New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSY 330 Unit 1 Study Guide

by: Lauren Toomey

PSY 330 Unit 1 Study Guide PSY 330

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Psychology > PSY 330 > PSY 330 Unit 1 Study Guide
Lauren Toomey

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide covers everything from my notes and lectures of chapters 1-5, including thigns that I remember from the exam highlighted in red in the study guide.
Clinical Counseling Psychology
Lee Rosén
Study Guide
psy, 330, clinical, Counseling, Psychology
50 ?




Popular in Clinical Counseling Psychology

Popular in Psychology

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Toomey on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 330 at Colorado State University taught by Lee Rosén in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Clinical Counseling Psychology in Psychology at Colorado State University.

Similar to PSY 330 at CSU

Popular in Psychology


Reviews for PSY 330 Unit 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/28/16
PSY 330 Clinical and Counseling Unit 1 Study Guide (Ch. 1-5) Key: highlighted = key term; highlighted= important person; red text= was on the practice exam Chapter 1 Ø Statistics o 50% of mental disorders begin before age 14 o worldwide: 800,000 people commit suicide a year o 1 in 4 (25%) of adult Americans suffer from a mental disorder in a given year o Worldwide: 450 million people suffer from mental disorders Ø Evidence-based practice: o McFall’s Manifesto for a science of clinical psychology § He challenged the psychological community to declare one legitimate form of psychology, one that is: • Grounded in science • Practiced by scientists • Held accountable to rigorous standards of scientific evidence o Criticisms of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP): § Group based data is not always sufficient for individual cases § Research is not always available for all problems § Each person is unique; research may not apply to their culture, class, etc. Ø Other related mental health professions o Counseling psychology § Historically worked with less severe problems § Different settings than clinical psychologists o School psychology § Training in both psychology and education § Work in diverse education-related settings Ø Important Figures in the History of Assessment in Clinical Psychology o Wilhelm Wundt (Germany) § First psychology laboratory § Studied sensation and perception o Alfred Binet (France) § French government asked Binet to design a measure to assess children with cognitive deficits § Designed Binet-Simon scale • Used to measure children’s intelligence predictor of how well they did in school (equivalent to what today’s IQ tests do) § Terman at Stanford modified it in 1916: today, we use this Stanford Binet scale Ø History of Assessment in Clinical Psychology o Thematic Appreciation Test, MMPI, and Rorschach Inkblot are all examples of projective tests o 1980s: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM- III) is published § The difference in the DSM-III: more focused on observable symptoms • Focus on reliability Ø History of intervention in clinical psychology o Criticisms of Psychotherapy § Efficacy studies: focus on studies that emphasize internal validity of the study • Study whether or not we can find the results in the lab § Effectiveness studies: focus on studies that look at real world conditions • Following discovering that it works in the lab, these studies test: does it work in the real world? § Meta-analysis: statistical technique combining several studies • in history, it showed that psychotherapy is effective Chapter 2 Ø Definition of clinical psychology: the application of the empirically validated principles of psychology to reduce human suffering Ø Activities of Clinical Psychologists o Consultation § Clinical consultation: offering advice and information for other treatment professionals § Organizational (or community) consultation: • Evaluating a service, or providing an opinion on how an organization is doing o Usually there is a needs assessment, program development, program evaluation, and policy consultation o Research § All psychologists are trained to conduct and evaluate research § APA’s ethics code requires a commitment to increasing scientific knowledge Ø Ethics o 5 general principles of the APA (2010) § Beneficence and nonmalficence: help and avoid doing harm § Fidelity and responsibility: developing trust and show awareness of their professional responsibilities § Integrity in professional relationships: treat everyone with respect § Justice; all people should have access to benefit from the contribution of psychology § Respect for people's rights and dignity Chapter 3: Classification and Diagnostics Ø Classification: a way for scientists to organize, describe, and relate the subject matter to their discipline Ø Validity: whether a classification scheme is accurately capturing reality o Is it true to reality? Ø Utility: how useful the classification scheme is Ø Diagnosis system: a classification based on rules used to organize and understand diseases & disorders o "The other" Ø Categorical approach: an object is determined to be a member of a category or not (e.g., depressed or not depressed) o Nothing in between o DSM takes a categorical approach Ø Dimensional approach: an object differs in degree from others-- a continuum o E.g. mildly depressed, moderately depressed, severely depressed o ADHD § Anxiety is best thought of dimensionally (mildly, right amount, insanely anxious) Ø Prototype model: members of a category may differ in degree to which they represent a common example (used in DSM 5 today) o Autism Spectrum Disorder (new terminology) § Each person is a member in a different category § Each person can differ widely from each other, but have that similar connection within the prototype Ø Diagnosis and Defining Disorders o Wakefield- Harmful dysfunction: the problem must be clear and there must be harm to person or others around them o Dyscontrol: impairment must be involuntary or not readily controlled § Person is consciously/willfully acting inappropriately or abnormal, so it's not a mental illness § They knew the consequences going into it (deemed stupid, not mental illness) o Most all contemporary models are biopsychosocial-- but different theories represent