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UIUC - PSYC 245 - Study Guide - Midterm

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UIUC - PSYC 245 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Department: Psychology
Course: Industrial Organizational Psychology
Professor: Angela Lee
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: industrial/organizational, Psychology, and JobAnalysis
Name: PSYC 245 Study Guide Exam 1
Description: This is the list she posted on compass of all of the materials to note and I have went through the slides and gathered information in helping prepare for the exam.
Uploaded: 09/28/2016
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background image PSYC 245 Study Guide: Exam 1    General I/O:   •  Psychology: scientific study of thinking, feeling, and behavior  •  I/O Psychology: application of psychological principles, theory, and 
research to the workplace 
•  I/O is a false dichotomy  •  Disagreement on the classification of topics; some can fall on either 
side depending on the research question 
•  Interdependence of topics  •  Research necessarily increasingly complex  Science Practitioner Model:   •  A call center has a three-week training program for new employees. The  average employee quits after three months.   •  Science: Job Turnover Theories & Past Empirical Studies 
•  Practitioner: Create plan 
SIOP (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology):   •  Includes information about graduate programs, jobs, and what I/O/  psychology is  •  Also, includes a number of publications on salary, employment outlook  etc.    History of I/O:   Hugo= father of I/O Psychology   
Structuralism vs. Functionalism:  
  Structuralism – Willhelm Wundt founded psychology  •  Laws and principles governing human behavior  o  Tried to make psychology more legitimate and similar to natural  sciences (e.g., biology, physics)  o  Ignores individual differences  Functionalism – William James  •  Functions of human behavior and how mental processes operate   
Scientific Management - Frederick W. Taylor 
•  Basic principles included: Jobs that can be scientifically studied, and the  one best method for doing them can be found, there needs to be a 
match between a workers’ abilities/skills and the job tasks, money is the 
worker’s prime motivator, tools and work systems need to be desirable to  fit the worker’s needs  •  Taylor used “Time and Motion” studies to analyze jobs 
background image o  Break down a job into its core movements 
o  Time each movement 
o  Use this information to figure out more time-efficient ways of doing 
the job   
Hawthorne effect and how Hawthorne studies were conducted: 
•  Elton Mayo became involved in a series of studies  
•  Human engineering project: vary workplace conditions to find out what 
helps and hinders performance e.g., more or less light  •  Performance always improved! 
•  They were conducted by being interviewed by Mayo and also saw that 
productivity improved because the researchers were watching them – 
demand effect 
•  The workers believed that the studies would result in more demanding  quotas, so they adjusted down    Human Relations Movement:   •  Core beliefs of this movement include: good relationships are the most  important determinant of productivity, social factors will override financial 
considerations in many cases, workers are more responsive to peers’ 
values than those of management     Civil Rights Act of 1964:  •  Legislation banned discriminatory practices in employment 
•  Designed to protect underrepresented groups 
•  Forced organizations to reexamine their selection and promotion 
practices, including various tests  •  I/O psychologists have worked hard over the years to help develop  standards for fair and unbiased testing and selection    Henry Murray’s assessment centers and what they were developed for:  •  Henry developed the first US assessment center for the Office of Strategic  Services – how to pick overseas spies  •  Assessed personality and ability  
•  Simulations to test abilities to deal with stressful and frustrating 
circumstances  o  Alcohol Test, Stress Interview, Brook Situation, Construction Situation            
 
 
background image   Research Methods:     Vocab:   •  Independent Variable: (Predictor) – The presumed “ cause ”  o  Changes in the IV lead or predict changes in the DV  •  Dependent Variable: the “ effect ” or outcome, or criterion   •  Confounding Variable: correlates directly or inversely with the IV and DV 
•  Construct: psychological concept or characteristic that we’re trying to 
measure (intangible; e.g., intelligence)  •  Operational Definition: (operationalization) – how the construct or other  variable is measured or manipulated in the study     Moderator vs. Mediator:  •  Moderator: third variable that influences the relationship between two  variables; “if – then” statement  •  Mediator: third variable that represents the generative mechanism  through which the IV influences the DV     3 Criteria of Causation: (John Stuart Mills)  ¢   X is related to Y (correlation)  ¢   X precedes Y (temporal precedence)  ¢   No alternative explanations for the relationship between X and Y (no  confounds)   
Experimental design:  
•  Experiments are used in order to detect cause-and-effect relationships 
•  Can be lab or field 
•  Manipulation of IV (control group) 
•  Random assignment into experimental conditions 
  Quasi-experiment:  •  Individuals are not randomly assigned to groups (sometimes due to lack of  feasibility; e.g., personality traits; intelligence; cancer; pregnancy)   •  Participants can still be assigned to experimental and control groups  non-experiment:  •  Does  NOT  include the manipulation of variables or random assignment   o  Cannot make casual assumptions – say two variables are  “associated”  survey design:   •  Series of questions used to study one or more variable of interest  o  Because of limited control, it is difficult to infer causation      

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School: University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Department: Psychology
Course: Industrial Organizational Psychology
Professor: Angela Lee
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: industrial/organizational, Psychology, and JobAnalysis
Name: PSYC 245 Study Guide Exam 1
Description: This is the list she posted on compass of all of the materials to note and I have went through the slides and gathered information in helping prepare for the exam.
Uploaded: 09/28/2016
12 Pages 68 Views 54 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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