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KSU / Biology / BSCI 107 / What is the content of bergmann’s rule?

What is the content of bergmann’s rule?

What is the content of bergmann’s rule?

Description

School: Kent State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biogeography
Professor: Brian grafton
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Biogeography exam 1 class studyguide review *REVISED*
Description: I added what I thought would be more infomation to know for the exam to this studyguide
Uploaded: 09/28/2016
12 Pages 32 Views 2 Unlocks
Reviews


EXAM REVIEW


What is the content of bergmann’s rule?



∙ Exam is over chapter 2-5; half multiple choice half short answer o 50 questions; 2 points each

∙ Will be an El Nino question

∙ Questions concerning tides- they are driven by win based upon patterns of air circulation

∙ There are 3-4 questions about the people we discussed on day 1 and what  they are known for

o Wallace definitely

o Linneaus

o Buffon/Buffon’s Law

o Darwin, Wallace

∙ General/basic facts about biomes  

∙ For short answer questions- some questions will require only a sentence or  two. Make sure the questions is read fully to avoid misinterpretation o If he asks for the difference between something, you need to tell him  both differences


What is the definition of allen’s rule?



∙ No pictures or graphs on exam

∙ Bergmann’s and Allen’s rule

*These were all emphasized in class on 9/27

Biogeographic Rules/ important people (CH2)

∙ Bergmann’s rule- an eco geographic principle that states that within a  broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of smaller size  are found in warmer regions

o Larger animals have easier time staying warm in cold environments  than smaller animals Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of danger in abnormal psychology?

o Was explained by body size and metabolic rate in chapter 5

 Relationship between body size and metabolic rate (as body  mass increases, metabolic rate decreases)

∙ Allen’s rule- suggests that species at ligher latitudes and colder temperatures have smaller appendages


What is the meaning of the ecological niche?



We also discuss several other topics like What does simple squamous epithelium look like?

o Animals in warmer climates have larger ears and longer limbs El Nino (CH 3)

∙ Shallow oceanic currents driven primarily by winds and the currents we  discussed

∙ Pacific basin- warm water from eastern pacific typically flows to western  pacific

o Leads to monsoons, which is caused by movement of warm water to  cold water from the east to the west

∙ El Nino is when warm water moves from west to east We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between zoning and land use?

o End up with a warm current going in the wrong direction

∙ Effects:

o Drought  

o Heavy rainfall

o Temperature shifts

∙ All related to the failure of warm water to move from the east to the west.  Only happens in the pacific  

Ecological niche 

∙ Multidimensional hypervolume

∙ The realized niche- the niche that an organism uses as a result of other  species using the same resources

∙ The fundamental niche- the total range of environmental conditions that a  species would have if there was no competition for resources

o Mapping out a hypothetical space where organisms exist within their  environments

o Salinity vs temperature  

o All of the factors that are required from the environment for the  organism*

o Experiment with barnicles

 Find one species at the top of water one at the bottom. Remove  one species from its home niche and place it in the other  We also discuss several other topics like Where did columbus think he landed in 1492?

species’ niche, realized that  

 In the absence of competition with another species, a species  can expand its own niche We also discuss several other topics like What is the main predator of sea urchins and how does that species eat them?

 Realized niche and fundamental niche

 Top species moved and bottom species placed in top species  niche, they could not expand their environment because they  

cant live outside of the water like the top species can during low  tide.

Ecological communities (CH 5) 

∙ Edge- going from marine to terrestrial environment

∙ Ecotone- Shift from forest to grassland

o Gradual** change

∙ Hypothetical possibilities for how communities merge (see ppt slide ch 5) o Discrete- little overlap at the edges

o Mostly discrete

o Somewhat discrete- gradual replacement

o Independent

o Nested species  

Ecological succession (CH 5) 

∙ Clements idea- the classic ides of succession where you think of it in terms of  primary and secondary succession. One steps leads directly to the next step o Primary- start from nothing

 Gradual start of primary producers (plants and shrubs)

o Secondary- change in community leads to a change in species

o Colonizers (lichens, mosses) pioneers(grasses, ferns) herbaceous  speciesshrubsclimax (trees) We also discuss several other topics like What will happen to the reaction rate if the concentration of a is halved?

