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Intro to Correction Exam 1 Study guide

by: Sydney Cota

Intro to Correction Exam 1 Study guide CJ 104

Marketplace > Boise State University > Criminal Justice > CJ 104 > Intro to Correction Exam 1 Study guide
Sydney Cota

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About this Document

This study guide covers chapters 1-5 in the Corrections: The Essentials, 2nd edition.
Intro to Corrections
Danielle Swerin
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Cota on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 104 at Boise State University taught by Danielle Swerin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Intro to Corrections in Criminal Justice at Boise State University.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Exam 1 Study Guide CJ 104 ­ Fall 2016 Chapter 1  What is corrections? o A generic term covering the functions carried out by government and private  agencies having to do with the punishment, treatment, supervision, and  management of individuals accused of crimes o Secure institutions like jails and prisons o Community based agencies like probation and parole o Penology: the study of processes adopted for punishment and prevention of crime  Explain the nature and nurture perspectives of human nature. o Nurture: “blank slate,” Inherently good, learn to be antisocial. Basically not born  with it but all learned. Very much environmental.  o Nature: innate human nature, essentially selfish, learn to be social. Born with.  What is the earliest known written code of punishment? o  Code of Hammurabi. Eye for an eye type of deal  Define punishment and provide examples.  o Act of imposing some unwanted burden on convicted persons in response for their crimes.  Simple as a fine to complex as imprisonment  Define controlled vengeance.  o Responsibility to the state, not the individual. o Individuals wouldn’t take care of punishment they would let the authorities take  care of the situation. Calling the police instead of going after someone who  wronged you.  Who is the leader of the classical school of criminology? What key ideas did he  contribute to the development of corrections? o Cesare Beccaria  Preserve Public Safety  Confront witnesses  Know charges brought against them  Public and speedy trial  Proportionate and consistent punishments  No reference to social status  Certain, swift and severe  Written criminal codes  Limit judicial discretion  Jeremy Bentham was a contributor to which school of criminology? Define his principle  of utility.  o Classical school contributor o Principle of Utility  Positing that human action should be judged on moral or immoral by its  effects on the happiness of the community   “The greatest good for the greatest number”  Social policies should be evaluated on the well­being of the community  Compare and contrast the main principles of the classical and positivist schools of  criminology.  o Classical  Hedonistic: seek pleasure, avoid pain  Hedonistic Calculus: people logically weigh the benefits over the  cost.  Rational: have good sense and sound judgement based on evidence  available  Free will: the capacity of humans to make choices o Positivist  Focused on empirical science  Characteristics and circumstances of the offender  Individualized sentencing  According to Emile Durkheim, what are the functions of punishment? o Retributive justice: desire for revenge o Restitutive justice: humane approach, balance, simple deterrence  Define recidivism. How many released prisoners recidivate within three years of being  released? o Recidivism  Persons relapse into criminal behavior. Rate at which they reoffend after  being released. o 60% reoffend and reenter prison after three years  Explain the key principles of each punishment justification (i.e., retribution, deterrence,  incapacitation, rehabilitation, and reintegration)  o Retribution: eye for an eye, punishment fits the crime (proportionality), holding  offenders accountable      Deterrence: deterred by threat of punishment       Specifi  punishment deters offenders       Genera  laws prevent offenders, general population      Incapacitation: inability of criminal to victimize people outside prison      Selective: grouping specific offenders o Rehabilitation: change their behavior and attitude, better social skills       Reintegrati  reintroduce criminals to society, depends on rehab success.  Providing resources help them become successful members of society  Which is the most effective component of deterrence? Which is the least effective  component of deterrence? o  What is the contrast effect? Provide an example.  o The contrast or comparison between the possible punishment for a given crime  and the usual life experience of the person who may be punished. o For people with little to lose, arrest and punishment may be seen as an  inconvenience or with an “oh well” mentality  What is the focus of selective incapacitation? o To keep space in the prison for those who commit serious and violent crimes.  