different emphases § Biopsychosocial model is the best way to think about mental illness today § Some models emphasize biological aspects while others while others emphasize psychological or social aspects • Ex. Studying ADHD would be big on a biological model Ø The Development of Disorders o Life stress model: important impact of the number of life stressors on the development of disorders Ø DSM Approach to Diagnosis: History o First edition of DSM (1952) had fairly vague terms and emphasized psychodynamic contributions o DSM-II (1968) was less psychodynamically focused as medications were more commonly being used o DSM-III (1980) guided by Robert Spitzer, was atheoretical (revision done in 1987) § Focus on diagnostic criteria, multiaxial, increase in focus on reliability § This was a revolutionary version • Spitzer changed the game o He focused on symptomless; he came up with real, specific criteria (which was multiaxial-- looking at people from many different dimensions) • Changed dramatically in the 80s o DSM-IV (1994) • Further focus on reliability • Work groups worked on clusters of disorders • Text revision (diagnostic criteria unchanged) o DSM-IV'TR' completed in 2000 o DSM-5 (2013): Current Diagnostic manual o Removed some categories and diagnoses, and added others o DSM approach to diagnosis today: • Defines mental disorder as: a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion, regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning o DSM 5, some changes: § Many disorders are now grouped differently • e.g., depression, anxiety, and somatic disorders are grouped as internalizing disorder § Personality disorders, childhood disorders are not separated from other disorders as in previous versions § Controversy in many of the changes, including how reliable they are, what defines a diagnosis, and what diagnoses were removed/changed o DSM limitations § Comorbidity: when a person receives 2 diagnoses at once • Very common (estimates >40%) § Diagnosis do not account for normal reactions to life stressors (e.g., divorce, terminal illness) § Validity of some disorders is questionable § Resilience is often not included in understanding disorders, yet is a common aspect of human functioning Chapter 4: Research Methods in Clinical Psychology Ø Relationships between variables o Correlation-- the variables are associated in the same way o Moderation-- one variable influences the direction or size of another § A moderator is a variable that slightly influences the direction of another variable • i.e. the glass ceiling influences women's ability to be successful in the workplace o Mediation-- one variable explains the relationship between two others § Ex. There is a strong correlation between maternal depression and children's behavior problems Ø Important Concepts to Clinical research o Internal validity-- controlling for biases o External validity-- how representative and applicable the study is; generalizable o Statistical conclusion validity-- whether the study was designed in a way to adequately test hypotheses through statistical methods o Statistical versus clinical significance § Effect size Chapter 5: Assessment Ø Psychological Assessment: o The primary goal that all assessments share is to: examine the current level of psychological functioning o Is an iterative process (meaning step by step) o Systematic § Step-wise process that tries to cover everything about a person within the sessions o Generating and refining hypotheses § Hypotheses that indicate why the client is feeling the way they are § What has brought them to counseling? Ø Assessment focused vs intervention focused o Assessment-focused services: information provided that addresses a person's current or anticipated psychosocial deficits § E.g., child custody evaluations o Intervention-focused services: the first step in gathering information about appropriate treatment § E.g., intake evaluation at a clinic Ø Additional Assessment Types o Screening: a tool often developed to identify a disorder, condition or characteristic, depending on the site § E.g., a measure that identifies mental health problems in adolescents o Diagnosis/Case Formulation: The development of an understanding of the basis/etiology of the problem that informs treatment § E.g., early stages of therapy o Prognosis/Prediction: an assessment used to see whether a problem will worsen without treatment § E.g., whether one needs therapy for a given problem § Prediction errors: unfortunately common in clinical psychology § Base rate: frequency of a problem in the general population o Prognosis/Prediction continued-- how well our assessment works: § Sensitivity: the number of times an event is predicted compared to the actual number of events • Seeing it when it's there § Specificity: the number of times a non-even is predicted compare to the actual number of non-events • Not seeing it when it's not there (i.e., not making something up) Ø Psychological Testing o Psychological testing= a sample of a person's behavior scored in a standardized process § Not the same as psychological assessment (which is often more multi-faceted and may not use tests per se) o Standardization: consistency across clinicians in the procedure used to administer and score a test o Reliability: a measure of the consistency of the test § Internal consistency: whether all aspects of the test contribute meaningfully § Test-retest reliability: whether similar results would be obtained at 2 time points § Inter=rater reliability: whether similar results would be found by several raters o Validity: whether a test measures what it is supposed to measure § Content validity: whether the test measures all aspects of the construct § Concurrent and predictive validity: whether the test data are consistent with other related constructs § Discriminant validity: whether the test is not measuring unrelated constructs § Incremental validity: whether the measure adds to other sources of data o Norms: using a large sample to determine cutoff scores on a test (what you compare it to) § Representative sample: importance of using a sample that matches the population § Percentile rank: percentage of those in the normative group that fell below a given test score o Evidence-based assessment: using theory and research to guide the process of assessment


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.