REL 1020 Study Guide Test 1
REL 1020 Study Guide Test 1 REL 1020
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by jschric on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to REL 1020 at Clemson University taught by Brett Patterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see World Religions in Religion at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Study Guide Ahimsa Avoidance of violence toward other life forms and an active sense of compassion towards them Anatman Doctrine that there is no independent, eternal self or sould underlying personal existence. Arati Worship with light, involving the waving of a lamp in front of a deity. Arhat Theravada Buddhism: one who has attained enlightenment. Aryan People who invaded northern India Asceticism Severe self discipline and avoidance of lifes pleasures. Ashram Indian spiritual monastery, locus of Indian religious practices (yoga/meditation/etc). Atman The eternal self or soul that is successively reincarnated until released from samsara through moksha. Soul trapped in body. Avatar A "descent" of God (usually Vishnu) to earth in a physical form with the specific goal of aiding the world. Bakhti Devotion, emotional. Bhagavad Gita Epic, part of Mahabharata. Bindi Forehead marking, drop, descent of grace in Lakshmi/auspiciousness Bodhi tree Tree SA sat under to meditate and reach Nirvana, led to Buddha. Bodhisattva One who is on the verge of enlightenment. Mahayana Buddhism: one who has taken the BH vow to remain in samsara in order to work for the enlightenment of all sentient beings. Brahman Monistic: supreme, unitary reality, the ground of all being. Bodhisattva One who is on the verge of enlightenment. Mahayana Buddhism: one who has taken the BH vow to remain in samsara in order to work for the enlightenment of all sentient beings. Brahman Monistic: supreme, unitary reality, the ground of all being. Dualistic: the supreme God (usually Vishnu). Brahmin A member of the priestly class of the varna (caste system). Dalai Lama Head monk of Tibetan buddhism, 14 so far. Dalit Self designation of people who had traditionally been classified as untouchables/outcasts. Dana Ritual of giving Darshan Worship through simultaneously seeing and being seen by a deity in the presence of its image. Dharma "that which upholds", Buddhist teaching and Buddhism as a religion. Dharma Hiduism: duty, righteousness, basis for living in a way that upholds cosmic and social order. Digambara Second largest Jain sect. Monks go naked so as to help abolish any ties to society. More conservative/patriarchal, only men tirthankaras. "Sky Clad" Diwali Festival of Lights Four Noble Truths Form the basis of dharma. 1. Suffering is inherent in human life 2. Suffering is caused by desire 3. There can be an end to desire 4. That way is the 8 fold path. Four Sights 1. Sick person 2. Elderly 3. Corpse 4. Ascetic Monk Five Great Vows Monks and nuns 1. Avoid harming life 2. Abstain from lying 3. Corpse 4. Ascetic Monk Five Great Vows Monks and nuns 1. Avoid harming life 2. Abstain from lying 3. Do not take what has not been given 4. Renounce sexual activity 5. Renounce possessions Gandhi South Africa, Neo-‐Hindu Reformist and Nationalist movement. Ganesha Hindu god, elephant, son of Shiva (m)/Parvati (f), emphasizes family commitments. Guptas Ancient Indian empire, 320 -‐550 CE, golden age of India Gurus Reverential figure, teacher, counselor, mentor in religion Hare Krishna 1960s in US Harijans Hindu, lowest social and ritual status. Impermanence All phenomena are in a constant state of change. Jnana Path of knowledge. Kali Hindu goddess of death, time, doomsday. Blue, strong mother figure/symbol of motherly love. Karma Action, and the consequences of action. Determines the nature of one's reincarnation. Jainism: all activity is believed to involve various forms of matter that weigh down the soul (jiva) and hinder the quest for liberation. Karmapa Leader of one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, 17 so far. Kevala Perfect and complete knowledge or omniscience (Jain enlightenment), marks the point where one is free from damaging effects of karma and is liberated from samsara (repeated cycles of reincarnation) Kshatriya