Abnormal Psychology 3210 Study Guide for Exam 1 (Chapters 1-3)
Abnormal Psychology 3210 Study Guide for Exam 1 (Chapters 1-3) PSY 3210
Utah State University
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aurora Walker on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 3210 at Utah State University taught by Earl, Heath in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Utah State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Abnormal Psychology 3210 Study Guide for Exam 1 (Chapters 13): Hey guys! Here’s some of my prep for the exam. Italicized text are prompts from the instructor on what will be on the exam. Don’t forget to read over your notes and the textbook material as well, for a broad based understanding of the material. Good luck! The 4 Ds – help describe mental health professional's criteria for diagnosing possible mental illness. The more Ds you exhibit, the easier it is to diagnose. Also, just because you’re experiencing some of the D’s, doesn’t necessarily mean you have a mental illness. Dysfunction – interferes with functioning of life, such as daily tasks, forming relationships, and keeping a job. eg having the OCD tendency of handwashing for hours after using the bathroom. Danger – danger to themselves or others. eg suicidal, cutting themselves, having urges to crash their car into oncoming traffic. Deviant – “moving away” from normal behavior of that place and time. eg constant lying, mad scientists, deviant sexual behavior, illegal behavior. Distress – feelings or behaviors that create distress in you or others around you. Nature of change – therapy and treatment – oftentimes therapy is more effective over the long run than treatment via medicine. EG anxiety – if you take two groups of people with anxiety, and give members in one group talk therapy for 6 weeks, and give member of the other group sedatives for 6 weeks, both will exhibit less anxiety. However, if you take away both the sedatives and the talk therapy, they medicated group will return to being anxious, while the talk therapy group will continue to have less anxiety. Treatment of symptoms vs treatment of syndrome. What does the term Reify/Reification mean? –To make into a thing; make real or material. Top 2 most commonly diagnosed mental illnesses today: 1. Depression 2. Anxiety History of psychology – HISTORY OF MENTAL ILLNESS 1 Spiritually and Mysticism – Time: beginning of human history till now Etiology (cause): evil spirits or demons inside the person Treatment: events that make the host human body uninhabitable for the spirit or coax it out. 2 main forms: 1. Exorcism – process to get the spirit out. Can be anything from sprinkling holy water, to praying over them, to drinking bitter drinks, to torturing the person. 2. Trephination – to cut away part of the skull, allowing the spirit to exit the human host. Major cause death in trephination – infection Ancient Greeks and Romans – included Plato and Aristotle, and Hippocrates. Hippocrates had a medical model and thought disease was caused by natural events – he’s known as the father of modern medicine. Thought psychology and philosophy were tied together still, and thought illness had natural causes, such as too much blood Time: 500 BC500 AD Etiology: imbalance of humors, or fluids in body, or disease state. 4 humors were: 1. Yellow bile 2. Black bile 3. Blood 4. Phlegm Treatments: Music, massage, exercise, good food, fresh air, conversation, celibacy, bleeding Middle Ages Spirituality and Mysticism again. The Catholic Church held a lot of power during this time. They had sway over politics, education, government, and technology, which included the treatment of disorders. Time: 500 AD1350 AD Etiology: sin, demonology. E.G. Plagues were seen to be a punishment from God and caused by bad air, not pathogens. War and political upheaval were also thought to be controlled by God. Treatments: exorcism. Renaissance & the Asylums Renaissance means “rebirth” or “renewal” – of the arts, science, math, humanism, music, and religion. Also called The Enlightenment. The scientific method was a result. Time: 14001700 Etiology: closer to modern day medicine. Treatments: medicine, therapy Johannes Wayer : the 1 doctor to specialize in mental psychology. He is called the father of psychopathology (mental disorders) o He thought the mind was vulnerable to disease, just like the body was. You could catch a mental disorder like you catch a cold. Also, the mind was thought of as something real, an organ like your heart, liver, or spleen. Difference between psychotic function and neurotic function: psychotic function is not grounded in reality, and neurotic function is grounded in and connected to reality. HISTORY 1. Benjamin Rush’s restraint chair Benjamin Rush was a good physician, who really tried to help people. He is known as the father of American Psychiatry. Helped spread moral treatment. He used the chair to calm down raving patients, and to help blood flow return to the brain. Good and Bad from the Enlightenment There was greater interest in serving people, which included providing better medical treatments good. The goal of many treatments invented was to “swirl, whirl, shock, rock, retain, and douche the patient back to sanity” – some worked, others caused more harm than good. Enlightenment led to cruelty in some cases. o EG the Bethlehem Hospital established in 1500’s, its philosophy