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Microbiology 210 Ms. Govindan SFSU exam 1

by: 97lauernw

Microbiology 210 Ms. Govindan SFSU exam 1 BIOL 210

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This is the study guide for exam one.
Dr. Govindan
Study Guide
Chapter, Ch 1-3
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by 97lauernw on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 210 at San Francisco State University taught by Dr. Govindan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
Study GUIDE for Exam 1 (this is only a guide—use it as a PRACTICE TEST) What are the three main groups into which living organisms are now classified (and on what basis was this change  made)?  Archaea Bacteria Eukarya Bacteria and Eukarya were classified in separate domains in 1975. There were differences in rRNA. Bacteria's rRNA had  a total of 70S while Eukarya has a total of 80S. On what basis would you classify a new microbe from another planet? (what characteristics would you observe?) The microbe would be analyzed for specific features which will properly place the new microbe in the proper domain. If  the microbe has a nucleus it would classified under the domain of Eukarya. If the microbe had no nucleus it would then  go on to further analysis to identify if the microbe is part of the archaea or bacteria domain. If the microbe contains  propylene glycol or peptidoglycan it will be classified under domain bacteria. Archaea does not contain peptidoglycan.  What are the microbial groups and how do they each contribute to life on our planet? 5 diff: Archaea, Virus, Fungi, Bacteria, Algae, and Protozoa. Populations in the same area= community Organisms interact with the environment and themselves forming an ecosystem. Ecosystem­ Chemical cycling and energy flow. Having a proper balance of these microbial groups helps stabilize and  maintain the earth's ecosystem.  How are microbes both friend and foe? Foe: Causes disease, Food Spoilage Friend: Prevent acid reflux, help digestion, affect metabolism, immune system support, protects you from pathogens,  decomposers, food, and bioremediation. How did scientists change people’s ideas about “where microbes come from”? In 1600s, Antoni Van Whovenhook created the first microscope which led to the first discovery of microbes. Louse  Pasteur, linked microbes to chemical activity which led to wine spoilage. Experiment was with flask with long neck.  Pasteurization (hundred year old process that destroys pathogens through simple heat) was invented and disapproved  spontaneous generation. Semmelwies, childbed fever was caused by microbes. Hand washing was implemented. Koch ­  proved that specific microbes caused specific diseases. How did scientists change people’s ideas about what causes disease?  Koch Postulates, 1) Correlation presence of specific microbes with diseased individual. For example, compare both blood between healthy sheep and anthrax sheep. 2) Cultivate microbe outside of organism in PURE Culture 3)Inject isolated  microbe into healthy host. 4) Test animal if sick or not, then re­isolate pathogen. What is the scientific method and how has it been applied in the history of microbiology? (hint: ulcer case study) 1) Problem/Question 2) Hypothesis 3) Test hypothesis with controlled experiment 4) Collect and analyze data 5)  conclusion Dr Warren used scientific method to prove that H. pylori causes stomach ulcers. Used antibiotics to see if it cured  stomach ulcers. It did. It proved that with H.pylori in stomach is good but not over the amount of them.  How have tools and techniques determined what scientists know about microbes? Microscopes have helped us to view microscopic organisms and understand the differing microbes and how they survive  in different environments. Techniques such as the 5 I's and staining have helped scientist better understand microbes  structure, motility, and reproduction. What is the microbiome and why should we care about it? Ecological community of microorganisms that utilize our body, inside and outside. These microorganisms that live on  and inside our bodies assist in maintaining our bodily functions, such as digestion, immune function. The good bacteria  on our skin takes up space not allowing bad microbes to colonize on it. If your cousin’s doctor told him that he has high levels of H. pylori in his stomach, should he be pleased or not? Why?  (What would you tell him, given what you have read for homework?) He should not be pleased. Too much H. pylori causes stomach ulcers. Too little H. pylori causes acid reflux disease.  If you wanted to show that a particular microbe causes a new disease, how would you go about proving it?  Koch Postulates Do viruses belong to one of the three domains? Why or why not? No they don't. They have no rRNA. They need a host in order to survive, and can only can reproduce inside host cell. Describe a significant experiment in the history of microbiology that affects your daily life today! Louise Pasteur, disproved spontaneous generation. Linked microbes to wine spoilage. He used a glass flask with a long  curved neck filled with sterile broth. No microbes formed in broth with the long neck (clear broth). Broke long curved  neck off and a few days later broth turn cloudy indicating microbes. Pasteurization was developed. Explain to a friend how the “5 I’s” aren applied when he has an infection Inoculation is getting a sample (specimen) from his infection which is the source of where the microbe come from.  