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Human Growth and Development Test 3 Study Guide

by: Madison Greer

Human Growth and Development Test 3 Study Guide EPY 2513

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > EPY 2513 > Human Growth and Development Test 3 Study Guide
Madison Greer

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These notes cover everything that will be on test 3.
Human Growth and Development
Dr. Abernathy
Study Guide
Children, emotions, The, Play, years, Childhood
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Greer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EPY 2513 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Abernathy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Human Growth and Development Chapter 5­ Early Childhood: Body and Mind • body changes ­ growth patterns • weight (4.5 lbs) and height (3 in) increase and the relationship between these  measurements changes • average body mass index (BMI) is lower than at any other time of life • children become slimmer as the lower body lengthens • mastery of gross and fine motor skills results from extensive, active play ­ nutrition • obesity is a more frequent problem than malnutrition • in low­income family cultures, parents tend to guard against undernutrition  and rely on fast foods, so their children are especially vulnerable to obesity • overfeeding is causing an epidemic of illnesses associated with obesity, such  as heart disease and diabetes ­ nutritional deficiencias  • children eat more vegetables and fewer fried goods usually gain bone mass  but not fat • many young children are compulsive about daily routine  ­ just right phenomenon ­ oral health  • tooth decay correlates with obesity • teeth are affected by diet and illness • infected teeth can affect the rest of the child’s body • brain development ­ size • by age 2, a child’s brain weighs 75% of what it will in adulthood • brain reaches 90% of adult weight by age 6 ­ from 2­6, maturation of prefrontal cortex has several benefits Human Growth and Development • sleep becomes more regular • emotions become more nuanced and responsive • temper tantrums  • uncontrollable tears or laughter ­ corpus callosum • allows both hemispheres of brain to communicate ­ lateralization • right hemisphere controls left side of body, left hemisphere controls right side  of body ­ myelination • speed of thought increases; improved reaction time ­ left­handedness • the whole brain ­ left­right distinction is exaggerated ­ no one is exclusively left or right­brained ­ both sides of brain usually involved in every skill • impulse control and perseveration ­ maturation of the prefrontal cortex gradually enables children to focus attention  and curb impulsiveness ­ before such maturation, many young children jump from task to task; they cannot stay quiet  ­ other act in the opposite way; in a phenomenon called perseveration, some  children persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action, unable to quit • opposites but caused by the same thing • Brain Development ­ emotions and the brain • limbic system ­ parts of the brain that are crucial in the expression and regulating  emotions Human Growth and Development • amygdala­ fear, anxiety, about the size of an almond • hippocampus­ memory maker • hypothalamus • Thinking During Early Childhood ­ Piaget: preoperational thought • pre operational means “before (pre) logical operations (reasoning processes) • the child’s verbal ability permits symbolic thinking • language frees the child from the limits of sensorimotor experience • obstacles ­ centration­ view situation from own perspective and it is difficult for them  to understand why it’s different from others ­ egocentrism­ all you do is focus on yourself, hard to focus on other  perspectives, selfish, self centered ­ focus on appearance­ make decisions based on what they see ­ static reasoning­ at this age, they don't realize that things can change ­ irreversibility­ once something happens, it can’t be undone ­ conservation­ same amount in different containers but children don't  understand  ­ Vygotsky: social learning • every aspect of children’s cognitive development is embedded in the social  context • mentors ­ present challenges ­ provide guidance as knowledgable sources ­ offer assistance (without taking over) ­ add crucial info ­ encourage motivation ­ apprentices in thinking Human Growth and Development ­ guided participation ­ zone of proximal development (ZPD) ­ scaffolding­ support ­ language and cognitive development complement each other  • private speech­ sitting and thinking  • social mediation­ interacting with people ­ children’s theories • theory­theory­ child’s attempt to explain something they observed • theory of mind­ your ability to realize that other people think differently than  you • Language and Words and the Limits of Logic ­ vocabulary explosion • the average child knows about 500 words at age 2 and more than 10,000 at  age 6 ­ fast­mapping­ associating similar things  ­ logical extension­ using “logic” to associate things  • ex.­ child knows what Dalmatian is, then sees white cow with black spots and  thinks, “it’s a Dalmatian cow!”  ­ basic grammar  • grammar of a language • overregularization­ pick up on grammar rules but misuse them • pragmatics­ knowing how to talk to people  ­ learning two languages • language­minority children ­ often have lower school achievement, diminished self­esteem, and  inadequate employment Chapter 6­ Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development • Child maltreatment noticed and defined Human Growth and Development ­ child maltreatment • intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of  age ­ substantiated maltreatment  • harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified ­ reported maltreatment • harm or endangerment about which someone has contacted authorities  • Consequences of Maltreatment ­ effects of maltreatment are devastating and long­lasting • mistreated and neglected children ­ regard people as hostile and exploitative  ­ less friendly, more aggressive, and more isolated than other children ­ experience greater social deficits ­ may experience large and enduring economic consequences • Emotional Development ­ emotional regulation (effortful control) • ability to control when and how emotions are expressed • preeminent psychological task between 2­6 years of age • internalizing a problem compared to externalizing a problem ­ initiative vs. guilt • Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis • children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not  succeed at them • guilt compared to shame • self­esteem compared to self­concept • Brain Maturation ­ neurological advances • growth of prefrontal cortex at about age 4 or 5  • myelination of the limbic system Human Growth and Development ­ improved behaviors and abilities • longer attention span • improved capacity for self­control • Motivation ­ motivation propels action and is derived from personal or social context • intrinsic­ do something for won pleasure  • extrinsic­ do something to get something in return • Play ­ play is the most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake • play is universal  ­ play with peers ­ has occurred for many years • Types of play: Parten 1932 ­ solitary play­ play by yourself  ­ onlooker play­ doesn't play, but watches others play ­ parallel play­ same play at same time, but not playing together ­ associative play­ sharing play area or toys ­ cooperative play­ playing together • Active Play ­ rough and tumble play • mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting with no intention of  harm ­ sociodramatic play • allows children to act out various roles and themes in stories that they create • allows children to  ­ explore and rehearse social roles ­ test ability to explain ­ practice regulating emotions ­ develop a self­concept Human Growth and Development • Baumrind’s Styles of Caregiving ­ parents differ on four important dimensions • expressions of warmth • strategies of discipline • communication • expectations of maturity ­ 3 parenting styles were identified using these dimensions • authoritarian parenting­ rigid rules, strict obedience, “my way or the highway”,  children are typically quick to leave, OCD tendencies, responsible, guilt • permissive parenting­ tries to be more a friend rather than a parent, children  have a tough time leaving home and finding their place • authoritative parenting­ balance between the two, children are well adjusted  and well­liked ­ Sternberg presents a fourth style • neglectful/ uninvolved parenting­ parents are indifferent toward their children  and unaware of what is going on in the child’s life • Sex and Gender ­ sex differences­ physical, biological ­ gender differences­ social, how we dress and live ­ androgyny­ person that has the desirable characteristics of both genders • Theories of Gender Role Development ­ psychoanalytical theory­ Freud • phallic stage • Oedipus complex (and the Electra complex) ­ behaviorism • gender differences ­ product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment • gender appropriate Human Growth and Development ­ rewarded more frequently than gender inappropriate behavior • social learning theory ­ children notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the  standards they observe ­ cognitive theory • gender schema ­ child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences ­ based on experiences ­ young children categorize themselves and everyone else as either male  or female and think or behave accordingly  • Moral Development ­ prosocial behavior • empathy ­ antisocial behavior • antipathy


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