BIOGEOGRAPHY EXAM 1 CLASS REVIEW GUIDE
BIOGEOGRAPHY EXAM 1 CLASS REVIEW GUIDE
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Yee on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to at Kent State University taught by Dr. Brian Grafton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Biogeography in Biological Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
EXAM REVIEW Exam is over chapter 2-5; half multiple choice half short answer o 50 questions; 2 points each Will be an El Nino question Questions concerning tides- they are driven by win based upon patterns of air circulation There are 3-4 questions about the people we discussed on day 1 and what they are known for o Wallace definitely o Linneaus o Buffon/Buffon’s Law o Darwin, Wallace General/basic facts about biomes For short answer questions- some questions will require only a sentence or two. Make sure the questions is read fully to avoid misinterpretation o If he asks for the difference between something, you need to tell him both differences No pictures or graphs on exam Bergmann’s and Allen’s rule *These were all emphasized in class on 9/27 Biogeographic Rules/ important people (CH2) Bergmann’s rule- an eco geographic principle that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions o Larger animals have easier time staying warm in cold environments than smaller animals o Was explained by body size and metabolic rate in chapter 5 Relationship between body size and metabolic rate (as body mass increases, metabolic rate decreases) Allen’s rule- suggests that species at ligher latitudes and colder temperatures have smaller appendages o Animals in warmer climates have larger ears and longer limbs El Nino (CH 3) Shallow oceanic currents driven primarily by winds and the currents we discussed Pacific basin- warm water from eastern pacific typically flows to western pacific o Leads to monsoons, which is caused by movement of warm water to cold water from the east to the west El Nino is when warm water moves from west to east o End up with a warm current going in the wrong direction Effects: o Drought o Heavy rainfall o Temperature shifts All related to the failure of warm water to move from the east to the west. Only happens in the pacific Ecological niche Multidimensional hypervolume The realized niche- the niche that an organism uses as a result of other species using the same resources The fundamental niche- the total range of environmental conditions that a species would have if there was no competition for resources o Mapping out a hypothetical space where organisms exist within their environments o Salinity vs temperature o All of the factors that are required from the environment for the organism* o Experiment with barnicles Find one species at the top of water one at the bottom. Remove one species from its home niche and place it in the other species’ niche, realized that In the absence of competition with another species, a species can expand its own niche Realized niche and fundamental niche Top species moved and bottom species placed in top species niche, they could not expand their environment because they cant live outside of the water like the top species can during low tide. Ecological communities (CH 5) Edge- going from marine to terrestrial environment Ecotone- Shift from forest to grassland o Gradual** change Hypothetical possibilities for how communities merge (see ppt slide ch 5) o Discrete- little overlap at the edges o Mostly discrete o Somewhat discrete- gradual replacement o Independent o Nested species Ecological succession (CH 5) Clements idea- the classic ides of succession where you think of it in terms of primary and secondary succession. One steps leads directly to the next step o Primary- start from nothing Gradual start of primary producers (plants and shrubs) o Secondary- change in community leads to a change in species o Colonizers (lichens, mosses) pioneers(grasses, ferns) herbaceous speciesshrubsclimax (trees) o Facilitation Gleason’s idea- individualistic idea. Said that groups of species that live together in the same communities are not related as to why they live there o Individual species have their own requirements for a specific environment as opposed to Clements idea that organisms move in in a sort of “schedule”
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