was humane, moral treatment, Godliness, and goodness However, it became overcrowded and underfunded, and became a dumping ground for people. The people living there did not have their needs met, and many were horrifically abuse and neglected. It got so chaotic there they started calling it bedlam – meaning chaotic and unholy, the exact opposite of their original philosophy. They charged money to see the people – a freak show 2. Moral Treatment and William Tuke’s “York Treatment” William Tuke was a Quaker reformer who thought good treatment for mental illness was putting the person in the good environment of a God fearing household. “York Treatment” was putting patients into replicas of Quaker homes and trying to restore them to health by treating them with good food, hard work, prayer, conversation, and fresh air. Moral treatment – 19 century approach emphasizing humane and respectful treatment of patients. Dorothea Dix : American reformer who made moral treatment a public concern in U.S. She helped get laws in place, and also set up state hospitals. 3. Medical Procedures used in Mental Hospitals in early 20 century Hydrotherapy : spraying the patient with water to stimulate them. Wet Pack : wrapping patient in wet sheets to cool and restrain them. Continuous Bath : a large, warm bath kept at body temperature to calm them. Tooth Extraction : taking out the tooth sometimes worked because the infection in the bad tooth was causing the person to act crazy, and removing it healed them. Tonsillectomy : removing tonsils. It sometimes worked for same reason as pulling teeth. Lobotomy : cutting part of the brain Other psychosurgeries – including split brain surgery, “windshield wiper swish” lobotomy, and DBS (Deep Brain Surgeries) PERSPECTIVES Somatogenic : “soma” means body, and “genic” means start, so this perspective says mental illness begins as a body disease. There’s some early evidence supporting it EG Syphilis causes dementia in end stages. Emil Kraplin : German researcher and big proponent of this perspective. Wrote book on it. Psychogenic : “psycho” means mind, and “genic” means start, so this perspective says mental illness is more psychological than anatomical. Mental illness is the result of something in the mind. Freidrich Anton Mesmer : Father of hypnotism. He thought mental illness emerged from the mind. He’d treat them by having the patient in a dim room, jumping into the room in bright clothing, and doing a magic trick. He’d tap them with his hand, a feather, or a wand on the effected body part to “heal” them. It worked! How? Placebo effect : they believed something would happen, so it did. Where the word “mesmerize” comes from. Maria Burnheim and Andus Agust Cebolt : investigated the power of the brain and power of the subconscious to affect us. Studied how psychological blindness, deafness, and paralysis could be created in people thru persuasion. Got a large following. Medical Procedures Insulin therapy : Manfred Saco for schizophrenia. The insulin would drop the patients’ blood sugar, making them go into a coma and have a reaction. Reactions included lots of sweating and drooling. Dry Shock : shocking the patient with electricity to cause a full brain seizure. They would give them glucose to bring them out of the insulininduced coma. st 1 theoretical viewpoint was Spirituality and Mysticism nd 2 theoretical viewpoint was – medical model (Ancient Greeks and Romans) 3 theoretical viewpoint was – Spirituality and Mysticism (again) When did moral treatment emerge? 1800’s Who is associated with moral treatment? – Benjamin Rush, Dorothea Dix, and William Tuke Where did moral treatment first emerge? – Ancient Greeks and Romans The dark ages was what? – A revival of Spirituality and Mysticism Renaissance – change, enlightenment, asylums Trephination – What is it? to cut away part of the skull, allowing the spirit to exit the human host. Major cause death in trephination – infection When did it come about? – in time of Spirituality and Mysticism, in the Neolithic period, about 6,500 BC. How to get rid of mental illness in terms of demonic possession : exorcism – process to get the spirit out. Can be anything from sprinkling holy water, to praying over them, to drinking bitter drinks, to torturing the person. Make the demon/spirit not want to remain in the host body. What does the term “chemical imbalance” mean? Chemical Imbalance is today’s equivalent to the four humors. In a few moments you can induce a chemical imbalance in your brain, just by thinking about a really sad memory or by smiling. When did it come about? Hippocrates, and Greeks and Romans Facial Feedback Hypothesis : changing the expressions on your face causes chemical changes in your brain, altering your mood. If you smile, you feel happier. What is the Psychoanalytic theory – Freud’s theory that mental illness. Also called psychodynamic theory, it focuses on how the unconscious pushes and drives your behavior. There are multiple stages of development – cause of mental illness is if something goes wrong in one of the stages. It also focuses on your relationship with your primary care giver as a child. Was Freud’s theory biological, psychological, or somatogenic? – psychological What was deinstitutionalization? – the emptying out of state hospitals. Went from 600,000 people in institutions to 70,000 today. When was it? – 1950’s Why did it occur? – tricyclic