Saves money as well.  Compare and contrast the due process and crime control models of criminal justice. o Due process: Justice for offender  Obstacle course  Police need warrants when possible, evidence can be suppressed  Multiple motions may be filed and numerous appeals  Integrity of the legal system  More likely for guilty people to be let go o Crime Control: justice for community  More conservative values  Potential for more innocent people to be found guilty  Swiftly, efficiently, finality  Is the U.S. soft or hard on crime? o Depending on the crime. Very hard on drugs yet let rapists serve ridiculously  short sentences Chapter 2  What are the key themes underlying correctional history? Provide examples of how these  themes relate to specific events in correctional history.  o The Big Three:  Influence of Money  Potential sentiment  Evolving sense of comparison o Other themes  How to use labor and technology  Intersection of race, gender, class, and age  Architecture and its influence on supervision  Methods of control  Overcrowding  Good intentions do not always translate in to effective practice  What were the first correctional facilities to develop? o jails  Define Galley Slavery, Bridewells, and Transportation. o Gallery Slavery: a sentence forcing the convict to work as a rower on a ship o Bridewells: work houses constructed to punish “beggars, prostitutes and night  walkers.”  Later used as places of detention and used to extract fines and repayment  of debt  What are the central tenants of John Howard’s ideas for reform? o  Eliminate fee system *main focus* o Separate inmates by gender and offense o Sanitary conditions o Staff as moral models for inmates o Jail and prison standards  What is a panopticon? Who developed it? o A prison design in which multiple tiered cells are built around a hub so that  correctional staff can view all inmates without being observed o Created by Jeremy Bentham  Who is William Penn? Define his concept of the Great Law. o  Great law: based on Quaker principles, deemphasized the use of corporal and  capital punishment for all crimes but the most serious  Explain the structure of early colonial jails. o Makeshift nature   Describe the Newgate Prison in Simsbury, Connecticut.  o Was a copper mine o Operated for 54 years and housed around 800 inmates throughout operation o Held those who were loyal to England during the revolutionary war o Inmates were forced to work the mine during the day an confined at night with no  supervision o Several escapes and riots Chapter 3  Define correctional institution. What are the two key components of a correctional  institution? o Carefully classify inmates into treatment programs. Places where inmates can  earn “good time” and eventual parole  Explain the cyclical need for reform.  o Have an idea for reform, try it, something goes wrong that causes need for more  reform. Continuous cycle.  What is commonly considered the first prison? What reforms did it include? o Walnut Street Jail  Separate cells for each inmate   No fee system  Separated by gender and offense  Did not incarcerate children  Separated debtors from convicted felons  Isolated in cells, other than for some work requirements  Medical care and religious services provided  Eventually became very overcrowded  Compare and contrast the Pennsylvania and New York prison models. Which prisons  utilized the Pennsylvania system? Which prisons utilized the New York model? What are the pros and cons of each approach? o Pennsylvania Prison Model (separate system)  Western Pennsylvania Prison  Complete solitary confinement  No labor  Eastern Pennsylvania Prison (Eastern State Pen)  Absolute separation of prisoners  Large cells so inmates could do virtually everything in their cells,  talked to each other, no time to reflect o New York System (Congregate system)  Auburn Prison  Congregate but silent   Single, small cells  Worked together during the day but silently  Housed more inmates and allowed for profit from labor  Still in use today  Sing Sing Prison  Built by inmates from auburn prison  Modeled after the auburn prison  Discuss the purpose of the American Prison Congress.  o 1870, created a blue print of ideas that shape prisons today o Purpose of prison to achieve reform  Define and discuss the intent of the Elmira Reformatory. o New York model prison founded in 1876 in response to calls for reform of earlier  prisons. o Sought to incorporate a rehabilitation focus and graduated rewards system that  reformers recommended. o Marks system: earned rewards/marks for good behavior o Zebulon Brockway: head of reformatory, indeterminate sentencing   Compare and contrast the contract and lease systems.  