Research Methods Exam 1 Study Guide
Research Methods Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 314
Popular in Research Methods in Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Makenzie Hooper on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Research Methods Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1 I. Intro 1. Psychology a. Scientific study of cognition, emotions, and behavior. 1879- Psychology’s birthday Philosophy is the root of Psychology Wundt created psychology and the first research lab by using the 3 main tools of the research method. b. Pseudoscience- anything that appears scientific, but does not use the scientific method. 2. Science a. Content Factual knowledge/ information b. Process Understanding of the content and how data is collected to get the facts 3. Research Methods a. All starts with research 4. Scientific Method a. Unbiased data 5. Common sense psychology a. Every day, non-scientific data gathering Works most of the time Can create biased results Data is gathered through non-scientific sources Media, celebrities, friends Results in non-scientific inference Not tested because we trust the sources. 6. Non-Scientific Inferences a. Assign traits to people Assume traits in one setting will stay the same in other settings b. Stereotypes Often not true c. Use data to estimate true probability of events happening Non-scientific data II. Scientific Method 1. 7 characteristics a. Scientific mentality of determinism Expect a natural order of events b. Gather empirical data Observable Experience it Can support or not support c. Seeking general principles Create an original hypothesis to support Find principles about people to follow and create guidelines If we formulate guidelines that are accurate, then we have a law. Laws are rare, theories are more common because they are easier to update. d. Good thinking Be objective and open minded; rational Follow a systematic system Avoid opinions and personal beliefs Confirmation biased- looking only for support to the bias. Relates to research because it can influence the data and alter results. e. Self-correction Look at new research and compare to your own f. Publication Share data with others g. Replication Need to repeat to get same results; validation III. 4 Objectives of Psychology Studies 1. Description a. Want to describe in detail everything involved in the study before you begin the study. b. Systematic, unbiased ways of recording all the observations c. When writing your study, it must be clear and detailed 2. Prediction a. Hypothesis- based on prior research b. Others should be able to look at your research to make their own hypothesis and predict behavior 3. Explanation a. Able to explain a behavior in order to know the cause Antecedents- circumstances before a behavior occurs 4. Control a. Want/need control over all aspects of the study b. Apply this first IV. 2 Types of Research 1. Applied research a. Set up study to get results to apply to the populations 2. Basic research a. Set up a study built off od past studies and knowledge Most common V. Publication of Findings 1. APA a. American Psychological Association 2. APS a. Associations for Psychological Studies VI. 3 Main Tools of the Scientific Method 1. Must be set up in place before beginning a study 2. Approved by the review board a. Observations Systematic way of recording data b. Measurements Need a specific way of measuring data Use statistics to analyze results c. Experimentations Specific research design Testing hypothesis VII. Antecedents 1. Circumstances that cause a behavior 2. Each antecedent chosen will be assigned a treatment condition 3. Treat participants differently in each treatment condition to see if different behaviors occur. Chapter 2 Ethics I. Ethics Intro 1. Ensure safety and health of participants 2. Responsible Research a. Want to benefit humanity (GOAL) b. Expand on past psychological knowledge c. No harm should come to participants 3. Population in Studies a. Humans b. Animals 4. CITI Training a. Training researchers have to go through BEFORE you can propose a study and conduct research 5. You are liable for your participants a. Physical or psychological harm b. Intentional or accidental II. Laws and Regulations 1. Human Participants a. Title 45, section 46 b. People who get funding for their research NEEDS to have a review board in place Institutional Review Board (IRB) 2. IRB a. Reviews ALL studies BEFORE they can occur b. They ensure safety and health of participants c. Impacts publication of research Needs to have approval from the IRB before publication d. The IRB members are experts in Research Methods Referred to as Lay people (General Population) Community members and representatives of the organization 3. Things IRB Look For – Application Process a. Obtained informed consent b. No invasion of privacy c. No coercion d. Minimal stress At risk physically/ psychologically they will be harmed Risk/Benefit Analysis e. Deception only when there are no alternatives Participants must be debriefed afterwards f. Confidentiality 4. Informed Consent Form a. Notifies participants ALL aspects of the study that the