medicines were discovered. They get their name from their 3 ring structure. Around the same time, major sedatives came out, including Haldol. Using these medications allowed the people to be better able to function and live on their own. What is multicultural psychology? – this perspective says we understand humans in the context of their individual cultural environment. They look at how race, ethnicity, gender, and other factors affect thought and behavior. What is Examination? – the clinician watching the patient to learn about them What is the difference between true and pseudo experiments – absolute necessity of true experiments is you must be able to address causation. Remember, correlation is NOT causation. If you want to establish causation, what must you have? Ability to cause what you’re studying. You need a control group and an experimental group. The groups need to be equivalent before the experiment begins. You need to change the variables to effect the results. What are case studies? – a detailed description of a person’s life, facts about the, and their psychological problems. They try to maximize ideographic information (specific to the one person) How correlation works – A correlation is a relationship of at least two variables that are related and function together. There are both positive correlations and negative correlations. Correlational studies can NOT ever make correlational statements. EG Positive correlation – relationship between eating food and BMI – the more calories you eat, the more your BMI becomes. It’s a positive correlation because as one increases the other increases too. Both variables more in the same direction EG Negative correlation – relationship between exercise and BMI – the more you exercise (if you are overweight and not trying to gain muscle mass), the less your BMI becomes. This is a negative correlation because as one variable increases, the other decreases. What is an independent variable? – the manipulated variable What is a dependent variable – the variable expected to change as the independent variable is manipulated What is a compounding (AKA extraneous variables) variable? – we want to eliminate theses. They are variables other than the independent variable that might affect the dependent variable. What is the control group? – the group not exposed to the independent variable What is the experimental group?? the group exposed to the independent variable what is the difference between incidence and prevalence? – incidence is the rate of new (or newly diagnosed) cases of disease and prevalence is the actual total number of live cases with the disease. Who said there was no such thing as mental illness? – Thomas Szasz. He thought the whole idea of mental illness was a myth and lie. According to him, “abnormal” behavior in society is just “problems in living.” He thought it was a construct made to control people. Biological model says what – biological anomalies are what leads to mental illness, such as the “schizophrenic mother” – the mom acting in a detached way towards the child caused the child to develop schizophrenia. Is disrupted hormones associated with hypothyroidism, leading to depression somatogenic vs psychogenic? – somatogenic. Are potty training issues somatogenic or psychogenic? = psychogenic What is ECT? – Electro Convulsive Shock Therapy – send electricity through a person to cause all neurons in brain to fire at the same time. They sedate them first, and its used for people who have already failed several other forms of treatment like medication and therapy. (intended) effects – can help with some conditions like severe depression Side effects – temporary memory loss, and brain damage Psychosurgery – is it ethical or not? – it depends. I think some of it is, like DBS and the windshield wiper swish lobotomy, but only in certain circumstances. Do we practice it today? – yes. Lots of questions on Freud – why? He started us paying attention to the unconscious, as well as introduced the notion that we need to treat children carefully so we don’t mess them up know 3 components Id – animalistic, wants everything it wants NOW. Sex and aggression are primary drives. With us from birth Ego – mediates between the id and superego. Functions on principles of reality Superego – the “angel on your shoulder” – in direct contrast to the id. Age 56 years old. How do defense mechanisms work? – they spare us from distress and conflict from within ourselves, but if we do them too much they can cause even more distress and problems. What is transference? – the therapist becomes a metaphysical mom (or whatever need wasn’t met) and through hypnosis or free association, allows the client to work through where they are stuck What is catharsis? – the client gets to express how they are feeling What is working through? – the client gets to experience whatever broken or stuck part of relationship or stage and move past it, in a safe environment. Allows unmet needs to be met and satisfied. What is counter transference? – when the therapist transfers their reactions onto the patient behavioral and cognitive method – main people associated with behavioral method are Watson and Skinner. It is opposite to the psychoanalytic theory, and focuses on empirical evidence. If you can’t see it, it doesn’t exist. Driven by observation and research. Behavior is either followed by an enforcer or a