o North:  Contract system  Businesses could contract for inmate labor. o South:  Lease system  Worked on prison plantations or plantations of southern farmers o Bother were eventually abandoned because they took jobs from outside citizens  What is the medical model? Which justification of punishment does it align with?  o Medical Model: viewed inmates and those who committed crimes as sick and in  need of help o Aligns with the rehabilitation justification  What are warehouse prisons? Big House prisons?  o Warehouse prisons: large, restrictive rules, no rehab or retribution, today’s max  security institutions o Big House prisons: maximum security, isolation, schedule/routine, strict security Chapter 4  Define ethics. What is the difference between ethics and morality? o Study of what is right and wrong o Ethics is professional right and wrong o Morality id personal right and wrong, different for everyone  Identify and define all of the ethical frameworks discussed in class. o Deontological:  Concerned with whether the act itself is good o Teleological:  Focused on the consequences of the act o Ethical Formalism  Determines morality based on a universal law that includes clear rights  and wrongs o Utilitarianism  Determines morality based on how many people were helped by the act o Religious perspective  Weighs what is right and wrong based on religious teachings o Natural law  Universal standards of right and wrong   Cross­cultural and true over time o Ethics of virtue  Focus on whether the person is good o Ethics of care  Focus on the care and concern of others o Egoism  The needs of the self are most important  What is official deviance?   o Officials act in a way that benefits their organization but violates laws or rules  What is noble cause corruption? What are the two types?  o “the smell of the victims blood”­ motivated by desire to protect and save victims  may step over ethical lines o “the tower”­ officer ran towards the danger while others run away  Define subculture. Are subcultures positive, negative, or both? Explain. Why is this  important in corrections?  o Subcultures are little groups that form within bigger groups such as gangs in  prison.  o They can be a positive or negative. Gangs could bring violence yet protect weaker inmates Chapter 5   Define sentencing. When does sentencing usually occur? By who?  o The punitive penalty ordered by the court after a defendant has been convicted of  a crime either by a jury, bench trial by a judge or plea bargain o Typically occurs 30 days after being convicted  Explain each type of sentence discussed in class and provide an example.  o Indeterminate: actual number of years they may serve is not fixed but its in a  range o Determinate: convicted individuals are given fixed number of years o Mandatory: sentences where probation is not an option and minimum is set by  law o Concurrent: two sentences served at the same time o Consecutive: two or more sentences served one after another o Shock probation: shock offenders into getting straight. Exposing them to prison  life to scare them and then give them probation o Split sentence: felons serve brief periods in jail before prison, work release:  released for daytime, spend nights and weekends in jail  What are victim impact statements? Who can deliver a victim impact statement? At what  stage in the criminal justice process? Are they influential? o Allow persons directly impacted by crime to inform the court of the personal and  emotional harm they have suffered as a result of the crim.  What did the Supreme Court find in Payne v. Tennessee?  o Supreme court upheld written or oral VIS during sentencing trial  What are problem­solving courts?  o Alternatives to traditional criminal courts that address the problems of offenders  with special needs and other issues such as alcoholism or mental health problems  Define the components of drug courts. Are they effective? o Most prevalent type of problem solving court o Treatment programs, supervised by judge or probation officers, last about a year o Offers lots of services to defendants but super strict and very monitoring  Define sentencing disparity. What is the difference between legitimate and illegitimate  sentencing disparity? o Occurs when there is wide variation in sentences received by different offenders  Legitimate: sentencing based in legal factors, crime seriousness or  criminal history  Illegitimate: based on non­legal factors, race, gender  What is a presentence investigation report? Who provides it to the court?  o Report written by probation officers informing the judge of various aspects of the  offense for which the defendant is being sentenced, provides info on defendant’s  background.  What are sentencing guidelines? What did the court rule in Booker v. United States.  o Forms containing scales with a set of rules for numerically computing sentences  that offenders should receive based on the crimes they committed and criminal  record. Court made guidelines advisory and not mandatory


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