need to know b. Once given, consent to the study will be decided Written/ typed c. Done after initial contact with participants d. They received 2 copies They must read it to themselves Researcher must read it to them Questions must be answered Both parties must sign the 2 copies e. If participant is a minor or cognitively impaired, then parents or legal guardian must give consent If the participant is 7 years old or older they must give assent Language of the study must be in a way your participant will understand 5. What is included in the Informed Consent Form? a. Description of study b. Description of methodology c. State the risks and benefits d. State it is confidential e. State it is voluntary f. Participants can leave at any time g. If they leave, it does not affect their status h. Must answer all questions i. Must give your name, number and email and of any faculty sponsors and IRB members j. Two lines for sign and date III. Evolution of Ethics 1. Neumberg (1947) a. Set up ethical standards similar to what we use today Influenced consent Reduce suffering Must have fruitful results Proper preparation Explain risks Know when to terminate a study 2. National Commission for Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1947) a. Part of U.S. National Research Act 3. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Issued a Belmont Report a. Any study with human subjects must follow these policies 4. 4 Ethical Principles – Belmont Report a. Respect of Persons Participants have the right to make research decisions Stay/terminate/give consent Protects special participants Prisoner, pregnant women, and children Influenced inform consent form b. Beneficence Maximize benefits/Minimize risks Not causing harm or stress Influenced Risk/Benefits Analysis c. Justice Treat them fairly Select participants fairly Benefits humanity as a whole 5. Animal Research a. Animal Welfare Act (1966) Standard protocols Ethical Guidelines Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) 6. IACUC a. Approves/Disapproves animal research studies b. Includes: Experts in Research Methods Lay People (community) Specialized Vets who are experts in psychological research lab animals Must be present during study Chapter 3: Experiments I. Experimental designs 1. Non-Experimental Design a. Rely on scientific method for setting up with control. b. Sometimes aren’t practical c. Best way to test hypothesis outside a lab d. Low in internal validity e. High in external validity 2. Why use is? a. True experimental design is implacable b. Easier to use outside the lab 3. External Validity a. Degree to which conclusions of a study can be generalized beyond the specifics of the study Applicable to larger human population 4. Dimensions-Continuums a. Manipulation of Antecedents True experimental designs are high in this Non-experimental are low in this b. Imposition of Units How constrained you want your subject’s response to be True experiments are high in this Non-experimental vary – depends on design II. Non-Experimental Research Approaches 1. Phenomenology a. Personal experiences, not interested in external events/ behaviors b. Data collected involves our personal interactions / experiences c. No participants - only self, no manipulation of antecedents d. Attends to own events e. Limitations Hard to replicate Observations can be altered by own attention Cannot describe behavior to the general population No cause and effect statements Leads to future research Combined with other designs 2. Case Studies a. Elaborate, detailed observations of a single person or group b. Data recorded by outside observer c. Record behavior as it occurs- time period d. Variety of different procedures used - depends on study topic e. Purposes Gives us a good source of inference Develops therapeutic techniques Studies rare cases Help show exceptions Good at explaining abstract concepts f. Deviant case studies- deviant behavior g. Limitations External validity is low Hard to study someone 24/7 Can’t say cause and effect Rely on subjects to give info Rely on retrospective data – past events Details may be lost when recalling a memory Researchers may not recall everything 3. Field Studies a. Real life setting/ naturalistic b. Outside a lab c. Many data collection techniques d. Low in manipulation Naturalistic Observation (FS) a. Observes behavior as is occurs b. No manipulation c. Unobstructed measures d. Do not want to alter the environment e. High in external validity f. Can answer specific questions Limitations No cause and effect No manipulation If in a lab, unnatural influences can occur Can’t observe 24/7 Participant Observation (FS) a. Researcher becomes part of the studied group b. Get a lot of information c. No manipulation Limitations Researcher can still alter behavior Researcher has to remain objective Is it ethical to not tell participants? 4. Archival Studies a. Use already existing data for new purpose b. Use the data to study societal trends and social aspects c. Get to look at a larger population Limitations No cause and effect May have to alter new study; data collected may not have all details to the new study topic. 