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PURDUE / Health and Kinesiology / HK 25800 / What is the absolute constant error?

What is the absolute constant error?

What is the absolute constant error?


School: Purdue University
Department: Health and Kinesiology
Course: Foundations of Motor Skill Learning
Professor: Howard zelaznik
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: HK 258 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: all the material that could be on the upcoming exam
Uploaded: 09/28/2016
9 Pages 232 Views 1 Unlocks

1. number of stimulus-response alternatives

What is the absolute constant error?

absolute constant error

absolute error


blindsight experiment

the number of S-R alternatives increase, there is an increase in the time required to respond to any one of them

the absolute value of CE (average score) for a subject; a measure of amount of bias without respect to its direction

the average absolute deviation of each of a set of scores from a target value; a measure of overall error

medical condition where the person can respond to visual stimuli without

consciously perceiving them

patient had two strokes, blind in both eyes, asked him to walk down the hallway without his usual cane, placed several objects in the hallway

central pattern generatordeveloped to explain certain features of locomotion in animals

What is the absolute error?

changes in optical flow are picked up by

the ____________ systemdorsal

performer must choose between one

choice reaction time: closed-loop control system

response from a subset of possible predetermined movements We also discuss several other topics like What is the content of bergmann’s rule?

-constant loop from the executive to the effector and back to executive

-completely closed by sensory information

closed skillenvironment is stable and predictable (swimming in an empty lap lane)

comparatorcompared back against their anticipated states

conscious ventral system is the only way

visual information could influence action?no, this is an outdated view constant error average

continuous skillno particular beginning or end (ex: swimming, steering a cart)

What is the meaning of blindsight?

critical assumption of the processing stages________

cutaneous receptors

these stages are not overlapping, processing in a given stage is completed before the next stage starts We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of dysfunction in abnormal psychology?


skin receptors: detectors of pressure, temperature, and touch

diagram of an open loop system input-executive-effector-output

difference between motor program and CPG?

discrete skill

motor program involved learning activities that are centrally controlled (kicking and throwing) where CPG involves genetically defined activities like locomotion and chewing Don't forget about the age old question of What type of connective tissue separates muscles from each other?

has an easily defined beginning and end, often with a very brief duration of movement (ex: throwing a ball, turning on a light switch) If you want to learn more check out What does it mean when a property is non conforming?

does vision affect balance? yes

dorsal stream = where is it?

dorsal stream can make...minor adjustments to already programmed levels Don't forget about the age old question of Where did columbus think he landed in 1492?

dorsal stream processing is

______________________________non-conscious subject sat in a dark room, frame behind the light was moving, but subject perceived

dorsal system for movement control experiment

evidence for motor programs experiment


Factors that affect decision making and thereby increase RT


four distinct parts of the closed-loop system

generalized characteristics of an open loop system

it as the light was moving in front of the frame

part 2

if the frame and dot were turned off, they would point to a lever on the last position of the dot, dorsal system showed unbiased by frame movements. ventral system was for consciousness biased frame movements

Henry & Rogers If you want to learn more check out What is the main predator of sea urchins and how does that species eat them?

-simple reaction is elevated when the complexity of the movement increases

a finger lift

b finger lift and slap

c finger lift, slap ball, push button, grab near ball

measured reaction time to initiate these movements- increased when complexity was added

provides information to the processing system about the state of the environment in which one's body exists

1 number of stimulus-response alternatives 2 stimulus -response compatibility

3 population stereotypes

4 amount of practice

represents anticipatory sensory consequences of the movement that should be received if the movement is correct

1 an executive for decision making about errors

2 an effector system for carrying out decisions

3 a reference of correctness against which the feedback is compared to define an error

4 an error signal which the information acted on by the executive

-advanced instructions specify the operation to be done

-once initiated, the system executes the instructions w/o modification -feedback is not involved, so it doesn't detect errors

-most effective in stable environments where the need for modification is low

generalized motor program

golgi tendon organs

Hick's law

how does the CPG work?

if feedback is inherent...

if the movement is very fast or brief, _____________________________

if the movement is very slow or long in duration, the control is dominated by ____________________________

if you are running past a tree on your left..

a program whose output can vary along certain dimensions to produce novelty and generalization in movement


sensitive to the level of force in various parts of the muscle

upward curve. RT versus Number or S-R alternatives. Increases dramatically even when the stimulus is just upped from one to two

-command neuron from the brain produces rhythmic commands to the muscles as if it were defining left/right activities -example: input trigger, activates flexor, activates the sensors

means that the information is directly available to the performer, naturally through the senses

then the open loop systems tend to dominate

feedback properties

angles of light from the right side are expanding systematically more slowly than h

if you are running toward a tree ahead...the angles of light for both eyes will expand at the same rate

information processing approach input-human-output

information processing stages

inhibiting actions

initiating a motor program experiment joint receptors

most prominent exteroception info sources most prominent proprioception info

1 stimulus identification

2 response selection

3 movement programming

-point of no return

-occurs about 150-170ms before the time when the movement was initiated -swings in baseball are a good example: inhibit completely, inhibit before it crosses over home plate, swins but fails to inhibit in time, and a complete swing

