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UGA / Real Estate / REAL 4000 / What is the difference between zoning and land use?

What is the difference between zoning and land use?

What is the difference between zoning and land use?


REAL 4000 Exam II Study Guide

What is the difference between zoning and land use?

● Zoning­​ regulation of land use; all houses have to regulate the same way in a zone ○ Zoning ordinance may include:

■ Setback requirements​­ limit where you can place the building to create space for adjacent buildings

■ Bulk restrictions: l​ ot coverage, building height, floorspace to Lot Area Ratio Limits (FAR­a limit on how many square feet you can actually use) ● Downtown has a high FAR, meaning if it has a density lot of 5

compares to 1 in other areas.

● If you have a 1000 sq. feet. 5*1000=5000, you can either build a 5 story and each level is 1000 sq ft, or 10 story with 500 sq ft

● Maximum Lot Percentage­​ the percentage of land that you can


○ Downtown has a 100% lot percentage, meaning it can use

How is maximum lot coverage calculated?

100% of the land

○ Rezoning­​ change a site from not allowing by the current zoning classification to allowed

■ Permanently changed, government is careful with it

○ Zoning variance­​ property owner seeks permission from the government to violate some specific element of the local zoning ordinance

■ Ex. having more bedrooms in acres than allowed

■ Need to fill out an application We also discuss several other topics like In what way did the spanish reconquista related to the spanish conquest of the americas?

○ Nonconforming uses­​ existing property use that is inconsistent with the current zoning regulations

■ Exist bc they were built before zoning regulations

■ They can still continue using the property, but prohibited from…

● Enlargement, rebuilding after a specified % of damage, changing

What does it mean when a property is non conforming?

Don't forget about the age old question of What would happen if the red fox became extinct?

to another nonconforming use

○ Modern Zoning Tools

■ Planned unit developments­​ local planning authorities allow exceptional plant site if they say yes

● Mixed­use development:​ placing a community swimming pool

● You have build what you got approved for

■ Impact fees­​ fees that communities charge developers to pay for new infrastructure

● Ex. schools, widening roads

● The local government can change the fee without the approval of

citizens, but it has to benefit those who are paying

● Homebuilders do not like it bc it raises upfront cost to build a

house, and they do not know if they will get the return back

● Eminent Domain­​ the govt’s power to acquire land for public use as long a just compensation is paid to the owner

○ Just compensation means the landowner is receiving fair market value for the If you want to learn more check out What will happen to the reaction rate if the concentration of a is halved?

property that has been taken

○ Condemnation­​ the legal process of exercising this power, under the U.S.


○ Inverse condemnation­​ landowners sue the govt for not paying what they view as a just compensation Don't forget about the age old question of What case extended the exclusionary rule to the states?

■ Most attempts fail bc the principle is as long as the owner is left with an

ability to generate a return on the property, compensation is NOT required

​ ● Property taxes are ad valorem taxes, meaning it is based on the value of the property rather than the income generated by the property Don't forget about the age old question of What does the spanish constitution say about the autonomies and the question of national identity?

○ Regressive tax: the burden of the tax is lighter for higher income family if there are two households paying the same property tax

○ Use “millage rate,” 20 mills means $20 taxes per $1,000

○ Property tax = Millage rate x Assessed value / 1,000 

○ 20 x $80,000 / 1,000

■ Market value = most probable selling price

■ Assessed value­ some % of the market value; in GA, it’s 40%

○ Property tax exemption

■ Homestead exemption­​ GA residents are able to claim one house to get Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four major components of the central nervous system?

a tax break

■ Elderly homeowner exemptions

■ Exemptions do not eliminate property taxes but shift the burden to others

■ 20 x $70,000 / 1,000

○ A single property tax bill includes multiple jurisdictions, such as transportation

and improvement and school

■ Each jurisdiction sets its own millage rate, thus your taxable value may

vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction

○ 70­80% of state revenue comes from property tax

● City​­ a location where the density of economic activity is significantly greater than it is in the surrounding area

○ They emerge because, for some reason, it is better to have households, firms,

etc. close together rather than spread uniformly across the landscape

○ What lead to the formation of cities?

■ Defensive/Ceremonial cities

● Better for people to get together and be protected by walls

● Religious significance of certain locations

■ Trading cities

● Usually developed at seaports ​(some locations are naturally

better harbor than others), river mouths​ (locations to unload the

boat), and intersection of trading routes​ (Atlanta was the

intersection of railroads long time ago)

■ Industrial cities

● Rise of the steel belt:​ areas where minimize th cost of getting the two raw materials of creating steel

● Weight­gaining (e​ .g. Coke)

● Weight­losing (e​ .g. Timber)

● Modern cities are successful because they changed over time;

struggling cities are those that have been unable to replace a

declining economic base

● Basic employer​­ trade with other local economies, which enlarge the economy’s circulation of money

○ Bring income into the local economy that is spent and re­spent and generates a multiplier effect

● Service employer­​ trade within the local economy, which does not enlarge the circulation of money

○ Ex. dry cleaners

● Determinants of the Size of the Multiplier

○ Size of city

○ Degree of isolation

■ More isolated cities have larger multiplier because they are more

self­sufficient, which are able to keep the brought in income multiplying ● Location Quotient​­ used to determine which employers are part of a local economy’s economic base

○ LQ = Local employment share of an industry / National employment share of that industry

○ If LQ is >1, then the industry is part of the local economy’s economic base ○ Ex. Atlanta has 88,000 information jobs with a total employment of 2,542,200. U.S. has a total of 2.786 million information jobs, and a total employment of 141,367 million.

88,000 / 254,200 = 3.46%

2.786 / 141,367 = 1.97%

3.46 / 1.97 = 1.76

● That means information jobs are part of the economy’s economic base

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