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IUPUC / Chemistry / CHEM 343 / resonance structures practice problems general chemistry

resonance structures practice problems general chemistry

resonance structures practice problems general chemistry

Description

School: IUPUC
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Lewis Structure, resonance structures, bond polarity and atom formal charges, and gen chem general chemistry for engineers degrazia janet thermochemistry valence bond theory molecular covalent bonds bonding
Cost: Free
Name: Chapter 1 Organic Chemistry
Description: These notes cover Bond-Theory, drawing Lewis Structures, Resonance Structures and it covers Polarity vs Non-Polarity.
Uploaded: 09/28/2016
32 Pages 285 Views 0 Unlocks
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Chapter 1: Intro To Organic Chemistry If you want to learn more check out Who are the main characters in Suskind's novel, Perfume?

1.1 Intro If you want to learn more check out How do you identify a weak electrolyte?

Vitalism

  • old theory of thought in early 1900's that tried to explain why organic and inorganic compounds reacted differently. Supposedly organic compounds had a "vital f  
  • disproved by Friedrich Wöhler in 1892 by turning ammonium cyanate into urea.

Don't forget about the age old question of What is an example of scaffolding?

                                                            heatIf you want to learn more check out What are schemas in communication?

                

                                                        If you want to learn more check out What refers to a particle whose size is smaller than that of an atom?

                                                

Ammonium Cyanate                 Urea If you want to learn more check out What's the formula for average rate of change?

(inorganic)                 (organic)

1.2 Structural Theory of Matter

  • Several individual Chemist theorized this in the mid 19th century (August Kekulé Archibad Scott Couper, & Alexander Botlerov)

  • Constitutional isomers - compounds that have the same molecular formula but they differ in the way the atoms are connected.
  • they have different physical properties and names

(Dimethyl ether)

      H              H                                                 (Ethanol)

       |               |                                                H        H

H - C - O - C - H                                     |         |

       |               |                                               H - C   -    C - O - H

      H              H                                                         |         |

                                                         H        H

4 Main Types Of Structure

Tetravalent (4 bonds)

I

- C -

I

Trivalent (3 bonds)

- N -

I

Divalent (2 bonds)

-O-

Mono valent ( 1 bond)

H-

Note: Hydrogen and halogens (F,CL,Br,I) general form one bond

Practice: Determine structure of

step1 : Figure out the structure of each compound.

                   I       I

- C - - C -

I       I

H H H H H

I  I   I  I   I

Cl

Cl

l

Step 2: Connect them together Most number of bonds make up the bond.

              H          H

       I       I

H - C - - C - Cl

       I       I

              H     H

1.3 Electrons, Bonds, andB lewis Structures

  • Bonds are the "glue" that hold atoms together. This "glue works by electrons.
  • Covalent bond - result of two atoms sharing a pair of electrons

H = - 436 kJ/mol

  • there is a loss of energy when the two electrons of the hydrogen atoms come together to form the bond. This loss of energy happens for several reasons.
  1. The force of repulsion between the two negatively charged element
  2. The force of repulsion between the two positively charged nuclei
  3. The force of attraction between

                                

Drawing Lewis Dot Structures 

  • Lewis Structures - drawing of chemicals where the electron takes center stage.
  • can predict Stability, shape, Size, and polarity

Atomic Structure Review

  1. The nucleus of an atom is composed of protons & neutrons. Each proton has a charge of +1, and each neutron is electrically neutral
  2. For a neutral atom, the number of protons is balanced by an equal number of exist in shells. First shell can contain , the second shell can have up to
  3. The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom are called: Valence electrons. The number of valence electrons in that shell is identified by its group in the periodic table

Practice: Draw lewis dot structures for these elements. Boron, Nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Fluorine, Hydrogen, Bromine, Sulfur, Chlorine, Iodine.

Step I: Identify chemical symbols and place on periodic table.

Boron =

Nitrogen

Carbon =

Oxygen

Fluorine =

Hydrogen

Bromine =

Sulfur

Chlorine =

Iodine

Notes on Valence Electrons and Binding

  • Valence electrons are held most loosely
  • Chemical bonding involves the transfer or sharing of valence  between 2 or more atoms.
  • Lewis theory focuses on the behavior of the Valence

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