-race timers would hitthe stopwatch after the racer crossed the line

2 factors thatcause delays

1 amountoftime required to send the motor instructions to the hand holding the watch

2 biomechanical delays in pushing the button


subjects held a finger on a key and released roughly atthe 10o clock position.Ifthe experimenter stopped the timer atthe 9 position,the subjectwould almostnever be able to inhibitthe movementby then

-determined go signal is about150-170ms before intended action


give info about extreme positions of the joints

1 vision- defiens physical structure of the environment

2 auditory

-refers to the sense of movements of joints, tension in muscles -no receptor responds to just one characteristic however: CNS is thought of as a complex combination of inputs from these various receptors

motor programprestructured set of movement commands that defines and shapes the movement

motor program theory ...

--organizing the motor system to make the desired movement

-must ready the lower level mechanisms in the brain & spinal cord

movement programming stage

for action

-must retrieve and organize the motor program it will use to control the movement

movement timeperiod of time from the end of RT until the completion of the movement

muscle spindles


oriented parallel to the muscle fibers, notice length changes

object identification is a role of the ventral system a type of system control in which instructions

open control loop open loop examples: open skill

for the effector system are determined in advance and run off without feedback

1: traffic light in an intersection (continues to changes colors even if an accident occurs in the middle of an intersection) 2. toaster cooks the bread the amount of time you turned the dial for

the environment is variable and

unpredictable during the action (ex: driving a car)

optical arraywhen a visible object reflects rays of light, which enter the eyes at specific angles

optical flow can be thought of as the 'flow of light' acting habitually due to specific cultural

population stereotypes

processing visual feedback study

learning. ex: in america we turn dials to the right to increase something

targets ??????

-target was at a 15cm distance w/ four target goals

-accuracy increased with lights on

-quick movements with lights on versus off showed no difference at 200ms, but after 250 having the lights on benefited it

proprioceptionprovides information about the state of the body itself

proprioceptive closed loop control

- level of reflex systems that operate below our level of conciousness -affarent/efferent neurons travel a short distance, monosynaptic stretch reflex(knee jerk reflex)

-M1 loop is from muscle to the spinal cord

-M2 is the second burst of activity

quiet eye activitiesbetter athletes hold their gaze and fixate on an object for a longer amount of time

-rapid movements show the performer must initiate a

rapid/discrete tasks reaction time

fully planned movement to achieve the goal -this means the first few hundred milliseconds of the original movement occur w/o modification

period of time beginning when the stimulus is first presented and ending when the movement response starts

response selection stage-decides what response to make, given the situation or environment

response time reaction time + the movement time interval. Any factor that increases the

response time is an ________________.

duration of one or more of these stages will lengthen the RT

root mean square errorreflects the bias tendency and inconsistency in tracking behavior

a group of discrete skills strung together to

serial skill

make up a more complicated or skilled action: gymnastics routine/hammering a nail

simple RT one stimulus and one response

stimulus identification stage

stimulus response compatibility study showing that vision affects balance

tau definition

time to contact abbreviation & used by

-decide if a stimulus has been presented

-primary a sensory stage-analyzing environmental cues -separate dimensions of the stimuli are thought to be 'assembled' during this stage

the extend to which the stimulus and the response it evokes are connected in a natural way. ex: turning the handlebars to the right to cause the bike to turn right

class example: light goes on, press keys on opposite side is a little harder

Lee & Aronson

-walls suspended from a high ceiling

-move walls slightly away causes subject to sway forward

-move walls towards causes the subject to sway backward

-can cause a subject to fall back into the plop position if its a small child

the retinal image size divided by the image's rate of change in size, turns out to be proportional to the time remaining until contact

what systemtau & used by the dorsal system

trackinga type of continuous skill: performer's limb movements control a lever/wheel/handle

tracking tasks are difficult in

________________________ loop control

two major factors that effect choice reaction time:

closed. these processes are most relevant to tasks that are relatively slow or have a long duration in time

1. nature or the amount of practice for both 2. the stimulus response compatibility

the two visual systems dorsal + ventral the standard deviation of a set of scores

variable error

about the subject's own average score (CE)

ventral stream = what is it? ventral system provides the what and

needs info presented in ______________________

vestibular apparatus

visibility at night time example

well-lit conditions


inner ear provides signals related to one's movements & orientation. can be sensitive to acceleration

can't see the taillights on the car in front, the rate of expansion is so small until about 400 m away, too late for a stop

what is an open loop system missing? feedback and comparative systems

when is timing information provided by tau critical?

critical in interceptor actions involving coincident timing, striking or catching a ball, or diving into the water

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