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HK 258 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Olivia Lee

HK 258 Exam 1 Study Guide HK 258

Marketplace > Purdue University > HK 258 > HK 258 Exam 1 Study Guide
Olivia Lee
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all the material that could be on the upcoming exam
Foundations of Motor Skill Learning
Howard Zelaznik
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Olivia Lee on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HK 258 at Purdue University taught by Howard Zelaznik in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
the number of S-R alternatives increase, 1. number of stimulus-response there is an increase in the time required to alternatives respond to any one of them the absolute value of CE (average score) absolute constant error for a subject; a measure of amount of bias without respect to its direction the average absolute deviation of each of a absolute error set of scores from a target value; a measure of overall error medical condition where the person can blindsight respond to visual stimuli without consciously perceiving them patient had two strokes, blind in both eyes, asked blindsight experiment him to walk down the hallway without his usual cane, placed several objects in the hallway central pattern generator developed to explain certain features of locomotion in animals changes in optical flow are picked up by dorsal the ____________ system performer must choose between one choice reaction time: response from a subset of possible predetermined movements -constant loop from the executive to the closed-loop control system effector and back to executive -completely closed by sensory information environment is stable and predictable closed skill (swimming in an empty lap lane) comparator compared back against their anticipated states conscious ventral system is the only way no, this is an outdated view visual information could influence action? constant error average no particular beginning or end (ex: continuous skill swimming, steering a cart) these stages are not overlapping, critical assumption of the processing stages________ processing in a given stage is completed before the next stage starts prop cutaneous receptors skin receptors: detectors of pressure, temperature, and touch diagram of an open loop system input-executive-effector-output motor program involved learning activities that are difference between motor program and centrally controlled (kicking and throwing) where CPG CPG? involves genetically defined activities like locomotion and chewing has an easily defined beginning and end, often discrete skill with a very brief duration of movement (ex: throwing a ball, turning on a light switch) does vision affect balance? yes dorsal stream = where is it? minor adjustments to already programmed dorsal stream can make... levels dorsal stream processing is ______________________________ non-conscious subject sat in a dark room, frame behind the light was moving, but subject perceived it as the light was moving in front of the frame dorsal system for movement control part 2 if the frame and dot were turned off, they would point to a lever on the last position of experiment the dot, dorsal system showed unbiased by frame movements. ventral system was for consciousness biased frame movements Henry & Rogers -simple reaction is elevated when the complexity of the movement increases evidence for motor programs experiment b finger lift and slap c finger lift, slap ball, push button, grab near ball measured reaction time to initiate these movements- increased when complexity was added provides information to the processing exteroception system about the state of the environment in which one's body exists 1 number of stimulus-response alternatives Factors that affect decision making and 2 stimulus -response compatibility thereby increase RT 3 population stereotypes 4 amount of practice represents anticipatory sensory consequences feedforward of the movement that should be received if the movement is correct 1 an executive for decision making about errors 2 an effector system for carrying out decisions four distinct parts of the closed-loop 3 a reference of correctness against which the feedback is compared to define an system error 4 an error signal which the information acted on by the executive -advanced instructions specify the operation to be done generalized characteristics of an open loop -once initiated, the system executes the instructions w/o modification -feedback is not involved, so it doesn't detect errors system -most effective in stable environments where the need for modification is low a program whose output can vary along generalized motor program certain dimensions to produce novelty and generalization in movement prop golgi tendon organs sensitive to the level of force in various parts of the muscle upward curve. RT versus Number or S-R Hick's law alternatives. Increases dramatically even when the stimulus is just upped from one to two -command neuron from the brain produces rhythmic commands to how does the CPG work? the muscles as if it were defining left/right activities -example: input trigger, activates flexor, activates the sensors means that the information is directly if feedback is inherent... available to the performer, naturally through the senses if the movement is very fast or brief, then the open loop systems tend to _____________________________ dominate if the movement is very slow or long in duration, the control is dominated by feedback properties ____________________________ angles of light from the right side are if you are running past a tree on your left.. expanding systematically more slowly than h the angles of light for both eyes will expand if you are running toward a tree ahead... at the same rate information processing approach input-human-output 1 stimulus identification information processing stages 2 response selection 3 movement programming -point of no return -occurs about 150-170ms before the time when the movement was initiated inhibiting actions -swings in baseball are a good example: inhibit