o Facilitation

∙ Gleason’s idea- individualistic idea. Said that groups of species that live  together in the same communities are not related as to why they live there o Individual species have their own requirements for a specific  environment as opposed to Clements idea that organisms move in in a  sort of “schedule”

CH 2 summary

Carl Linneaus

∙ Came up with taxonomic system/calssifying species

∙ Came up with scientific names for organisms

Buffon VS Linneaus

∙ Buffon said there was a center of origin and that species spread out and  diverged from there

∙ Buffons Law- Geographically isolated but ecologically similar species have  distinct assemblages of mammals and birds

o

∙ Linneaus said that all modern plants and animals come from Noah’s ark o Said after the flood, species came out and found different elevations or “stations” where they could survive

Charles Lyell- principles of geology

∙ Said earth was > 6000 years old

∙ Said species change over time

∙ His big idea was uniformitarianism- which says that kinds of geologic  processes you view in the present also existed in the past

Alfred Russell Wallace

∙ Father of modern biogeography. Noticed there is an overlap of species  distribution but non native species population decreases

*Also see biogeographic rules section on page 1

Ch 3 summary

∙ The geographic template is made up of abiotic (nonliving) and the physical  environment  

∙ 3 physical components of the environment  

o Energy

 Primary source of energy is the sun

 Energy moves in the environment via conduction, convection,  and radiation

∙ Solar radiation hits earth perpendicularly at the equator  

and at shallower angles above and below the equator

o Atmospheric gas

 Tropical convergence zone exists at the equator

 Hadley cell cycle involves adiabatic cooling- when warm air rises and cools and loses its water content. Air becomes extremely  dry and you get deserts

∙ 30 degrees above/below equator

 Ferrel cells exist due to polar cells at the north and south that  are made up of a permanent body of cold descending air. Picks  up moist air at between 30-60 degrees north and south

∙ Westerly winds

o Water

∙ The three components interact with the characteristics of earth to give: o Shape, rotation on axis, revolution around the sun, and angle of tilt  towards the sun

o And all of this gives us climate

∙ See El Nino notes from previous pages

∙ Patterns of producing soil:

o Podzoliation- temperate deciduous and conifer forests

 Cool, moist habitats

 Accumulation of humus

 Loss of bases by leaching makes soil relatively acidic

o Laterization- soil found in humid tropics

 Warm, heavy precipitation

 Rapid decay due to high temperature and moisture

 Little or no organic debris. No layer of topsoil in tropics. Instead,  nutrients are within standing microbes or in trees

 Little accumulation of humus

 Loss of cations by leaching. Accumulate lots of Fe and Al- laterite  Soil in tropics is primarily orange because of the buildup of iron  and aluminum in the soil

o Calcification- soil found in warm arid and semi-arid grasslands and  shrublands

 Rich humus layer (organic layer on top)

 Cool to hot temperatures; scant precip

 Little loss of cations by leaching

 Accumulation of calcium carbonate (lime)  

o Gleization

 Cold, moist polar regions

 Slow decomposition- forms acidic layer or peat

 Accumulation of gley (organic acids reacting with iron)

∙ Aquatic environments are characterized by:

o Light

 Photoic and aphotic zone and the productivity in each zone o Temperature

 Epilimnion, thermocline, hypolimnion

o Salinity

o Dissolved gases

o Pressure

∙ Tides

o Spring tide- occur during full and new moon and is when you have the  greatest difference in high and low tide

o Neap tide- during first and third quarter and where you have least  variation in high/low tide

o Semidiurnal- 2 high and low tides per day

o Diurnal- on high and low tide per day

o Mixed- two high and low tides per day but one is higher/lower than the  other

∙ Geographic range- the fundamental unit of biogeography

∙ Dispersion 3 basic patterns

o Random, uniform, and clumped

 Most are clumped because theyre dependent upon a specific  resource

∙ Intrinsic rate of population increase formula: r = (b+i)-(d+e) ∙ Exponential growth is typically short term and relies on limited resources ∙ Logistic growth- incorporates the idea of carrying capacity, which is  determined by amount of resources available

∙ Ecological niche notes from previous pages  

∙ Range boundaries

o Law of the minimum- idea that there will be one underlying factor that  determines the range of a species distribution. 2 categories

 Abiotic and biotic (interactions)

