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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Kelsey Bishoff

Exam 2 Study Guide Chem 341

Kelsey Bishoff
GPA 4.0

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Things to know for Exam 2 filled out
Organic Chemistry 1
Alexei Novikov
Study Guide
Organic Chemistry
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Bishoff on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 341 at University of North Dakota taught by Alexei Novikov in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
THINGS TO KNOW FOR EXAM II Nomenclature (on top of key principles and basic names for chains and substituents, R/S,  E(opp.)/Z(same) configuration assignments, etc):  Structure for the common name substituents: isopropyl , tert­butyl, allyl, vinyl,  methylene, phenyl  Structure for the common name main chain: benzene  Functional group names and priorities for: alcohol, amine, ketone, aldehyde,  carboxylic acid Group Shape Subtituent Ending  Carboxylic Acic O=C─OH oic acid Aldehyde O=C─H oxo al Priority Keytone C oxo one O=C< C Alcohol C─OH hydroxy ol Amine C─N amino amine  cis­(same)/trans­ (opposite) as applied to cyclic compounds, and to alkenes Acid­base topics: pKas (approximate whole number is sufficient):  H2O ~ 16 (15.7)  H3O+ ~ ­2 (­1.74)  NH3 ­ 38  NH4+ ~ 9 (9.24)  C2H6 ­ 51  C2H2 (HC≡CH) ­ 25  CH3COOH (CH3C(=O)­OH) ~ 5 (4.76) (only for                ) OH Specific terms (meaning, relation, and application in context):  Isomers:  constitutional isomers (regioisomers)­Same formula, different connectivity stereoisomers­same formula, same connectivity, different orientation  diastereomers­stereoisomers that are not mirror images enantiomers­stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other  Conformations: steric repulsion, Newman projection, staggered (0º, bottom), eclipsed  (60º, top), gauche (staggered, 60º), anti (staggered, 180º), chair conformation, equatorial  (bond lies parallel to ring), axial (bond lies perpendicular to ring), angle strain  Chirality: chiral, achiral, optical rotation, plane polarized light, chiral center  (stereocenter, streeogenic center), pane of symmetry, enantiomers, diastereomers, meso­  compound (chiral centers and line of symmetry), racemic mixture, Fischer projection,  Haworth projection  Acid­base reactions: pKa, conjugate acid, conjugate base, electron flow arrows (go  toward lower pKa), inductive effect, electron withdrawing, electron donating, resonance,  resonance forms, Lewis acids (e­ acceptor, (­), empty orbital), Lewis bases (e­ donor, (+)  lone pair)  Alkenes: pi­bond (more reactive), aromatic ring (has resonance)  Reactions:  starting material (reactant), product, selectivity,  mechanism, hydrohalogenation (addition of HX), hydration (addition of water),  rearrangement of alkenes, carbocation (Carbon has 6e­ and a (+) charge), protonation (,  deprotonation, eletrophile (loves e­, (­) charge), nucleophile (loves nuclei, (+) charge)  Energy diagrams: intermediate, transition state, activation energy, enthalpy change (delta  H, heat of reaction), exothermic (reactants higher than products, *favored), endothermic  (products higher than reactants), activation energy (Ea), reaction rate, rate limiting  (determining) step (highest energy [peak]), substitutited (mon­, di­, tri, tetra­),  Markovnikov's rule (hydrogen adds to the carbon of the double bond having the greater  number of hydrogen)


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