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Chapters 1-4

by: Asia Glenn

Chapters 1-4 PSY 257

Asia Glenn

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This is the first exam, it goes over Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asia Glenn on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 257 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by CINDY TUCCI in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see THEORIES OF PERSONALITY in Psychology at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Thursday, September 29, y Personality Exam 1 Study Guide Concerns of Personality Theory ­ Every human being is:  • Like every other human being • Like some other human being  • Like no other human being  Sigmund Freud • Diagnosed with cancer, committed an assisted suicide  • Freud and Anna O ­ The case of Anna O/Bertha Pappenheim  ­ Breuer ­ Relationship Therapy  • interpersonal relation strategies  • Anna began gaining feelings for Doctor Breuer (Transference)  ­ Anna developed a hysterical pregnancy  ­ Another report stated that there was a relationship between the two • Counter­transference • something in your own life comes out • When you can’t focus on what your client is talking about.  ­ Anna got worse and became institutionalized and never wanted to see another  Therapist. Divisions of the Mind ­ ID • images are the only reality • demands gratification of bodily needs ( governed by pleasure principle) 1 Thursday, September 29, y • two means of satisfaction­relax action and wish fulfillment  • Without consequence  • “I’m horny” ­ Ego • Matches images of to real world  • matching process­"identification”  • ego operates inservice to ID • “Hot guy” ­ Superego • the moral arm of personality  • serves as the conscience  • regulates animalistic desires with societal acceptance  • source of guilt • “He’s married”  Anxiety­According to Freud ­ anxiety originates in the trauma of separation from out mother at birth  ­ anxiety serves a purpose­to protect us from danger ­ Three types of anxiety  • Reality Anxiety­real objects of danger (spider senses) ­ keeps you safe  • Neurotic Anxiety­fear of becoming animal like (giving in to “ID” and being punished  externally) • Moral Anxiety­spikes feelings of being punished internally (doing something wrong or bad­ leads of guilt)  ­ Waking up next to someone and you don’t know their name.  ­ walk of shame 2 Thursday, September 29, y Ego Defense Mechanisms  ­ Repression­most basic because it has to occur first  • Rejection of the consciousness of painful or disagreeable ideas, memories, feelings, or  impulses • protects us from urges that may be overwhelming  ­ Displacement­the substitution of one need satisfier for another. • keeps a persons desires repressed and replaced by something safer ­ Identification­the ego attempts to match objects and events in the environment to the  subjective wishes of the ID • used to describe the tendency to increase personal feelings of worth by affiliating oneself  psychologically with a person, group, or institution perceived as illustrious.  ­ Denial of Reality­a person not in touch with at least some aspect of reality, and this could  impair normal functioning.  • someone is cheating and all evidence is visible but you make excuses.  ­ Projection­repressing anxiety, provoking truths about oneself and seeing them in others  instead, or by excusing one’s short comings by blaming them on environmental or life  circumstances • Something that is true of the person and would cause anxiety if it were recognized is  repressed and projected on to someone or something else instead.  ­ When you’re doing something but blaming another person for doing that same thing as if  you’re not doing it.  ­ Undoing­a person performs an unacceptable act, or thinks about doing so, then engages in  ritualistic activities designed to atone for pr “undo” the unacceptable act or thought • A person is attempting to magically undo one act with another.  ­ Reaction formation­objectionable thoughts are repressed and their opposites expressed. • The difference between a reaction formation and true feelings is the degree to which the  feelings are emphasized.  • People who display a reaction formation tend to be more intense and extravagant in their  emotions.  3 Thursday, September 29, y ­ Rationalization­the person rationally explains or justifies behaviors or thoughts that may  otherwise be anxiety provoking.  ­ Intellectualization (Isolation Affect)­a disturbing thought is not denied consciousness but is  denied the accompanying negative emotion • Possible to ponder topics such as death, separation from a loved one, severe illness, or  personal loss without the negative emotions typically associated with such events.   