completely, inhibit before it crosses over home plate, swins but fails to inhibit in time, and a complete swing -race timers would hitthe stopwatch after the racer crossed the line 1 amountoftime required to send the motor instructions to the hand holding the watch 2 biomechanical delays in pushing the button initiating a motor program experiment subjects held a finger on a key and released roughly atthe 10o clock position.Ifthe experimenter stopped the timer atthe 9 position,the subjectwould almostnever be able to inhibitthe movementby then -determined go signal is about150-170ms before intended action prop joint receptors give info about extreme positions of the joints 1 vision- defiens physical structure of the most prominent exteroception info sources environment 2 auditory- -refers to the sense of movements of joints, tension in muscles -no receptor responds to just one characteristic however: CNS is most prominent proprioception info thought of as a complex combination of inputs from these various receptors prestructured set of movement commands motor program that defines and shapes the movement motor program theory ... --organizing the motor system to make the desired movement -must ready the lower level mechanisms in the brain & spinal cord movement programming stage for action -must retrieve and organize the motor program it will use to control the movement period of time from the end of RT until the movement time completion of the movement prop muscle spindles oriented parallel to the muscle fibers, notice length changes object identification is a role of the ventral system a type of system control in which instructions open control loop for the effector system are determined in advance and run off without feedback 1: traffic light in an intersection (continues to changes colors even if an accident occurs in the middle of an intersection) open loop examples: 2. toaster cooks the bread the amount of time you turned the dial for the environment is variable and open skill unpredictable during the action (ex: driving a car) when a visible object reflects rays of light, optical array which enter the eyes at specific angles optical flow can be thought of as the 'flow of light' acting habitually due to specific cultural population stereotypes learning. ex: in america we turn dials to the right to increase something targets ?????? -target was at a 15cm distance w/ four target goals processing visual feedback study -accuracy increased with lights on -quick movements with lights on versus off showed no difference at 200ms, but after 250 having the lights on benefited it provides information about the state of the proprioception body itself - level of reflex systems that operate below our level of conciousness -affarent/efferent neurons travel a short distance, monosynaptic stretch proprioceptive closed loop control -M1 loop is from muscle to the spinal cord -M2 is the second burst of activity better athletes hold their gaze and fixate on quiet eye activities an object for a longer amount of time -rapid movements show the performer must initiate a fully planned movement to achieve the goal rapid/discrete tasks -this means the first few hundred milliseconds of the original movement occur w/o modification period of time beginning when the stimulus reaction time is first presented and ending when the movement response starts response selection stage -decides what response to make, given the situation or environment response time reaction time + the movement time interval. Any factor that increases the response time is an ________________. duration of one or more of these stages will lengthen the RT reflects the bias tendency and root mean square error inconsistency in tracking behavior a group of discrete skills strung together to serial skill make up a more complicated or skilled action: gymnastics routine/hammering a nail simple RT one stimulus and one response -decide if a stimulus has been presented -primary a sensory stage-analyzing environmental cues stimulus identification stage -separate dimensions of the stimuli are thought to be 'assembled' during this stage the extend to which the stimulus and the response it evokes are connected in a stimulus response compatibility natural way. ex: turning the handlebars to the right to cause the bike to turn right class example: light goes on, press keys on opposite side is a little harder -walls suspended from a high ceiling -move walls slightly away causes subject to sway forward study showing that vision affects balance -move walls towards causes the subject to sway backward -can cause a subject to fall back into the plop position if its a small child the retinal image size divided by the image's tau definition rate of change in size, turns out to be proportional to the time remaining until contact time to contact abbreviation & used by tau & used by the dorsal system what system a type of continuous skill: performer's limb tracking movements control a lever/wheel/handle closed. these processes are most relevant tracking tasks are difficult in to tasks that are relatively slow or have a ________________________ loop control long duration in time two major factors that effect choice 1. nature or the amount of practice for both reaction time: 2. the stimulus response compatibility the two visual systems dorsal + ventral the standard deviation of a set of scores variable error about the subject's own average score (CE) ventral stream = what is it? ventral system provides the what and needs info presented in well-lit conditions ______________________ prop. vestibular apparatus inner ear provides signals related to one's movements & orientation. can be sensitive to acceleration can't see the taillights on the car in front, visibility at night time example the rate of expansion is so small until about 400 m away, too late for a stop what is an open loop system missing? feedback and comparative systems critical in interceptor actions involving when is timing information provided by tau coincident timing, striking or catching a ball, critical? or diving into the water


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