency of a person particularly an infant, to analyze the facial expressions of a significant other in order to be able to determine what to do 31. Understand the term ‘modeling’ as it refers to social learning theory. o Identify an example of modeling o The social learning theory from modeling: the tendency of a person (infant), to  analyze the facial expressions of a significant other in order to be able to determine  what to do 32. When one ovum is fertilized by one sperm, and then splits to form two clusters it is called  what? o Monozygotic (how twins happen) 33. Know what make up the male and female gametes. o Sperm and ova/egg 34. What does the term “head­sparing” refer to? o Happens in malnourished children, when the head continues to grow, but the body  does not 35. What is occurring when a zygote is formed? o Sperm to egg as a gamete then imbedding to uterus (??)  36. What makes up an organism’s genotype?  o DNA 37. Most traits are produced by many genes. This means they are _______. o Polygenic  38. The point when the preterm newborn can survive outside the uterus is called what? o Age of viability (22 weeks) LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT REVIEW  Brain maturation is crucial at this time 39. What is the longest period of prenatal development? o Fetal 40. Which period of pregnancy ends two weeks after conception? o Germinal  41. The infant’s use of one word to express a whole thought is called what? o Holophrase 42. The brain and spinal cord develop eventually develop from what structure? o Neural tube  43. Understand the difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. o Monozygotic: identical twins that are from the same zygote; egg splits into 2 cells o Dizygotic: fraternal twins that were 2 different egg and sperm 44. Know how genetic disorders that are dominant manifest. o If one parent has an autosomal dominant disorder, then offspring has a 50% chance  of inheritance  45. Which period of development can be defined by when a particular development occurs most easily? o Sensitive period 46. Be able to identify an example of Kangaroo Care. o Skin on skin contact between newborn and parents, helping LBW babies and  increases attachment 47. What is the trigger that initiates a normal birth? o A hormone from the infant’s brain to the mom’s brain (or just fetal brain) o OR fetus sends signals to the mother’s brain to begin contraction 48. What is having adequate brain development a critical factor for? o Adequate brain development is a critical factor for a baby to survive, especially  premature babies 49. What is teratogen and threshold effect? o Teratogen: the substance that can cross a placenta barrier and harm the fetus (ex.  Alcohol) o Threshold effect: the level at which a teratogen becomes harmful; small doses does  not cause harm 


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