punishment. To understand a person, look at their reinforcement history. ABC model of behavior Antecedent (what happens before the behavior) Behavior (response to the antecedent) Consequence. Part of operant conditioning. Cognitive method involves the cognitive triad of behavior, cognition, and emotion. They are “interconnected and mutually dependent” – when one changes, the others do as well. They say cause of mental illness is the outcome of a poor or irrational thought. ABC method of cognition – Activating event, Belief (thoughts), Consequence (can be feelings or emotions), Dispute (argument) Cognitive method key people – Beck and Ellis Behaviorism and cognitive psychology combined to create CBT (Cognitive Behavior Therapy) The idea is to change thoughts and behaviors for some new outcome. major difference in classical and operant conditioning – classical is unconscious and operant is conscious. Antecedent vs consequent – an antecedent precedes a behavior and a consequent follows a behavior Classical = focuses on antecedent. Automatic behavior EG getting ready for the day, you don’t think about every single action you do Operant = focuses on learning from consequent. The effect of behavior is what motivates you What is flooding? – a type of behavior therapy where a person is exposed to something they are afraid of for long periods of time so that they won’t be as scared of it anymore. How is it used? – to treat anxiety disorders, PTSD, and phobias What theory does it fall under? Behavioral cognitive triad – how does it inform us/how is it useful? AKA the 3 human psychologies. The three circles are Cognition (thoughts), Emoting (emotion), and Behavior. Arrows connect each of the three circles, representing that a change in one leads to change in the other two. The “steering wheel” of the triad is cognition – what you think influences your behaviors and emotions. What is selfactualization? – part of the humanist perspective – it is the full realization of your potential self for goodness and growth What theory does it fall under? – humanist What is selfdeception? – how we hide from life’s responsibilities. We can blame others deny responsibilities, and fail to see our own experience. What theorist’s say it is lying to ourselves? – existentialism What is the ecological approach? – looks at different systems people interact with different aspects of their environments and look at the effects of community and society on the person. What is poverty? – the state of being extremely poor. It’s a major player in virtually every social ill. They are either caused by or exacerbated by it What theory is it tied to? – sociocultural model person engaging in substantial selfdeception and deception of others – what is the best form of therapy – 1 on 1, group, or family therapy? – family therapy. Why? – it’s harder to fool more people than just one, as in 1 on 1 therapy, and when it is with their family they are harder to fool than a group of strangers what does the term “ideographic” mean? – specific to one person what does orientation mean?/to be oriented or not – do they know what’s going on and who they are. What do we test? – do they know their name, where they are, what the date and time is, etc difference between different ways of assessing– observation – the client is watched and information is gathered interviews – the client and the clinician engage in dialogue, with the clinician often asking questions and the client answering them projective – the client projects their internal psychology outside of themself Which is more stable, intelligence or personality? – intelligence is more stable What is the difference between a symptom and syndrome? – a symptom is a subjective indication of illness, and a syndrome is several signs and symptoms that characterize an illness. How do we use the DSM 5? – we use it as a guiding framework to help diagnose mental illness. It is not the knowallbeall, but it’s the best we have. strengths and weaknesses of structured and unstructured interviews – Strengths of structured interviews are that it gives the interviewer questions to ask on a specific topic, can ensure questions are understood and stated clearly, and can be more in depth. Weaknesses of structured interviews are that they are rigid and can leave potentially revealing questions unasked. Strengths of unstructured interviews are respondents can answer in as much detail as they’d like, questions can lead to other questions (flexibility), and more valid information about the client’s attitudes can be obtained. Weaknesses of unstructured interviews are they can take much longer to analyze, it can be difficult to compare various interviews because they are all different, and they can last a long time. What does the term “profiler” mean? – someone who collects data and interprets profiles What is a “profile”? – a behavioral pattern type and personal history of a person Concurrent validity– multiple points of info pointing in the same direction is what – eg depression showing on test, and what they say, and what their family says. What are the levels of evaluation – st 1 level start with what is assessment – diagnostic interview/mental health evaluation 2 level – psychological evaluation + psychological tests 3 level – specialty/specialized testing + psychological evaluation + psychological tests
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