Incubation is take the ample in an appropriate environment such as correct temperature, humidity, and good oxygen for  the bacteria to survive.  Isolation of the  colonies is make sure there is enough space and nutrients for each specie.  Inspection of colonies is appearance of the colonies via microscopy Identification is test the biochemistry and cell metabolism to determine what type of cell it is.  Why is aseptic collection and transport of clinical specimens important? Describe a few ways that this might be  practiced. Aseptic collection is important because you do not want your cultures contaminated from outside microbes. The  collection and transportation of clinical specimens should be handled with the utmost care to avoid spreading of  pathogens to surrounding areas. This is practiced in microbiology labs where tools are sterilized before and after use.  Dialysis, IV's in hospitals settings. Explain the difference between selective and differential media.  Can a particular media be both? Give an example of  each.   Selective media contains ingredients that kill certain microbes while allowing others to grow, e.g. sabouraud's agar.  Differential media differentiates between similar organisms. e.g. blood agar. Media can be both selective and differential  e.g. Mannitol salt agar.  What do you need to know about a particular microbe in order to design media that will support its growth? Oxygen requirement of organism PH requirement of organism temperature requirement water requirement What is the relationship between a cell and a colony?  What are some characteristics that can be used to describe colonies like the ones you observed on your “air sample” plate? Single type of cells duplicate go on multiplying to form community like structure called a colony. 1. size 2. shape 3. color 4. texture 5. elevation 6. edge/margin.  What is the difference between magnification and resolution? What is contrast? How can all three (magnification,  resolution and contrast) be optimized for good microscopy? Magnification is making the object appear larger. Resolution is the clarity of the object with the smallest distance  between two points that can be distinguished. Clarity, how the specimen stands out from background, also known as  refractive index. The 3 can be used to see the clearest image possible.   What would happen if you had magnification without good resolution? Empty magnification, you would not be able to see a clear image. If would appear blurry. How can you calculate the resolving power (resolution) of your microscope?  Divide the wavelength of light by 2 * numerical aperture.  Explain to a friend what you can see with a microscope that has a resolving power of “X” microns (X can be any number) Resolving power is the smallest distance between two points that can be clearly resolved as separate. If th the resolving  power of our microscope is 0.5 microns, can you clearly see the structure that are 0.5 microns apart or 5 microns apart.  Describe situations in which the following types of microscopy may be used: Brightfield, phase­contrast, fluorescence, TEM, SEM brightfield: good view of surface of cells. phase­contrast: best view of internal structures,  Fluorescence: tagging things inside cell so you can see them, used immunofluorescence to stain antibodies to view  bacteria TEM: electrons go through specimen. Reveals viruses 20­90nm SEM: Electron beam scans specimen; 3­D view of surface of object What is the difference between a simple stain and a differential stain? A simple stain is (one dye) used to show that bacteria are present and what they look like as opposed to other matter and  the background. A differential stain (uses two dyes) is used to separate organisms into groups. G + and G­ What are the main structural differences between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria?  How are these differences  highlighted in the Gram stain? Gram­positive bacteria have a thicker peptidoglycan layer and gram­negative bacteria contain a (LPS) lipopolysaccharide outer membrane. G+ stays purple and G­ is red.  What is the purpose of each step of a differential stain? How does this apply to the  Gram stain?  Differential stains have 4 steps. 1. flood crystal violet after allowing a wet mount to dry and heat.  2. After rinsing, flood Gram's iodine. 3. Rinse again, drip alcohol on slide 4. rinse and apply Safranin This applies to Gram staining because it will help differentiate from gram positive and gram negative cells. After rinsing  the safranin, gram negative will appear red and gram positive will appear purple..  Predict what would happen if a particular step of the Gram stain were omitted If the decolorization step were omitted, both types of cell walls would retain the primary stain. Describe the primary functions of the various parts of a bacterial cell—which structures are essential for survival? Which  structures are “extras” and how do they provide advantages for bacteria that have them? Each bacterial cell has a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes (protein synthesis), cytoskeletal and DNA. Extra features include a glycocalyx (sugar coat, capsule/slime layer prevents phagocytosis and provides attachment), Fimbriae (attachment), Pilus (allows for transfer of DNA) and Flagellum (in bacteria made of protein for attachment), and plasmids (nonessential DNA)


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