Psychosexual Stages of Development ­ Oral Stage­first year of life (mouth, lips, and tongue) ­ Anal Stage­second year of life (toilet training) ­ Phallic Stage­two through five years (phallus)  • Little Hans story • Oedipus Complex: Freud believed this is where male and female children developed strong  feelings towards mother • Castration Anxiety: mostly defined when male children begin to view father’s as rivals for  mother’s affection • Penis Envy: mostly defined as female children who envy their father’s and males for what  the have that doesn’t.  ­ Latency Stage­six through twelve (sexual interests repressed and learning, athletics, and peer  group activities emerge) ­ Genital Stage­begins at puberty  (when adult emerges from the self interest stage of childhood) Freud on Feminine Psychology  ­ Found women to be an enigma  ­ Freud believed women could respond to their castration in 3 ways: • withdraw from sexual activity altogether  • cling to their masculinity and become lesbian/and or embrace feminism • Symbolically take father as sex object and become mothers.  ­ Believed penis envy is not as intense as castration anxiety  ­ said the females were morally inferior  4 Thursday, September 29, y Dream Analysis ­ Major work for Freud­ “The Interpretation of Dreams” (1965) is considered his most  important work ­ Freud though dreams held the most important contents of the unconscious  ­ believed that a dream is rooted in the minds desire to reconcile events of the day­unacceptable  impulses­to the unconscious  ­ Carl Jung came to Freud to test his theory on dreams and wanted to look at Freud’s dreams,  Freud refused to comply, ended their friendship, Jung entered his dark years. Freud on Religion ­ our ancestors created “God” in the likeness of our own father’s  ­ believed religion was infantile­an all protecting, all knowing, perfect afterlife solution.  ­ Freud hoped religion would be replaced with scientific principles.  ­ believed it was for the weak and immature, people needed a higher power to believe in. Freud on Human Nature ­ Viewed humans as hedonistic ­ grew more pessimistic after being diagnosed with cancer ­ felt that is humans understood more rational theories they would live more rational lives ­ felt that understanding pf self (and in particular the unconscious workings of the mind) would  lead to rational life.  Empirical Research ­ many of Freud’s studies have not been able to be verified and therefor cannot be refuted ­ some have been authenticated including the ego defense mechanisms, and the fact that males  experience more castration anxiety then females.  Carl Jung Biographical Details ­ religion was important in his development­ father was a pastor, mother’s father a theologian ­ difficult childhood with much fighting between parents  5 Thursday, September 29, y ­ Jung saw his mother as  • the dominant person in the house • suspected she had multiple personalties  Jung ­ Early years were peppered with mystical/magical beliefs, imaginary friends, dreams,  nightmares, and fantasies ­ Stone • at 7 years old, Jung found a large stone which he began to play imaginary games with.  • he perceived himself with sitting on the rock then he would assume the perspective of the  stone • he imagined himself as the stone being sat on by a boy • had difficulty with telling if he was sitting on the stone or if he was the stone being sat on.  ­ Manikin • 10 years old, carved a wooden figure of a man from a ruler  • dressed the figure and even gave him his own stone.  • figure became refugee, when troubled he would visit the imaginary friend • would write in a secret language on scrolls • sense of security Jung and Freud ­ first interest in Freud ­ The Interpretation of Dreams ­ Began corresponding with Freud in 1906 related to Jung’s own exploration of word  association ­ became close friends and Freud expected Jung to be his successor ­ Jung was disappointed in Freud’s ability to complete dream analysis and the sexual motivation of Freud’s Theory The Dark Year’s ­ in 1912 Freud and Jung stopped corresponding 6 Thursday, September 29, y ­ 1914 Jung completely ended the relationship  • resigned his presidency and withdrew as a member of the IPA ­ he began his “dark years” immediately after and began self analysis of his own dreams and  fantasies  ­ some speculated that the self analysis led to psychotic episodes  ­ Jung continued to treat patients during this period.  Libido ­ disagreed with Freud on the nature of libido  ­ Freud ­ mainly sexual energy ­ Jung ­ creative life force Components of Personality  ­ Ego ­ everything of which we are conscious  • concerned with thinking, feeling, remembering and perceiving ­ Personal Unconscious ­ material that was once conscious but was repressed or forgotten  ­ Collective Unconscious ­ collective experience that humans have had in their evolutionary  past • affects behavior • how babies know how to look for the nipple  7


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