5. Qualitative Studies a. Interested in words and their meaning b. Not interested in numbers (Quantitative) c. Rely on self-report Limitations No cause and effect Rely on retrospective data Getting subjective responses Presence of observer can lead to biased responses Internal and external validity Chapter 4: Surveys I. Why Do We Use Surveys? 1. We have access to people’s thoughts and feelings; have access to their minds II. Pros of Using Surveys 1. Easy to collect data 2. Can collect data on people that are hard to observe a. Feelings b. Thoughts 3. Cheap 4. Limitations a. No cause and effect, but can make inferences III. Experimentation or Non-Experimentation 1. Surveys can be used in both 2. Low in manipulation 3. Can be low or high in imposition of units a. Determined by questions asked 4. External validity is determined by the questions a. Make sure the questions are valid b. Make sure the questions are what we want to ask IV. 2 Common Survey Techniques 1. Written a. Handouts, emails 2. Face to face a. Interviews V. Developing a Survey Question 1. Step one a. Mapping out our research objectives b. Make specific as possible 2. Step 2 a. Develop questions and look for imposition of units b. 2 types of questions can determine imposition of units Closed Ended Questions Limited number of responses Easy to quantify Exhausted all answers Open Ended Questions No yes/no questions Can follow close ended questions Hard to quantify- need a control analysis system 3. Ask straight forward questions a. Avoid abstract questions, double negatives, and compound sentences 4. Measuring responses a. Closed ended questions must have a level of measurement Nominal Naming; categorizing; simplest level Example: gender, race Ordinal Ranking; ordering Examples: placing in a race Interval- no true zero Equal number of intervals between values Example: temperature; no absence of temp Ratio- true zero Equal number of intervals between values Height, weight, and time b. Always select highest level when possible VI. First Impressions 1. First question should gain subjects attention 2. 5 details first questions should have a. Close ended questions b. Answerable c. Interesting d. Relevant e. Straight forward VII. Types of Surveys 1. Self-administered 2. Mail surveys 3. Computer/email 4. Interview 5. Focus groups 6. Telephone a. Most common VIII. Evaluating a Survey 1. Reliability a. Accuracy – consistent and replicable 2. Validity a. Are we measuring what we set out to 3. Collect data through sampling 4. Sample of subjects- subset of population a. Representative sample – mirror population, makes inferences of larger population b. Random sampling – everyone has an equal chance of being selected The more representative the sample is, the higher the external validity 5. Population- people that has at least one common characteristic IX. 2 Sampling Approaches 1. Probability sampling a. The odds of participants being selected are known ahead of time b. 4 types Simple random sample – random selection Systematic random sampling – list all members of population in order and select the nth person Stratified random sample – when population has subgroups Cluster sampling – when you have a large population, hard to random sample 2. Non-Probability Sampling a. Low in external validity Not using random sampling; won’t have representative sample b. 4 types of non-probability sample Quota sampling Selecting a sample based on predetermined quotas intending to reflect the population Convenience sampling Selecting a sample that’s readily available Purpose sampling Selecting a sample based on the purpose of the study Snowball sampling Selecting a sample from a few individuals who represent he desired sample and then ask them to find more people for the study. Works with rare/specific studies X. Reporting Samples 1. Method (participants) a. Helps with replication b. Looks at sample techniques, details about participants, and includes incentives offered Chapter 5: Alternatives to Experimentation: Correlational and Quazi-Experimental Design I. Correlational and Quazi- Experimental 1. Commonly used in psych 2. Uses already existing antecedents/behaviors 3. Good at predicting future behavior 4. Cannot make causal statements 5. Both are high in external validity 6. Both high in imposition on units II. Correlational Design 1. Only look at relationships between variables a. Antecedents b. Behaviors 2. No causal statements 3. Low in manipulation III. Quazi-Experimental Design 1. Popular design 2. Set up like a true experiment, BUT lack a few essential elements that a true experiment needs. a. Manipulation b. Random sampling 3. Very controlled; most controlled non-experimental design 4. High in internal validity 5. Treatment conditions a. People with already existing antecedents are divided up into different treatment conditions IV. When to use Quazi 1. Interested in looking at different types of participants a. Mental illness 2. Naturally occurring situations a. SES, divorce/marriage 3. Common/unusual events a. Newborn in the house and how it effects older siblings, surviving a natural disaster.
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