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Chapter 5 Study Guide / Cardiovascular System

by: Taija Pryor

Chapter 5 Study Guide / Cardiovascular System RCO 252-01

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Greensboro > Biology > RCO 252-01 > Chapter 5 Study Guide Cardiovascular System
Taija Pryor
GPA 3.1

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About this Document

This is the study guide for chapter 5, complete with images, this will be on exam 2.
Introductory Concepts in Biology
Ms. Margaret Hood
Study Guide
Biology, The, circulatory, system, Heart, Cardiovascular, Human, body, health
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taija Pryor on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to RCO 252-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Ms. Margaret Hood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introductory Concepts in Biology in Biology at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 5 Functions of the Cardiovascular System 1 Transports nutrients, gases, and wastes 2 Defends against disease 3 Helps control temperature, fluid, and pH balance Cardiovascular System consists of 2 components: 1 The heart, which pumps blood 2 The blood vessels, through which blood flows Arteries ALWAYS carry blood away from the heart and usually carry 2 rich blood Arterioles Capillaries Where exchange of gases and materials occurs Venules Veins ALWAYS returns blood to the heart and usually carry O -poor b2ood (blood reservoirs) Capillaries Smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles to venules. Note: intersitial fluid surrounds capillaries and tissues What is a reason why materials are exchanged across capillaries and not other blood vessels? Only one red blood cell can fit at a time, goes slower, allows more time for exchange for madeira's, less distance that the gasses and the waste and things have to diffuse It's 10AM and Sally just woke up and realized she is late for her exam. She sprints to class to get there as soon as possible. What is occurring? A Vasodilation of blood vessels going to skeletal muscles in the legs. Really thin, only 1 blood vessel can fit through at one time, capillary, gas exchange. Semilunar valve = pulmonary semilunar valve The Heart is composed of four chambers Two atria Thin-walled upper chambers Two ventricles Thick walled lower chambers Cardiovascular Pathways: A Pulmonary Circuit - powered by the right ventricle a Pulmonary arteries - Carry O -2oor blood to the lungs b Pulmonary veins - carry O r2ch blood from lungs to the left atrium. B Systematic circuit - powered by the left ventricle a Aorta - carries O2rich blood to all body tissues b Vena ceva - returns O p2or blood to the right atrium Two AV (atrioventricular) valves - between atria and ventricles, making a "LUB" sound when closing. Two SL (semilunar) valves - base of major arteries making a "DUB" sound when closing. Septum - separates right and left sides of the heart. The Lub sound of the heart is due to The right and left atrioventricular valves closing The Dub Pulmonary and aortic valves are closing  Passage of Blood Through the Heart:  Superior and Inferior vena cava (2 ­poor) à   Right Atriumà  R. AV Valve à  Right Ventricleà Pulmonary SL valve à  Pulmonary  Arteries à Lungs à  Pulmonary veins (O2­rich) à Left Atrium à L. AV valve à  Left Ventricleà Aortic SL valve à ALL body tissues.   Intrinsic Conduction System:     * SA (sinoatrial) node (pacemaker)—initiates the heartbeat and causes the atria to contract.   * AV (atrioventricular) node—causes the ventricles to contract.  Extrinsic Control of Heartbeat—the autonomic    nervous system and hormones can modify the rate of the heartbeat. Electrocardiogram (ECG) - a recording of the electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle. Pulse - alternating expansion and recoil of an arterial wall (always taken in systemic artery) True Statement: The signal that causes the heart to beat originates at the SA node Across what vessels does the diffusion process occur? Capillaries What arteries carry blood to the heart tissues? Coronary Arteries     Blood flow in arteries:    * Pumping action of the heart moves blood through the arteries. a Systolic pressure—highest arterial pressure. (aorta) b Diastolic pressure—lowest arterial pressure.  c Average blood pressure = 120/80 d Sphygmomanometer—       blood pressure cuff. Blood Flow in Veins Venus return is dependent upon a Skeletal muscle contraction b One way-valves What helps get blood back to your heart form say your big toe? One way valves in the veins Skeletal muscle contraction Respiratory pump  Cardiovascular disease (CVD)—leading cause of death in America.   Disorders of the Blood Vessels: o Hypertension—high blood pressure   “silent killer” o Atherosclerosis—plaque build up in the arteries reduces blood flow. o Stroke (CVA)—cranial arteriole bursts or is blocked, a portion of the brain dies, and  may result in paralysis or death. o Heart attack­ occurs when part of the heart muscle dies due to lack of oxygen HYPER (when your blood pressure is too high) All of the following can increase the risk of hypertension except Not smoking Angioplasty Disorders of the Heart:  Heart failure—the heart no longer pumps as it should due to heart attack damage and oversized  heart.    Today, only about 2,200 heart transplants are done annually.     (TAH)—total artificial heart Prevention of CVD: 1 control weight 2 exercise regularly 3 do not smoke 4   limit dietary salt 5   limit alcohol intake 6 eat a healthy diet      Benefits of exercise:  ­makes the heart a more efficient pump ­widens coronary arteries increasing blood flow ­stimulates enzymes that help prevent blood clotting ­increases RBC, Hb ­decreases blood pressure ­increases HDL (high density lipoprotein) ­decreases LDL  


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