Human Growth and Development Test 3 Study Guide
Human Growth and Development Test 3 Study Guide EPY 2513
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Greer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EPY 2513 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Abernathy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Human Growth and Development Chapter 5 Early Childhood: Body and Mind • body changes growth patterns • weight (4.5 lbs) and height (3 in) increase and the relationship between these measurements changes • average body mass index (BMI) is lower than at any other time of life • children become slimmer as the lower body lengthens • mastery of gross and fine motor skills results from extensive, active play nutrition • obesity is a more frequent problem than malnutrition • in lowincome family cultures, parents tend to guard against undernutrition and rely on fast foods, so their children are especially vulnerable to obesity • overfeeding is causing an epidemic of illnesses associated with obesity, such as heart disease and diabetes nutritional deficiencias • children eat more vegetables and fewer fried goods usually gain bone mass but not fat • many young children are compulsive about daily routine just right phenomenon oral health • tooth decay correlates with obesity • teeth are affected by diet and illness • infected teeth can affect the rest of the child’s body • brain development size • by age 2, a child’s brain weighs 75% of what it will in adulthood • brain reaches 90% of adult weight by age 6 from 26, maturation of prefrontal cortex has several benefits Human Growth and Development • sleep becomes more regular • emotions become more nuanced and responsive • temper tantrums • uncontrollable tears or laughter corpus callosum • allows both hemispheres of brain to communicate lateralization • right hemisphere controls left side of body, left hemisphere controls right side of body myelination • speed of thought increases; improved reaction time lefthandedness • the whole brain leftright distinction is exaggerated no one is exclusively left or rightbrained both sides of brain usually involved in every skill • impulse control and perseveration maturation of the prefrontal cortex gradually enables children to focus attention and curb impulsiveness before such maturation, many young children jump from task to task; they cannot stay quiet other act in the opposite way; in a phenomenon called perseveration, some children persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action, unable to quit • opposites but caused by the same thing • Brain Development emotions and the brain • limbic system parts of the brain that are crucial in the expression and regulating emotions Human Growth and Development • amygdala fear, anxiety, about the size of an almond • hippocampus memory maker • hypothalamus • Thinking During Early Childhood Piaget: preoperational thought • pre operational means “before (pre) logical operations (reasoning processes) • the child’s verbal ability permits symbolic thinking • language frees the child from the limits of sensorimotor experience • obstacles centration view situation from own perspective and it is difficult for them to understand why it’s different from others egocentrism all you do is focus on yourself, hard to focus on other perspectives, selfish, self centered focus on appearance make decisions based on what they see static reasoning at this age, they don't realize that things can change irreversibility once something happens, it can’t be undone conservation same amount in different containers but children don't understand Vygotsky: social learning • every aspect of children’s cognitive development is embedded in the social context • mentors present challenges provide guidance as knowledgable sources offer assistance (without taking over) add crucial info encourage motivation apprentices in thinking Human Growth and Development guided participation zone of proximal development (ZPD) scaffolding support language and cognitive development complement each other • private speech sitting and thinking • social mediation interacting with people children’s theories • theorytheory child’s attempt to explain something they observed • theory of mind your ability to realize that other people think differently than you • Language and Words and the Limits of Logic vocabulary explosion • the average child knows about 500 words at age 2 and more than 10,000 at age 6 fastmapping associating similar things logical extension using “logic” to associate things • ex. child knows what Dalmatian is, then sees white cow with black spots and thinks, “it’s a Dalmatian cow!” basic grammar • grammar of a language • overregularization pick up on grammar rules but misuse them • pragmatics knowing how to talk to people learning two languages • languageminority children often have lower school achievement, diminished selfesteem, and inadequate employment Chapter 6 Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development • Child maltreatment noticed and defined Human Growth and Development child maltreatment • intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age substantiated maltreatment • harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified reported maltreatment • harm or endangerment about which someone has contacted authorities • Consequences of Maltreatment effects of maltreatment are devastating and longlasting • mistreated and neglected children regard people as hostile and exploitative less friendly, more aggressive, and more isolated than other children experience greater social deficits may experience large and enduring economic consequences • Emotional Development emotional regulation (effortful control) • ability to control when and how emotions are expressed • preeminent psychological task between 26 years of age • internalizing a problem compared to externalizing a problem initiative vs. guilt • Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis • children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them • guilt compared to shame • selfesteem compared to selfconcept • Brain Maturation neurological advances • growth of prefrontal cortex at about age 4 or 5 • myelination of the limbic system Human Growth and Development improved behaviors and abilities • longer attention span • improved capacity for selfcontrol • Motivation motivation propels action and is derived from personal or social context • intrinsic do something for won pleasure • extrinsic do something to get something in return • Play play is the most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake • play is universal play with peers has occurred for many years • Types of play: Parten 1932 solitary play play by yourself onlooker play doesn't play, but watches others play parallel play same play at same time, but not playing together associative play sharing play area or toys cooperative play playing together • Active Play rough and tumble play • mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting with no intention of harm sociodramatic play • allows children to act out various roles and themes in stories that they create • allows children to explore and rehearse social roles test ability to explain practice regulating emotions develop a selfconcept Human Growth and Development • Baumrind’s Styles of Caregiving parents differ on four important dimensions • expressions of warmth • strategies of discipline • communication • expectations of maturity 3 parenting styles were identified using these dimensions • authoritarian parenting rigid rules, strict obedience, “my way or the highway”, children are typically quick to leave, OCD tendencies, responsible, guilt • permissive parenting tries to be more a friend rather than a parent, children have a tough time leaving home and finding their place • authoritative parenting balance between the two, children are well adjusted and wellliked Sternberg presents a fourth style • neglectful/ uninvolved parenting parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in the child’s life • Sex and Gender sex differences physical, biological gender differences social, how we dress and live androgyny person that has the desirable characteristics of both genders • Theories of Gender Role Development psychoanalytical theory Freud • phallic stage • Oedipus complex (and the Electra complex) behaviorism • gender differences product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment • gender appropriate Human Growth and Development rewarded more frequently than gender inappropriate behavior • social learning theory children notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the standards they observe cognitive theory • gender schema child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences based on experiences young children categorize themselves and everyone else as either male or female and think or behave accordingly • Moral Development prosocial behavior • empathy antisocial behavior • antipathy
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