Abnormal Psychology Study guide Exam 1
Abnormal Psychology Study guide Exam 1 PSYC 330 006
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PSYC 330 006
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heather Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 330 006 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Katherine Suzanne Rowinski (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Exam 1 study guide Chapter 1: Abnormal psychology the study of abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Psychopathology broad term for someone having problems with the way they behave Someone is doing something that is putting themselves or others in danger “Clinically significant” deviant, distressing, dysfunctional, dangerous Spectrum of normal vs. abnormal The “4 D’s” help us figure out if someone has a mental disorder 1. Deviant Strange, bizarre, odd Statistically uncommon (goes against norms) “Extremes” may be seen as deviants NOT all “weird” behavior is deviant NOT all mental diagnoses are deviant Ex: those who are eccentric do not necessarily have a mental disorder. In fact, they pride themselves on uniqueness, lower interest in others’ opinions (fewer emotional Problems) Consider norms stated/unstated rules of society (ex: wearing clothes to class) Consider culture a groups history, values, arts, ect (Coro or “genital retraction syndrome” fear of genitals retracting into the body; occurs mostly in Asian cultures) Consider context the circumstances of the situation plays a major role of symptoms 2. Distressing Mental suffering, emotional discomfort Internalizing symptoms (self) BUT, sometimes distressing to others Externalizing symptoms (nonself) Egosyntonic Egodynamic behaviors are abnormal to normal sense of being (ex: feeling depressed when you’re normally happy) Addiction can sometimes become an egosyntonic behavior 3. Dysfunctional Inferences with daily functioning (home, school, work, relationships) Ex: you might have a phobia of flying that prevents you to travel that way This is very subjective, so may not be good criterion (changing the way you behave in context going out vs. in class) Beware of “medical student syndrome” (self diagnoses) Consider your own quality of life 4. Dangerous to ones self or others Careless, impulsive, hostile, reckless NOT all people with a mental disorder are dangerous! Often the exception (availability heuristic) Heuristic assuming something because you’ve heard it (ex: more reports of plane crashes on news, but doesn’t mean they occur often; car crashes are much more common) History of clinical Psych: Ancient views Spiritual theories (demonic possession) Treatment punishing or casting out demons Healers would force the demon out by whipping, starving the person, ect Trephination drilling holes in the head to release blood exorcisms Greek and Roman Early biological theories Hippocrates (father of medicine) 4 humours Believed too much or too little caused problems Blood (too much leads to mania) Phlegm (too much leads to slower thinking) Black bile Yellow bile Treatment “rebalance” the diet Believed hysteria was the result of the imagination Middle ages Distrust in science (demonic views) Powerful religious leaders Mass madness the power of suggestion that influenced multiple people to believe they were suffering from something Treatment torture, bloodletting, exorcism Renaissance Continued improvement Asylums first introduced; used as a place to store (not treat) the mentally ill People exhibiting unusual behaviors were accused of being a witch and sentenced to death during this time (Salem witch trial) 1800s Reform and moral treatment Patients treated more with respect (went on retreats) Benjamin Rush hired staff to walk with patients Dorothea Dix tried to raise awareness of mal practice in asylums BUT, there was a decline in the 1850s Limited staff Need for more advanced treatment New prejudice 1900s Somatogenic view physical cause (treatment involved “fixing” that cause) Treatment medical techniques Quick and easy solution Psychogenic view psychological cause (ex: hysteria) Treatment hypnotism, psychoanalysis Psychosurgery: Primary way to treat patients “Ice pick lobotomies” used during 19461960 A pick was inserted through the eye socket and damaged the frontal lobe Walter Freeman was a neurologist (with no surgical training) who traveled across the country performing these surgeries in his lobotomobile His license was revoked after a patient died during surgery 1950s WW2 vets forced new attention for treatment “Shell shock” believed to be an actual condition of bullets hitting In 1950 the first psychiatric medication, thorazine, was used Given to all patients with a mental disorder In 1955 “deinstitualization” passed causing positive and negative outcomes Let people without treatment Homeless Could live in society Stigma today: Stigma is still an issue today We can make a solution to this if: We avoid negative terms (retard) We don’t define someone by their diagnoses (schizophrenic vs they have schizophrenia) We won’t joke We can get to know someone with a diagnosis Clinical research: Case studies Pros: study over time Cons: generalized, bias Correlational study Pros: see if correlated, repeatable, generalize it Cons: can’t prove causation Experiments Pros: can see if effects work or not Cons: placebo effect, not realistic Research: Scientific method systematically collecting info, evaluating it and critically analyzing it Chapter 2: Theoretical models: 1. Biological Model Also known as the “medical model” or “physiology model” Physical structures Brain chemistry and biochemical functions Genetics and biological illnesses Great for explaining some disorders such as bipolar, schizophrenia, ect Nervous system: Central NS (brain and spinal cord) Peripheral NS (nerve bundles outside of the central NS) Somatic NS controls skin/muscles Autonomic NS “automatic” (involuntary) controls heart, lungs, ect Sympathetic NS – “fight or flight” Parasympathetic NS – “rest and digest” Brain anatomy: Neurons communicate constantly & consist of our conscious thought Neurotransmitters chemicals in our brain “Action potential” is the release of NTs Hormones chemical messages outside of the brain (endocrine system) Limbic system: Amygdala aggression, fear, sexual behavior Hippocampus memory, emotions Hypothalamus hunger, thirst, body temp, communicated with pituitary gland (hormones) Genes/biological illness: Physical traits (eye color, hair color) are determined by genes Temperament and prevalence of disease are also influenced by genes Some traits may get passed on for survival (defense mechanisms develop) Biological treatment diet, sleep, minimize stress; genetic counseling; meds; psychosurgery; deep brain stimulation Pros: huge medical advances, effective Cons: not all behavior can be explained, fails to account for environment 2. Psychodynamic Model Behavior is caused by unconscious forces Internal forces that interact Conflicts cause mental illness Past experiences and early relationships Psychodynamic theory: ID instinctual needs Ego our interpretations of both, weighing in on which is realistic Superego speaks for morals or conscious (norms and expectations) Defense mechanisms are used to help us explain ours & others actions (projection, denial, ect) See examples Treatment talk therapy Pros: safer than medical treatment, focus on individual Cons: difficult to research, dependant on therapist, doesn’t work for everyone 3. Behavioral model Focus on the observable and measurable causes of behavior Most (Abnormal) behavior is learned Classical conditioning 2 things are constantly paired (ex: ringing a bell for food) Operant conditioning doing more/less for a reward/punishment Modeling social learning; watching others Positive reinforcement usually works best Negative punishment is hitting rock bottom Maslows Heirarchy of Needs: Physiological (breathing, food) Safety Love/belonging Esteem Selfactualization (morals, creativity) Behavioral treatment modification (assigning tasks), applied behavioral analysis (only thing proven to work for kids with autism), training, aversion treatment (using negatives to train making a kid smoke an entire pack of cigarettes) Pros: can be observed & measured, helps explain symptoms Cons: too simple, doesn’t equal long term success 4. Cognitive model Internal thoughts and beliefs that influence feelings and behaviors (ex: thinking your teacher is out to get you, so you give up trying in the class) Irrational beliefs and “cognitive distortions” All or none Fortunetelling Perfectionism Behavior thoughts feelings Treatment cognitive therapy Pros: proven effective, can be quick/easy Cons: doesn’t work for everyone, sometimes too direct 5. HumanisticExistential model Interpersonal connection Human freedom Personal choice Humanistic theory we are driven to reach our full potential “Self actualization” “hippie theory” helps people love themselves Existential theory everyone must realize the individual is responsible for own life meaning Psychopathology failure to accept these facts, resulting in feeling anxious, inauthentic, and depressed Treatment client centered, gestalt therapy (pushing the patient), positive psychology Pros: validating (feels good) Cons: hard to measure, depends on therapistpatient relationship 6. Sociocultural Model Consider the many broad social and cultural factors that influence who we are Government Home Peers Pros: holistic and comprehensive Cons: very broad Chapter 3: Clinical assessment the process of gathering information to diagnose and understand individuals’ problems Look at reasoning, intelligence, if they thing positively or negatively (1) how and why they behave that way (2) how that person can be helped (3) Making progress? First meeting, can help diagnose patient and form treatment plan See examples Types of assessments: 1. Interviews Structured: Follows a script High reliability Make sure to ask openended questions and not leading questions Unstructured: Client chooses topics Creates safe, trusting relationship Pros: lots of info Cons: may mislead you, inaccurate report, make incorrect assumptions, may be unreliable 2. Tests Symptom and personality questionnaires: Self reports “objective” Answer t/f, agree/disagree Projective tests: Responding to vague, ambiguous stimuli People will project their personality characteristics onto ambiguous stimuli Rorschach Inkblot “what might this be?” Cognitive tests: Aptitude tests tests your ability to learn (IQ) Achievement tests tests your performance (class exam) Look at a normal curve (most people fall in the middle) Biological tests: Helpful for diagnosing mental disorders relating to an actual biological abnormality (head injury, brain tumor, ect) Medical doctors use this, not therapists (MRI, CAT, PET) Neurofeedback a way to help teach people a different way to function (someone with anxiety taught to learn to relax) 3. Observations Self monitoring (calorie counting) Reliability consistency Test retest getting similar scores every time the test is taken Interrater getting similar scores no matter who passes out the test Validity accuracy Concurrent how it compares to other tests Why classify?: Communicate among caregivers Research purposes Determine right treatment Why not classify? Labeling patient Vague (have to diagnose correctly) Chapter 4: Anxiety: *Anxiety is the most common mental illness “Hardwired” in the body Anxiety is a real fear, but false alarm Try to validate someone’s feelings (why), do not tell them “its going to be okay” High comorbidity with depression Easily diagnosed Feeling stress Body panic, fight/flight Thoughts hallucinations, paranoia Behaviors hyperventilation, avoid/retreat Can be good: safety precautions Can be bad (too little): risky behavior Can be bad (too much): panic attack, anxiety disorder Fight or flight response: Old brain becomes in charge of new brain Pupils dilate, saliva decreases, ect *sympathetic and parasympathetic NS work one at a time Phobias: *most common anxiety disorder Often occurs in women Persistent, irrational fear of object or situation Exposure provokes intense anxiety Person recognizes the fear is irrational (exception: kids) Avoidance. Anticipation, or worry about the feared object/situation causes distress and impairment (makes it worse) Agoraphobia “fear of the market place” fear of open places, public Can lead to isolation, depression Social anxiety disorder intense fear of social situations May avoid eating in public, using public restrooms, ect “Pairing” can cause other phobias Thunder makes you jump, but because you see lightening you may gain a phobia of lightening Treatment relaxing training, exposure, cognitive therapy Flooding exposure all at once (panic occurs for an amount of time, then peaks and decreases) Some believe it’s unethical or can make it worse
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