∙ Biotic interactions that can LIMIT spp distributions

o competition, predation, symbiosis

Ch 5 summary

∙ Traits that influence an organisms effect on its community o Body size

o Tropic status

∙ Ecological communities

o Edge

o Ecotone

o Communities can be separated in a range from discrete to nested  species distribution (there are 5 of these total)

∙ Ecological succession

o Idea that communities are replaced over time

o 2 major models

 Primary and secondary succession

o Facilitation

o Clements vs Gleason

∙ Biomes

o Know which biomes have which type of rainfall, temperature, and the  general area of each biome

o 10 biomes were given in class

EXAM REVIEW

∙ Exam is over chapter 2-5; half multiple choice half short answer o 50 questions; 2 points each

∙ Will be an El Nino question

∙ Questions concerning tides- they are driven by win based upon patterns of air circulation

∙ There are 3-4 questions about the people we discussed on day 1 and what  they are known for

o Wallace definitely

o Linneaus

o Buffon/Buffon’s Law

o Darwin, Wallace

∙ General/basic facts about biomes  

∙ For short answer questions- some questions will require only a sentence or  two. Make sure the questions is read fully to avoid misinterpretation o If he asks for the difference between something, you need to tell him  both differences

∙ No pictures or graphs on exam

∙ Bergmann’s and Allen’s rule

*These were all emphasized in class on 9/27

Biogeographic Rules/ important people (CH2)

∙ Bergmann’s rule- an eco geographic principle that states that within a  broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of smaller size  are found in warmer regions

o Larger animals have easier time staying warm in cold environments  than smaller animals

o Was explained by body size and metabolic rate in chapter 5

 Relationship between body size and metabolic rate (as body  mass increases, metabolic rate decreases)

∙ Allen’s rule- suggests that species at ligher latitudes and colder temperatures have smaller appendages

o Animals in warmer climates have larger ears and longer limbs El Nino (CH 3)

∙ Shallow oceanic currents driven primarily by winds and the currents we  discussed

∙ Pacific basin- warm water from eastern pacific typically flows to western  pacific

o Leads to monsoons, which is caused by movement of warm water to  cold water from the east to the west

∙ El Nino is when warm water moves from west to east

o End up with a warm current going in the wrong direction

∙ Effects:

o Drought  

o Heavy rainfall

o Temperature shifts

∙ All related to the failure of warm water to move from the east to the west.  Only happens in the pacific  

Ecological niche 

∙ Multidimensional hypervolume

∙ The realized niche- the niche that an organism uses as a result of other  species using the same resources

∙ The fundamental niche- the total range of environmental conditions that a  species would have if there was no competition for resources

o Mapping out a hypothetical space where organisms exist within their  environments

o Salinity vs temperature  

o All of the factors that are required from the environment for the  organism*

o Experiment with barnicles

 Find one species at the top of water one at the bottom. Remove  one species from its home niche and place it in the other  

species’ niche, realized that  

 In the absence of competition with another species, a species  can expand its own niche

 Realized niche and fundamental niche

 Top species moved and bottom species placed in top species  niche, they could not expand their environment because they  

cant live outside of the water like the top species can during low  tide.

Ecological communities (CH 5) 

∙ Edge- going from marine to terrestrial environment

∙ Ecotone- Shift from forest to grassland

o Gradual** change

∙ Hypothetical possibilities for how communities merge (see ppt slide ch 5) o Discrete- little overlap at the edges

o Mostly discrete

o Somewhat discrete- gradual replacement

o Independent

o Nested species  

Ecological succession (CH 5) 

∙ Clements idea- the classic ides of succession where you think of it in terms of  primary and secondary succession. One steps leads directly to the next step o Primary- start from nothing

 Gradual start of primary producers (plants and shrubs)

o Secondary- change in community leads to a change in species

o Colonizers (lichens, mosses) pioneers(grasses, ferns) herbaceous  speciesshrubsclimax (trees)

o Facilitation

∙ Gleason’s idea- individualistic idea. Said that groups of species that live  together in the same communities are not related as to why they live there o Individual species have their own requirements for a specific  environment as opposed to Clements idea that organisms move in in a  sort of “schedule”

CH 2 summary

Carl Linneaus

∙ Came up with taxonomic system/calssifying species

∙ Came up with scientific names for organisms

Buffon VS Linneaus

∙ Buffon said there was a center of origin and that species spread out and  diverged from there