A member of the warrior and administrator class of the varna (caste system). Mahabharata Sanskrit epic, Kurukshetra war, has Bhagavad Gita. Mahadevi from samsara (repeated cycles of reincarnation) Kshatriya A member of the warrior and administrator class of the varna (caste system). Mahabharata Sanskrit epic, Kurukshetra war, has Bhagavad Gita. Mahadevi Great goddess, Hindu. Mahavira 24th and last tirthankara. Followed extreme asceticism, contemporary with Sidhartha. After 13 years, attained kevala. Mahayana "Great Vehicle". Most prominent in China, Japan, Mongolia, Tibet, and Korea. Mandala Circular diagram representing the entire universe. Used as an aid in meditation, destroyed after completion. Mantra Sacred sound or syllable used as a focus for meditation, as an invocation of a deity, or as a protective spell. Moksha Liberation, the final release from samsara/reincarnation. Namaste Respectful Hindu greeting, folded hands. Nirvana Ultimate goal of Buddhist practice, extinguishing of desire and the suffering it causes. Puja Worship, usually the offering before an image of a deity of fruit, incense, or flowers. Ramayana Epic, Smriti text. Sacriﬁce To gods, such as fruit/milk/flowers, can be done in public ritual or at home Samsara Continuous cycle of birth/death/rebirth; the this wordly realm where the cycle occurs. Sangha Worldwide community of Buddhists. Order of Buddhist monks or the membership of a particular Buddhist congregation. Sanskrit Language, similar to latin/greek. Sati Hindu practice of a widow throwing herself onto her husbands funeral pyre Shaivas Devotee of Shiva. Sanskrit Language, similar to latin/greek. Sati Hindu practice of a widow throwing herself onto her husbands funeral pyre Shaivas Devotee of Shiva. Shaktas Devotee of the Great Goddess, Devi. Shiva Major masculine deity of hinduism Shramana Indian religious movement, 600 BCE -‐300 CE, hindus became dissatisfied with the priestly religions of Brahmins Shruti "That which is heard"; term denoting the category of Vedic literature accepted by orthodox Hindus as revealed truth. Shudra Member of the servant class of the varna (caste system). Shvetambara Largest Jain sect, monks and nuns wear white robes, generally more liberal, woman tirthankara. White robes. Siddhartha Four Sights, Middle Way, sat under Bodhi tree, Sermon in the deer Park, became Buddha. Smriti Vast category of Hindu sacred texts that is not shruti. Sthanakvasi Jain sect, women outnumber men 5:1 Swastika Jainism, represents four states of being and perpetual nature of the universe in the material world. Tantra Monistics, meditation and ritual practices to bring godhead into humans Theravada "Way of the elders"/"Lesser vehicle"; Most prominent in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam. Buddha is beyond reach for our aid. Tirthankaras Savior who has succeeded into crossing over (ending reincarnation) Transcendental Meditation Founded 1960s in Europe and US (mantras) Tripitaka 400 years after SA died, Theravada text Upanishads "Sitting down near [a teacher]"; Philosophical text from the later period of Founded 1960s in Europe and US (mantras) Tripitaka 400 years after SA died, Theravada text Upanishads "Sitting down near [a teacher]"; Philosophical text from the later period of Vedic literature, also called Vedanta "end of the Vedas". Vaishnavas Devotee of Vishnu and his avatars. Vajrayana "Diamond Vehicle"/"Thunderbolt Vehicle". Most prominent in Tibet and Nepal, incorporates Mahayana and tantric ideas/practices. Has secret texts. Vishnu One of three main masculine Hindu gods, blue, four arms. Vaishya A member of the producer (farmer and merchant) class of the varna (caste system). Vedas "Knowledge"; all Vedic literature. Narrowly: four ancient collections (samhitas) of hymns and other religious material. Yoga Uniting of self with god, sometimes used as an alternative to marga when referring to the three main paths of liberation. Also one of the sic philosophical schools, focusing on moral, physical, and spiritual practices leading to liberation. Zen Japanese name for "meditation" school of Buddhism that values meditative experience far and above doctrine.
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