∙ Buffons Law- Geographically isolated but ecologically similar species have  distinct assemblages of mammals and birds

o

∙ Linneaus said that all modern plants and animals come from Noah’s ark o Said after the flood, species came out and found different elevations or “stations” where they could survive

Charles Lyell- principles of geology

∙ Said earth was > 6000 years old

∙ Said species change over time

∙ His big idea was uniformitarianism- which says that kinds of geologic  processes you view in the present also existed in the past

Alfred Russell Wallace

∙ Father of modern biogeography. Noticed there is an overlap of species  distribution but non native species population decreases

*Also see biogeographic rules section on page 1

Ch 3 summary

∙ The geographic template is made up of abiotic (nonliving) and the physical  environment  

∙ 3 physical components of the environment  

o Energy

 Primary source of energy is the sun

 Energy moves in the environment via conduction, convection,  and radiation

∙ Solar radiation hits earth perpendicularly at the equator  

and at shallower angles above and below the equator

o Atmospheric gas

 Tropical convergence zone exists at the equator

 Hadley cell cycle involves adiabatic cooling- when warm air rises and cools and loses its water content. Air becomes extremely  dry and you get deserts

∙ 30 degrees above/below equator

 Ferrel cells exist due to polar cells at the north and south that  are made up of a permanent body of cold descending air. Picks  up moist air at between 30-60 degrees north and south

∙ Westerly winds

o Water

∙ The three components interact with the characteristics of earth to give: o Shape, rotation on axis, revolution around the sun, and angle of tilt  towards the sun

o And all of this gives us climate

∙ See El Nino notes from previous pages

∙ Patterns of producing soil:

o Podzoliation- temperate deciduous and conifer forests

 Cool, moist habitats

 Accumulation of humus

 Loss of bases by leaching makes soil relatively acidic

o Laterization- soil found in humid tropics

 Warm, heavy precipitation

 Rapid decay due to high temperature and moisture

 Little or no organic debris. No layer of topsoil in tropics. Instead,  nutrients are within standing microbes or in trees

 Little accumulation of humus

 Loss of cations by leaching. Accumulate lots of Fe and Al- laterite  Soil in tropics is primarily orange because of the buildup of iron  and aluminum in the soil

o Calcification- soil found in warm arid and semi-arid grasslands and  shrublands

 Rich humus layer (organic layer on top)

 Cool to hot temperatures; scant precip

 Little loss of cations by leaching

 Accumulation of calcium carbonate (lime)  

o Gleization

 Cold, moist polar regions

 Slow decomposition- forms acidic layer or peat

 Accumulation of gley (organic acids reacting with iron)

∙ Aquatic environments are characterized by:

o Light

 Photoic and aphotic zone and the productivity in each zone o Temperature

 Epilimnion, thermocline, hypolimnion

o Salinity

o Dissolved gases

o Pressure

∙ Tides

o Spring tide- occur during full and new moon and is when you have the  greatest difference in high and low tide

o Neap tide- during first and third quarter and where you have least  variation in high/low tide

o Semidiurnal- 2 high and low tides per day

o Diurnal- on high and low tide per day

o Mixed- two high and low tides per day but one is higher/lower than the  other

∙ Geographic range- the fundamental unit of biogeography

∙ Dispersion 3 basic patterns

o Random, uniform, and clumped

 Most are clumped because theyre dependent upon a specific  resource

∙ Intrinsic rate of population increase formula: r = (b+i)-(d+e) ∙ Exponential growth is typically short term and relies on limited resources ∙ Logistic growth- incorporates the idea of carrying capacity, which is  determined by amount of resources available

∙ Ecological niche notes from previous pages  

∙ Range boundaries

o Law of the minimum- idea that there will be one underlying factor that  determines the range of a species distribution. 2 categories

 Abiotic and biotic (interactions)

∙ Biotic interactions that can LIMIT spp distributions

o competition, predation, symbiosis

Ch 5 summary

∙ Traits that influence an organisms effect on its community o Body size

o Tropic status

∙ Ecological communities

o Edge

o Ecotone

o Communities can be separated in a range from discrete to nested  species distribution (there are 5 of these total)

∙ Ecological succession

o Idea that communities are replaced over time

o 2 major models

 Primary and secondary succession

o Facilitation

o Clements vs Gleason

∙ Biomes

o Know which biomes have which type of rainfall, temperature, and the  general area of each biome

o 10 biomes were given in class

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